Running head: creatine supplementation DOES NOT IMPROVE PERFORMANCE Creatine supplementation does not improve performance August 21, 2008 Creatine Supplementation Does Not Improve Performance During the past few decades, creatine monohydrate has become quite popular. The nutritional component was introduced to the general public in 1990s and has quickly become one of the most popular ergogenic aids or nutritional supplements among athletes. The recommended loading doses were as high as 20-30 g per day for 5-7 days (Bird, 2003).
However, despite its popularity among sportsmen, the potential ergogenic value of CrS (creatine supplementation) is still in doubts. Despite some evidence in support of its positive effect on physical performance, there are numerous studies proving that creatine supplementation does not improve performance. The present paper examines creatine supplementation and proves the hypothesis that creatine supplementation has little or no evident effect on performance. Some studies have shown that short-term creatine supplementation intake improves maximal strength and power, single-effort sprint performance, work performed during sets of maximal effort muscle contractions, as well as work performed during repetitive sprint performance (Bird, 2003).
In addition, the studies have reported that creatine supplementation promotes exercise performance primarily of high intensity tasks, as well as significantly greater gains in strength (Bird, 2003).
Creatine Information Creatine is a naturally occurring metabolite found in muscle tissue. It plays an important role in energy metabolism, and ATP reformulating. Muscle soreness, lactate build up, and fatigue are a direct result of depleted ATP store. Creatine replenishes ATP stores, thus prolonging time to fatigue. Creatine also increases available instant energy, increases muscular strength, ...
At the same time, the majority of scientific studies failed to prove the effect of creatine supplementation on exercise performance. There is an assumption that although it still can improve physical performance in athletes that require repetitive sprint bouts or maximal single strength, creatine supplementation is likely to be ineffective in enhancing swimming and running performance. According to Mujika, Chatard, Lacoste, et al (1996), creatine supplementation does not improve sprint performance in competitive swimmers. The researchers have conducted study to examine creatine supplementation effects on energy metabolism and sprint swimming performance. The researchers have tested twenty trained sportsmen for blood lactate and blood ammonia after 25m, 50m, and 100m performance on two occasions seven days apart. The athletes were divided into two groups, were the first group was taking a placebo (lactose), and the second group was assigned to a creatine supplementation (5 g 4 times per day).
According to the results of the study, no significant effect was observed between the trials.
The researchers concluded that creatine supplementation has no significant effect in athletes and, therefore, it cannot be considered as an ergogenic aid for sprint performance. Burke et al (1996) using a placebo-control, double-blind study involving 32 swimmers from the Australian National Team, also reported that high-dose intake of creatine (20 gram per day for 5 days) failed to improve performance in maximal single effort. Odland et al (1997) also claimed that creatine supplementation failed to increase resting muscle PCr and had no effect on the single short-term maximal performance. Snow et al. (1998), using a double-blind crossover design on non-athletes found out that creatine supplementation succeeded to increase muscle TCr content, however, there was no enhanced sprint exercise performance. The same results were reported by Finn et al (2001), Gilliam et al (2000), and Delecluse et al (2003).
... improved performance in high-intensity intermittent exercise. Over the past 4 years, at least 20 separate university studies have demonstrated that Creatine mono hydrate supplementation ... steroids with no side effects. Creatine seemed to improve performance for short-duration activities like ... ; and, 5. ) unknown long-term effects of creatine supplementation (Kreider 2-3). There are three theories ...
The scientists from the American Thoracic Society also report that creatine does not improve exercise outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (Creatine Supplementation Does Not Improve Exercise Outcomes In COPD Patients, 2008).
Their double-blind study proves that an increase in muscle creatine supplementation fails to enhance training and physical condition of COPD patients.
The study was based on observations of the 100 subjects, where the first group was given lactose placebo, and the second one was taking 3.76 4 g creatine per day. However, similar to the previous study, no significant difference was observed, and the effect was almost similar in the placebo and the creatine group. Dr. Deacon considers that any related benefits of creatine supplementation may be explained by the large training effect of physical training alone (Creatine Supplementation Does Not Improve Exercise Outcomes In COPD Patients, 2008).
