We speak differently in different situations. The way we speak and the choice of words depend on the situation in which the processes of communication is realized. As we are speaking about the functions of all this words in different situations we have to define “functional style” Under a “function style” we understand language means peculiar to a specific sphear of communication. The basic vocabulary is the central group of the vocabulary, its historical foundation and living core.
Basic vocabulary| Informal| Formal| begin| start, get started| commence| ontinue| go on, get on| proceed| end| finish, be through, be over| terminate| child, baby| kid, brat, beam (dial. )| infant, babe (poet. )| There has been a diversion between formal and informal speech for nearly as long as language has existed, particularly after the advent of written language, which was initially used in correspondence, business and legal proceedings. Aristocrats also adopted more “high-brow” language also as a way of differentiating themselves from commoners, who were more likely to use colloquialisms in their interactions.
Informal vocabulary is used when speaking with friends, relatives, acquaintance. There are several sub-groups in this group:Colloquial words; slang and dialect words Colloquialisms serve the dual purposes of efficiency and showing familiarity between the speaker and the listener. For example, modern speakers of English often use contractions, such as “how’d” in “How’d you do it? ” as a faster way of articulating a point than using complete words—“How did you do it? ” As a way of expressing closeness and familiarity, friends may say “What’s up? rather than “How are you? ” or the more formal “How do you do? ” Colloquialisms can also be found in changes in vocabulary, such as the use of “fave” for “favorite. ” Many linguists differentiate colloquial language from slang and other dialects of a language. Slang is a particular choice of vocabulary and grammar used by a subgroup, such as a certain age group, within a society, unlike colloquial language, which is still considered standard speech and is used by most people within a language group. Still, some colloquialisms may be related to slang.
1. Introduction A language is a system of symbols, generally known as lexemes and the grammars (rules) by which they are manipulated. The word language is also used to refer to the whole phenomenon of language, i.e., the common properties of languages. Language is commonly used for communication, though it has other uses. Language is a natural phenomenon, and language learning is common in ...
Dialects are separate forms of a related language that is spoken by a group, such as those living a particular region. Colloquial Words A colloquialism is a word, phrase, or paralanguage that is employed in conversational or informal language but not in formal speech or formal writing. Dictionaries often display colloquial words and phrases with the abbreviation colloq. as an identifier. Colloquialisms include words (such as y’al y’l , gonna , and wanna ), phrases (such as old as the hills, raining cats and dogs, and dead as a doornail) and aphorisms (such as There’s more than one way to skin a cat).
Generally, colloquialisms are specific to a geographical region. They are used in “everyday” conversation and, increasingly, through informal online interactions. An example of the regional specificity of colloquialisms is the term used when referring to “soft drinks”. In the Upper Midwestern United States and Canada, soft drinks are called “pop”, whilst in other areas, notably the Northeastern and far Western United States, they are referred to as “soda”. In some areas of Scotland, the term “ginger” is used.
1. Stylistics as a science. Branches of stylistics. Stylistics is a branch of general linguistics. It has mainly with two tasks: Stylistics – is regarded as a lang-ge science which deals with the results of the act of communication. There are 2 basic objects of stylistics: -stylistic devices and figures of speech -functional styles Branches of stylistics: – Lexical stylistics – studies ...
Words that have a formal meaning can also have a colloquial meaning. For example, “kid” can mean “young goat” in formal usage and “child” in colloquial usage. An example of a colloquialism and how it migrates to other areas is the Indian phrase, “Please do the needful”, meaning, “Please do what is implied and/or expected”. As the global workplace expands, this once regional phrase is now being used outside the area in which it originated. Some linguists make a distinction between colloquialisms and “slangisms” (slang words).
Slang refers to informal lexical items used by a specific social group, for instance teenagers, soldiers, prisoners, or surfers. Slang is not considered the same as colloquial speech, which is informal, relaxed speech used on occasion by any speaker; this might include contractions such as you’re, as well as colloquialisms. A colloquialism is a lexical item used in informal speech; whilst the broadest sense of the term colloquialism might include slangism, its narrow sense does not. Slangisms are often used in colloquial speech but not all colloquialisms are slangisms.
