salmon farming If you recently ordered salmon off the menu of your favorite restaurant, or purchased it from your local grocery store, chances are it was farmed. According to “Salmon of the Americas, an organization of salmon-producing companies in Canada, Chile and the United States, 70 percent of the salmon produced in British Columbia and Washington comes from salmon farms. If it weren’t for these farms, we would not have the luxury and abundance of this delicious and healthy food available to us year round. Salmon farming represents one very important way to feed the world and people want to eat more salmon and seafood- more than can be caught. Salmon farming began over 30 years ago and has become a huge industry. Experts say it’s the fastest growing segment of agriculture.
Salmon farming plays an important role in the economies of many areas as well. Jobs and other economic benefits contribute to the value of salmon as much its role in good nutrition. Salmon is an oily fish rich in omega-3 fatty acids, a substance that almost certainly helps protect against heart disease and may also reduce the risk of cancer and Alzheimer’s. There is one species of Atlantic salmon and five species of Pacific. Atlantic salmon account for almost 95 percent of the farmed salmon produced, and most of them are farm-raised on the pacific coast. Pacific species account for all of the wild salmon caught in the Americas and some of them are also farm-raised.
1. Understanding the regulatory framework for managing salmon Five major environmental or regulatory laws that impact salmon Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976. According to Conservation Library, (2010) it empowers regional fishery management councils to prepare plans for the conservation and management of each federally managed fisheries in the exclusive economic zone and thus ...
No wild Atlantic salmon are fished commercially in North America, as they are an endangered species. Atlantic salmon have become the species of choice to raise on farms because they are more adaptable to the farming techniques and make better use of feed so they produce more salmon with less feed. Not everybody agrees however, that farmed salmon raised in net pens are healthy for the environment or for you to eat. Over the years, there have been numerous stories in the media that have pointed out the negatives of farm raised salmon. These arguments have ranged from wastes from salmon farms, the spreading of disease from farmed to wild fish, the negative impacts of farm raised fish escapes and interacting with native fish, and recently, the effects of farmed salmon consumption on human health. The latest issue that the media got there hands on and consequently got the public concerned, was a report that poly chlorinated biphenyl’s (PCBs) were found in farmed salmon.
The source of PCB’s remains a puzzle; they are mixtures of up to 209 individual chlorinated compounds known as congeners. There are no known natural sources of PCBs according to the National Center for Environmental Health. Used as lubricants and coolants and banned in the United States in the late 1970’s, PCB compounds still remain in the environment. Today, PCB’s are found in the mud in Puget Sound and cycle themselves through worms that are eaten by fish and in turn are eaten by mammals such as orcas and humans. Fish and mammals can pass the PCB’s on to their offspring and when they die, scavengers consume them and the cycle continues. PCB’s and other pollutants are stored in animal fats and enter the food supply mostly through meat, fish, eggs and dairy products.
Consequently, as in many news stories that attract public interest, only part of the story has been told, in this case to the detriment of the salmon farming industry. The report that caused many media stories was published in Science magazine on January 9, 2004. It stated that “Having analyzed over 2 metric tons (approx. 700 fish) of farmed and wild salmon from around the world for organochlorine (a compound of PCBs) contaminants, we show that concentrations of these contaminants are significantly higher in farmed salmon than wild.” It went on to say that ” Risk analysis indicates that consumption of farmed Atlantic salmon may pose health risks that detract from the beneficial effects of fish consumption.” This report failed to mention that, according the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), their PCB contaminant criterion (25 parts per billion) applies only to sport-caught fish and is not used by the federal government to assess risk of commercial product.
... recommend eating fish with PCB levels between 25 and 48 parts per billion more than one a month. This made the pin-raised salmon tested ... a month. These farmed fish amass such high levels of PCBs because they are fed ground-up fish that can have high levels of PCBs. The ... raised or caught before consuming, because even fish caught in the wild have been known to carry dangerous chemicals such as ...
Plus, the public would have been much better informed had the authors of the paper mentioned that the EPA risk assessment level pertains to consumption of the fish in question for at least 70 years. PCB levels in salmon are properly assessed under the FDA criterion, which is 2000 ppb. In addition to having low contaminant levels according to FDA guidelines, all wild and farmed salmon in the study had PCB levels well below the concern levels of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency and the World Health Organization. Therefore, none of the wild or farmed salmon evaluated in the study carried any increased risk for cancer.
