Columbia, a republic in South America, is located in the northwest region of the continent. Its neighbors are Panama and The Caribbean Sea, also Venezuela and Brazil, to the south there’s Peru and Ecuador, and to the west there’s the Pacific Ocean. Did you know that Colombia is the only country in South America that has coasts on both the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean? The Capital of Colombia is Bogotá, which is also the largest city in the country.
Prior to the settlement of Europeans in the America’s there were many groups of indigenous groups in South America, for example there is the Chibcha who occupies Colombia in the present day. Spain had colonized Colombia, from the 16th century to the 1800’s. They achieved independence in 1819. It soon became a republic with an elected government, even though there was a period of time where the country was plagued with civil unrest and dictatorship.
The society of Colombia is classified by either upper or lower classed citizens, with a large and growing gap between them. A middle class was established in the 20th century, but is still a small percentage of the population. Many attitudes the led to the Colombia’s sharp class divisions originated in 16th century Spain and became the ingrained Colombian society during the colonial period. The status of power was determined by your family lineage, or inherited wealth, also your racial background.
When one compares the independence movements in North America and South America one would see a lot of differences and similarities between the two. The major differences were probably due to different geographical aspects of the two continents. Along with this, there were also variations among the societies. Although there were a lot of differences between the movements towards independence, ...
The Economic progress through the 20th century has slightly reduced the concentration of political, social, and economic power in the hands of small upper class.
Land and Resources
Colombia is also known for its famous Andes mountain chain. The Andes are located in the central and western regions of the country and is extended north south across almost the whole length of Colombia. Two fifths of the country lies in the Andes highlands. The ranges of the mountain are separated by deep depressions. Majority of the population live in the narrow valleys and basins right along the mountains. In the east Andes there’s a region of land called llanos, or the grasslands, and selva, or rain forest. The llanos lie right along the plain that drains northeast into the Orinoco River, and the selva drains into the Amazon River basin.
Colombia in located in a Torrid Zone, a meteorological term denoting the areas tropic of Cancer and the tropic of Capricorn. The Climate is determined by the land elevation. Through out the year, three-month periods of rain and dry weather alternate. Long the Pacific coast precipitation is heavy. The annual rainfall in Bogotá is about 1,060 mm (about 42 inches), and in Barranquiilla it averages about 800 mm (about 32 in).
On the slopes of Cordillera Oriental dry weather is constant.
Plants and Animals
The indigenous flora and fauna of Colombia are as varied as the topography. The Caribbean coast and the forest region is where most the mangroves and coconut grow. This covers just about half of the country, includes such useful trees a mahogany, lignum vitae, oak, walnut, cedar, pine, and several varieties, of balsam. Tropical plants also yield rubber, chicle, cinchona, vanilla, sarsaparilla, ginger, gum copal, ipecac, tonal beans, and castor beans.
As for the wildlife the South American mammals are jaguars, pumas, tapirs, peccaries, anteaters, sloths, armadillos, and several species of monkey and red deer. Alligators were once a large percentage of the animals in South America, but they have been hunted so much that their numbers are very scarce. There are many species f snake that inhabit the tropic region. There are also birds like condors, vultures, toucans, parrots, cockatoos, cranes, storks, and hummingbirds.
We, people of the 21st century, cannot imagine our life without modern conveniences and new technological invention. They do not surprise us; we take them for grand. It goes without saying that the great and impetuous progress have been made for less than two centuries. It seems that before the Industrial revolution, during 18 centuries, humankind had been staggering behind. The 19th century ...
The racial makeup of the Colombian population is divers. About 58 percent of the people are mestizo (of mixed Spanish and Native American ancestry); about 20 percent of 14 percent are mulatto (of mixed black and white ancestry).
The other 8 percent consist of blacks, Native Americans, and other mixed race.
The Colombian upper class basically consists of a rich white elite, some whom trace their lineage to aristocracy of the colonial era. The elites wealth comes from the ownership of land and property. The upper class also includes a group of people whose wealth is more recent; these people have accumulated wealth through commercial and entrepreneurial activities.
The industrialization and economic diversification is the reason for such large growth of the middle class in the 20-century. It was once said that the middle class was largely made up of those who had fallen from the aristocracy through loss of wealth and property. It was small in number and politically passive. As time passed in the 20th century, the middle class grew to include people who rose from the lower class by succeeding in business. Groups that regarded as middle class include small-business people, merchants, professionals, bureaucrat, and government workers, professors and teachers, also white-collar workers.
Relics of one of the most fascinating but little-studied civilizations in the western hemisphere have been found at San Augustin, near the source of the Magdalena River in the Colombian Andes. Little is known about the people who made these stones statues, relief carvings, sepulchral chambers, and shrines, or when their culture flourished. Present estimates date the beginning of San Augustin to the last five centuries BC.
As societies become more complex a complex change came about. The social system elevated entire categories of people above others, providing one segment of the population with a disproportionate share of money, power and schooling. To a considerable degree, the class system in the United States rewards individual talent and effort. But, our class system also retains elements of a caste system; ...
Generally the stone statues are anthropomorphic figures, many with grotesque expressions. They have been found in caves and on mounds, where their presence seems to have had a ritual significance. Frequently, one figure is placed astride the shoulders and back another. One particularly striking statue is a bird holding a serpent in its beak and though to be a fertility symbol, is similar in imagery to the emblem of the Aztecs.
In conclusion, this is the research that I did on Colombia. There are many things that I learned on this project that I didn’t know before I started this paper. I hope you read this paper and are a little smarter than when you started to read it.