One method of distinguishing between a slangism and a colloquialism is to ask whether most native speakers know the word (and use it); if they do, it is a colloquialism. However, the problem is that this is not a discrete, quantized system but a continuum. Although the majority of slangisms are ephemeral and often supplanted by new ones, some gain non-slang colloquial status (e. g. English silly – cf. German selig ‘blessed’, Middle High German s? lde‘bliss, luck’, and Zelda, a Middle Eastern female first name) and even formal status (e. . English mob).
” Colloquial words are divided into literary-colloquial, familiar-colloquial, and low-colloquial. Literary-colloquial words do not break the norms of the language. We use these words in our everyday speech.
The same linguistic processes are used to create and popularize slang as are used to create and popularize all other words. That is, all words are created and popularized in the same general ways; they are labeled slang only according to their current social acceptance, long after creation and popularization. To fully understand slang, one must remember that a word’s use, popularity, and acceptability can change. Words can change in social level, moving in any direction. Thus, some standard words of William Shakespeare’s day are found only in certain modern-day British dialects.
Acronyms, Idioms and Slang: the Evolution of the English Language. Although the English language is only 1500 years old, it has evolved a tan incredible rate: so much so, that, at first glance, the average person in America today would find most Shakespearean literature confusing without the aid of an Old-English dictionary or Cliff's Notes. Yet Shakespeare lived just 300 years ago! Some are ...
Words that are taboo in one era (e. g. , stomach, thigh) can become accepted, standard words in a later era. Many prove either useful enough to become accepted as standard or informal words or too faddish for standard use. Blizzard and okay have become standard, while conbobberation (“disturbance”) and tomato (“girl”) have been discarded. Some words and expressions have a lasting place in slang; for instance, beat it (“go away”), first used in the 16th century, has neither become Standard English nor vanished.
Language is dynamic, and at any given time hundreds, and perhaps thousands, of words and expressions are in the process of changing from one level to another, of becoming more acceptable or less acceptable, of becoming more popular or less popular. Slang is very informal use of words and phrases for more colorful or peculiar style of expression that is shared by the people in the same social subgroup, for example, computer slang, sports slang, military slang, musicians’ slang, students’ slang, underworld slang, etc.
Slang is not used by the majority of native speakers and many people consider it vulgar, though quite a few slang phrases have already come into standard usage. Slang contains many obscene and offensive words and phrases. It also has many expressions that are acceptable in informal communicationThe origin of the word slang itself is obscure; it first appeared in print around 1800, applied to the speech of disreputable and criminal classes in London. Slang is a subset of a language used by one particular group.
It consists of words and expressions which will not be found in the dictionary, and can be distortions of existing words or entirely invented terms. It is used in informal situations. It is not appropriate in formal situations. is used by all kinds of groups of people who share situations or interests. The group which uses these words is always in the minority, and often use slang to set themselves apart or make it difficult for ordinary people to understand them. When a particular new expressions is known and used by a large majority of the population, it is no longer slang, but part of the regular language or usage.
From wicked good, to psychedelic, to "word", there is no reason why older generations never understand what the youth today consider the latest slang. Our ever-growing vocabulary, to express our emotions and feelings, is never consistent or rigid in its capacity. However, one word that I have not only grown accustomed to in my daily life but also of my mother's generation is the single syllable, " ...
Slang fulfills at least two different functions, depending on whose point of view you take. For the groups that use slang, it is a way to set themselves apart, to express themselves in a distinct and individual way, and sometimes to keep secrets from being known by others. But for the society in general and the development of the language, slang performs another role. For the language, slang is like a linguistic laboratory, where new words and forms can be tested out, applied to a variety of situations, and then either abandoned or incorporated into the regular language.
It’s like a trial period for new words. If they allow people to say something that cannot be said using traditional language, and a majority of people accept them, then these words and expressions join their regular language. After a period of between a few months and many years, slang is used by limited groups with something in common. The far majority never reach the popularity and level of use to become regular words, and are soon forgotten and not used. A few reach widespread usage and can be found in each new edition of the popular dictionaries.