Risk Assessment of Using Malathion for Mosquito Control Every community project/program, whether it’s small or large, complex or simple, will always involve risk. Hazards and menace are part and parcel of every decision a person has to make in his life. What is mind boggling is the fact that whatever choice was decided on will not only affect the decision-makers but will also mark other people as well. As community managers, it is our job to do our best not only to minimize the risk involved in our projects but also to curtail it as soon as we can. A risk assessment tool must be used to analyze the situation before one must make any decision. This paper will evaluate the hazards involved in using Malathion to control mosquito breeding in the wetlands than run through the City of Genericville.
It is considered necessary that before arriving to a decision, all aspects and sides of the issue must be explored. Malathion is an organophosphate insecticide mostly used in to control insects in agriculture and horticulture; it is also used worldwide to control mosquito populations. Most places around the world used this man-made chemical for decades to manage their nuisance mosquito problem. Malathion is also prescribed by doctors to treat head lice infections. When applied to the hair and scalp, it acts by killing both the lice and their eggs. It can also be found in products that are used on pets to control ticks and fleas. This chemical belongs to the group of medicines known as pediculicides (medicines that kill lice).
The Term Paper on Evaluation of Comptronix Corporation: Identifying Inherent Risk and Control Risk Factors
1. Professional auditing standards present the audit risk model, which is used to determine the nature, timing, and extent of audit procedures. Describe the components of the model and discuss how changes in each component affect the auditor’s need for evidence. The audit risk model is used to determine the nature, timing, and extent of substantive audit procedures. The components of audit risk ...
The Four Steps of Risk Assessment Hazard Identification Malathion is a manufactured chemical and never occurs in the atmosphere so any chemical presence in the environment is a result of its manufacture and use. It was first manufactured in the United States in 1950. Malathion comes in two forms: a pure form of a colorless liquid and a technical-grade solution (brownish-yellow liquid), which contains malathion (greater than 90%) and impurities in a solvent. The technical-grade malathion smells like garlic (ATSDR, 2003).
The chemical is easily and rapidly broken down into other chemical compounds with the help of the environment. It does not stick to the soil as the pesticide chemical, malathion, so the likelihood of it ever contaminating the ground water in significant amounts is very unlikely.
When malathion enters the water, it is also dissolved quickly by the action of the water. The process breaks down the chemical composition and turn it into other compounds not harmful to human. The risk is when malathion is left on hard, dry surfaces (e.g., swingsets, backyard toys, and decks) or in chlorinated water because it can result in an increase in malaoxon levels. Malaoxon is a more toxic product produced when malathion is present on dry soil or on man-made surfaces such as sidewalks, pavements, or playground equipment, it usually does not break down as fast as it would in moist soil. The chemical is basically harmless but just to be on the safe side, agricultural workers are often asked not to go near crops sprayed with malathion 6 to 12 days after the application. High risk of contamination is usually when the chemical is ingested, inhaled, and dermal absorption/exposure.
But, the last two contaminations are only probable if a person is exposed to the chemical right after application. Dose Response The agricultural and horticultural application of malathion including the pesticide application (lice, fleas, and mosquito) will not likely affect the human population even those who have sensitive skins, children, and pregnant women. Large amounts of malathion will never find their way into the atmosphere as long as the proper application is observed by people (agricultural, horticultural and pest-control workers) who normally use it. Although, some exposure to the chemicals residue is possible (studies show that malathion has been detected in foods and atmosphere samples), the general population is not likely to be affected by it. Cumulative exposure to the chemical might have an adverse effect to the health of people with more incidents of contamination but studies shows that there is no need for the public to be concerned about such contact with the chemical. Any human health risk associated with malathion treatments and application is negligible. Exposure People who are often exposed to the chemical because it is either a part of their job (farm workers, chemical sprayers, and people who work in factories that make malathion or other products that contain the chemical) or they are living within or near areas of heavy malathion use are at greater risk for contamination and exposure to larger amounts of malathion. The usual form of exposure is through dermal absorption, if they probably touched and handled objects which are contaminated; inhalation or ingestion of either water or food contaminated with the chemical residues.
Chapter 1: Introduction to Chemical Engineering Profession Teach (T) Students are exposed to a topic. No explicit learning objectives. No major activities such as assignments, exercises of projects. No assessment is linked to this topic. Use (U) There is an explicit learning objective. Compulsory activities such as assignments, exercises or projects are specifically linked to this topic. Students ...
Studies show that dermal contact seems to be the major route of exposure and ingestion (of contaminated things) can also be an important route, but inhalation has not been shown to be a significant route of exposure to malathion (ATSDR 2001).
Risk Characterization The risks factors for human and the environment in the use of malathion as an agricultural/horticultural application and pest-control is next to nothing. Experts says that malathion has been around a long time, has been much studied and the general consensus is that it is relatively safe to use. The probability and severity of adverse health or environmental effects of the use this chemical is negligible that the EPA assessed it as a non-hazardous chemical to both human and the environment. – – – – – – – – – – – All substances are poisons, there is none which is not a poison. The right dose differentiates a poison from remedy.
- The Environment The impact of people on their environment can be devastating. This is where the respective role of governments can make decisions that shape environmental policy and responsibilities. These governments can be broken up into four different levels: local, state, federal and international. Air quality and biodiversity are two current issues that can be related to the role of ...
(Paracelsus, 1493-1541) After careful evaluation of the facts and figures gathered about the risks of the use of malathion, it will be beneficial to the community if the implementation of an extensive program of aerial spraying and ground application of the pesticide, Malathion will push through. Weighing the consequences of both options, it is clear the choosing to educate people and explained to them the importance of cleanliness in the environment is more risky than using malathion. The WNV cases will not diminish by just educating people; advocacy might help, in fact it is a great support to the community but there is no guarantee that all people in the city will do what they are asked to do. Remember, it is very hard to change the way how many people think and act. Asking them to change the way they live will be very difficult. Although the result of researches and studies are positive with regards to the use of malathion, the city managers should be active and vigilant in their quest for probable new evidence against the use of malathion. Studies cannot prove that there are some risks but on the other hand, it is also impossible to prove that there is no risk involved.
At the moment, our role is to keep looking for evidence that this is harmful but to date no study has ever proven conclusively that malathion is dangerous to human and the environment. Reference Cited Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. (2005).
Toxicologic information about insecticides used for eradicating mosquitoes. Malathion (CAS Number 121-75-5).
Retrieved July 1, 2007, from http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/consultations/west_nile_v irus/ Malathion.html. ______________ (2003).
Public Health Statement for Malathion (Malation) (CAS Number 121-75-5).
Retrieved March 18, 2008, from http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/phs154.html#b ookmark01 CBS Canada. (1999).
Anti-pesticide group urges resistance to malathion spraying. CBC News. Retrieved March 18, 2008 from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/drug-information/ DR601589.