The study also failed to mention that PCB’s were not only found in farmed salmon, but wild salmon as well. ‘PCBs are in all salmon says Michael Gallo of the Cancer Institute at the Robert Wood Johnson Medical School to the journal Intra fish.” The difference between 5 ppb [parts per billion] and 30 ppb is meaningless’. Here’s a look at the amount of PCB’s parts per billion found in other foods we eat everyday. If you aren’t eating salmon, then most likely you are eating something that contains PCB’s. So why so much publicity about salmon with 40 parts per billion when butter contains PCB levels at 70 parts per billion! It is confusing to the consumer as to what constitutes a safe and healthy product. The FDA, which is the US agency responsible for establishing human food safety standards, has indicated the contaminant levels in both the wild and farmed salmon are well within their allowable levels.
Most people only know what farms are like by what they see on television or as they watch from the highway, passing by to visit a grandparent. I know farm life first-hand by that irritating dust on the back of my neck and barley beards in my hair. I know it by that crunch on my feet, those wheat stubs trying desperately to poke through the soles in my tennis shoes. I have been there to climb ...
EPA, which uses much more conservative assumptions and different risk model to establish their recreational and subsistence fishing advisories, have indicated that the intake of salmon, both wild and farmed, must be restricted. It sounds like the two agencies need to work together to establish a common position on allowable levels of contaminants in seafood and either wild or farmed salmon period. And, somebody needs to stop scaring the consumer into not eating farmed salmon but once a month. There is no argument that wild and farmed salmon sometimes contain small levels of PCBs, but the health benefit of eating salmon far outweighs the risk. You can reduce the very insignificant amount of PCB’s by cutting off the skin and trimming the fatty tissue from a fillet and grilling or broiling your fish. Salmon and other farmed fish provide a rich source of protein and omega 3 fatty acids that help prevent cancer, heart and Alzheimer’s disease.
It is also an important nutrition component for unborn and breast-fed babies. The average American is far more apt to die from heart disease due to too many cheeseburgers and fries than from cancer caused by a few helpings of farm-raised salmon. Salmon is also low in mercury, a chemical prone to show up in tuna and other fish. Avoiding salmon can actually be bad for your health… .’s o we think people should bear in mind that fish, particularly fatty fish like salmon, are a very healthy food to eat and can have a dramatic effect on the risk of dying from a sudden heart attack,’ said David Sc hardt, senior nutritionist at the Center for Science in the Public Interest, a Washington, D.
C. , nonprofit organization devoted to nutrition issues. ‘We think that outweighs what may be a much smaller risk-certainly a less clear risk-that PCBs, dioxins, and pesticides may cause cancer.’ In conclusion, salmon farming without a doubt will continue to be an increasingly important source of salmon and seafood because the oceans do not and cannot produce enough of the species we want to consume. Since omega-3 fatty acids are found in a limited number of foods and since many of these are not currently a regular part of the average diet, eating salmon, farm raised or wild will provide you with these vital nutrients. PCB levels in salmon are assessed by FDA criteria of 2000 ppb. All wild and farmed salmon in the recently published controversial study, had PCB levels well below this level and therefore carried no increased risk for cancer.
Effective communication is important both within an organisation and externally. Effective communication improves business efficiency. Communication is about passing messages between people or organisations. Communication is simply the act of transferring information from one place to another. A skill is the ability to be able to do something well, it is something that an individual can learn and ...
There is no need to be alarmed with high levels of contaminants when it comes to consuming any kind of salmon. What we do need to be alarmed about is the media reporting and their level of contaminants! Road A. Hits, Jeffery A. Foran, David O. Carpenter, M. Core en Hamilton, Barbara A.
Knuth, Steven J. Schwanger (2004) study: Global assessment of organic contaminants in farmed salmon, Science 303: 226-229. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health Health Studies Branch Kevin Amos, National Aquatic Animal Health Coordinator, NOAA Fisheries Salmon of the Americas SOTA is an organization of salmon-producing companies in Canada, Chile and the United States whose mission is to improve health, awareness and dining enjoyment of consumers in North America by providing timely, complete, accurate and insightful information about salmon on behalf of the member companies. Ashley Dean, Schwartz, .
Mark 2003. Salmon farms pose significant threat to salmon fisheries in the Pacific Northwest, researchers find. Stanford University American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, April 2002, 76: 608-613. Pediatric Research, 1998, 44 (2): 201-209.