Risk Assessment Malathion is normally applied to eliminate the boll weevil. It is usually used to leas in dose of 87-139 mg/m machines. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency permitted the malathion application defined that there is mot very high risk to people from such application. According to EPA people are secure from the possible exposure to malathion because of the dermal exposure to left-over, gasp exposure after in-flight usage, and secondary intake of impure grass or earth. However, there is one way of possible exposure that is not included in the EPA risk evaluation and it is also essential for cotton fields: the utilization of impure plants from private gardens. It is rather usual for people to grow vegetables near cotton areas. Now we are to estimate if malathion should be applied for the fight with mosquitoes that may spread diseases like West Nile Virus in Genericville, an American city with an economically diverse population of 100,000.
It can be easily defined that a number of improbable incidents should happen at the same time during eradication program for the determination of the highest risk range. It is essential to take into account that the orientation doses are based on the everyday usage of a material over the persons life. This stresses a several complication in risk evaluation. Continual orientation doses defined by EPA are based on everyday contact during persons life while the most probable exposure time is estimated to be three month a year. For example, the doctors point out: The development of overt renal insufficiency with massive proteinuria within three weeks of exposure to malathion suggests a causal relationship. although our patient has no symptoms attributable to organophosphate poisoning, he may have had a latent exposure without clinical manifestations, although cholinesterase activity may be inhibited. Organophosphate exposure might cause immune complex formation by one of two mechanisms. Antibodies might react with the organophosphate directly or to native antigens that have been unmasked by a direct toxic effect of t he organophosphate. We postulate that malathion provoked an immune complex nephropathy in this patient resulting in renal insufficiency and massive proteinuria, and we stress that this toxic agent must be handled accordingly.” There is no exact, approved approach for estimation probable exposures for the part of the year. The nest complication appears when the degree of changeability in factors applied for risk evaluation is determined.
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The application of many high-range factors creates an excessively conventional risk evaluation, because of the consequence of basically reproducing the low probabilities of each high-range estimate together when calculating the high-range risk estimate. The chances of all of the high-range parameters occurring together for any extended period of time are extremely low. (See Table 1) Table 1. Results of the risk calculations. From the research it is obvious that the percent of risk is rather low. Some people are inclined to think that government usually hides the consequences of malathion application and its effect on childrens and adults health. But as for me I would vote for the usage of malathion because according to estimation the risk of its application is not so high that West Nile Virus.
References Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
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Exposure factors handbook. EPA 600/C-99/001 EPA. (2000).
Increasing Transparency for the Tolerance Reassessment Process-Malathion. Malathion.