The same outcomes are presented in another study, conducted by Javierre, Lizarraga, Ventura, Garrido, & Segura (1997) on a group of twelve sprinters of national class. In their study, the researchers examined the effect of creatine supplementation in 12 sprinters when running a distance of 150 m. The researchers have found that despite relatively high dosage (a daily intake of 25 grams for the three days) creatine supplementation failed to improve physical performance in athletes.
In addition, the compilation of studies conducted by Williams et al (1998) also proves that creatine supplementation has insignificant effect on athletic performance. Although there is little or almost no evidence concerning the average Es of creatine monohydrate across the studies, one of the most recent analyses conducted by Mujika et al (1996) suggest that highly trained individuals that perform single competition-like exercises also report very little effect of creatine on their performance. Moreover, only 30 per cent of the short duration exercise studies succeed to prove that there is an improvement with creatine monohydrate, while 71% of studies (both in elite or highly trained athletes and non-athletes) filed to provide enough evidence of improved performance. However, it should be stated that more field studies are required to unequivocally conclude that creatine supplementation has no affect on physical performance. Additional studies are also required to prove the hypothesis that highly-trained athletes report no effect of creatine on their single competition tasks. Yet, taking into consideration all studies available at the moment, there is enough evidence to conclude that creatine supplementation has no significant effect on performance. References Bird, S. P.
Exercise or constant activity has always been the last word or among the first recommendations in countering the signs of aging. The aging that has been associated with exercise is termed as biological age and is used to mean as our age that is physiological rather than chronological, and it includes factors like changes in the physical structure of the body as well as changes in the performance ...
Creatine Supplementation And Exercise Performance: A Brief Rreview. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine , 2, 123-132. Burke, L., Pyne, D., & Telford, R. (1996).
Effect of oral creatine supplementation on single-effort sprint performance in elite swimmers. International Journal of Sports Nutrition , 6, 222-223.
Creatine Supplementation Does Not Improve Exercise Outcomes In COPD Patients. (2008, August 2).
Retrieved August 21, 2008, from MediLexicon International Ltd: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/116796.ph p Delecluse, C., Diels, R., & Goris, M. (2003).
Effect of Creatine Supplementation on Intermittent Sprint Running Performance in Highly Trained Athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research , 17, 446-454. Finn, J., Ebert, T., Withers, R., Carey, M., Mackay, M., Phillips, J., et al.
Effect of creatine supplementation on metabolism and performance in humans during intermittent sprint cycling. European Journal of Applied Physiology , 84, 238-243. Gilliam, J., Hohzorn, C., Martin, D., & Trimble, M. (2000).
Effect of oral creatine supplementation on isokinetic torque production. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise (32), 993-996.
Javierre, C., Lizarraga, M., Ventura, J., Garrido, E., & Segura, R. (1997).
Creatine supplementation does not improve physical performance in a 150 m race. Rev-Esp-Fisiol , 53 (4), 343-8. Mujika, I., Chatard, J., Lacoste, L., Barale, F., & Geyssant, A. (1996).
A SAFE ALTERNATIVE TO STEROIDS? "How can I build muscle, boost my performance and lose fat?' This question has generated hundred of books and magazine titles. Many people even risk their health in a chance to look "buff.' If you spend the time reading these articles you will certainly find no shortage of proposed answers, complete with picture documentation of the results with the use sport ...
Creatine supplementation does not improve sprint performance in competitive swimmers.
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise , 28, 1435-1441. Odland, L., MacDougall, J., Tarnopolsky, M., Elorriaga, A., & Borgmann, A. (1997).
Effect of oral creatine supplementation on muscle [PCr] and short -term maximum power output. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise , 29, 216-219. Snow, R., McKenna, M., Selig, S., Kemp, J., Stathis, C., & Zhao, S. (1998).
Effect of creatine supplementation on sprint exercise performance and muscle metabolism.
Journal of Applied Physiology , 84, 1667-1673. Williams, M., & Branch, J. (1998).
Creatine supplementation and exercise performance: An update. Journal of the American College of Nutrition , 17, 216-234..