Sport Skill Sports skill learning has always been concerned with the acquisition of new skills with practice. This emphasis has been blended somewhat with the field of motor control, so that the ideas about the how skills are learned and particularly how they are performed differently after practice were an important emphasis. The concern has been to understand the principles by which these new skills were acquired and to develop theories that would account for them. For example, Swimming is a complex process that requires spatial, temporal, and hierarchical organization of the central nervous system (CNS).
Changes in the CNS are not directly observable but rather are inferred from changes in motor behavior. Improvements in performance result from practice or experience and are a frequently used measure of learning.
An individual is able to develop appropriate sequencing of movement components with improved timing and reduced effort and concentration while swimming while the learner might not be doing same before when he had not learnt and practiced it. Performance is not always an accurate reflection of learning. It is possible to practice enough to temporarily improve performance but not retain the learning. Retention provides a better measure of learning. The learner is able to demonstrate the skill over time and after a period of practice (retention interval).
... DA, Mavis BE. Study skills and academic performance among second-year medical students in problem-based learning Med Educ Online [serial online ... were provided: summaries of notes, concept maps, flash cards, practice test questions, and tables and charts. This study was approved ... by others (? 2=7. 35, of practice test items made by others. Prior Performance - To provide a context for the identified ...
Performance after retention interval may decrease slightly, but should return to original performance levels with few practice trials. Finally, learning can be measured by resistance to contextual change.
This is the adaptability required to perform a task in altered environmental situations. Thus an individual who has learned swimming should be able to apply that learning to new and variable situations. Motor learning is the direct result of practice and is highly dependent on relative importance of the different types of sensory information and feedback processes. The information varies according to task and to the phase of learning. A motor program is defined as an abstract representation that, when initiated, results in the production of a coordinated movement sequence. Motor programs also frees up the nervous system from conscious decisions about movement, reducing the problem of multiple degrees of freedom. There are various factors which can influence learning (eg.swimming): Amount of practice:The amount of practice and amount learned are directly related. At least two variables interact with this relationship: feedback and intention to learn.
For learning to occur, performers must receive information feedback about the relationship between their performances and the task goals and they must be motivated or have an intention to learn. The continuation of practice after reaching a criterion level of performance is termed over learning or over practice. Although it may be expensive to continue practice after reaching a criterion level of performance, evidence suggests that over practice may help forgetting and enhance retention of skills. This may prove to be especially valuable following a long delay without practice. The most common explanation for the positive effects of amount of practice on learning is that increased practice retards the forgetting of memory traces. Practice results not only in enhanced performance, but also in the formation of memory traces that are stored some where in the central nervous system.
That is the reason why many telephone numbers can be remembered and recalled at a time.Trace decay refers to a passive fading of a trace from memory; with little practice results in a stronger trace, consequently the rate of decay or memory fade is retarded. Information feedback:Information feed back is often considered to be one of the most important variables influencing skill learning. Information feedback refers to information that is presented either before, during, or after an action which informs performers about an actions correctness or effectiveness. Information feedback is intrinsic, when it is produced by sensory feedback and is inherent in a task. e.g.,skilled movements og hands and legs while swimming. Extrinsic feedback is information provided by an external source and is not readily available in a task. E.g., a coach keeps commanding and informing about the action to be taken while learning of swimming.
... adequate protection. true Functional skills English: Reading – Read through the information carefully to identify whether the statements are true or false ... the following statements about data protection and decide if the information is true or false. Data protection statement True or ... false Information about people can be sold to a third party. false ...
Frequency of feedback: These results suggest that when amount of practice is controlled relative to practice on every trial, withholding extrinsic feedback (reducing feedback frequency) on some practice trials enhances learning. Timing of feedback: When feedback is presented after an action, feedback can be presented instantaneously or delayed by some time interval. Study results suggest that result persisted even after 4 months without practice and suggests that delaying the presentation of feedback for a few seconds after practice is more effective for learning than providing feedback immediately after each practice action. Environmental influences: Skill refers to the capability to constantly achieve a goal, in numerous environments using multiple strategies and with minimal energy expenditure. The capability of achieving a goal (swimming) using multiple strategies is termed as motor equivalence. To optimize physical function and skill, clients should be practicing motor equivalence to achieve goals in multiple environments.
To develop true skill and acquire the ability to function in multiple environments and adapt to different conditions, the learner must develop multiple movement strategies. This ability can be enhanced if the same skill is practiced under varying environmental or contextual conditions. For example, a person learning swimming should practice from different directions and from different heights and surfaces. This will allow the person to develop multiple strategies and generalize or adapt this skill to perform in real world situations. References Nicholson DE. Motor learning. In: Fredericks CM, Saladin LK, editors. Pathophysiology of the motor systems principles and clinical presentations.
... a teacher or coach to structure a practice environment for maximal potential •Methods of practicing motor skills oHow often oHow long oGroup size oEquipment ... Detecting stimuli Deciding Processing Acting Responding appropriately Evaluating Feedback Cues •A stimulus perception •In learning used to obtain information to perform and ...
Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company; 1996. p. 238-54. Cook SA, Wollacott MH. Motor control theory and practical applications. Baltimore (MY): Williams and Wilkins; 1995.
Barnes MR, Crutchfield CA, Heriza CB, Herdman SJ. Reflex and vestibular aspects of motor control, motor development and motor learning. Atlanta: Stokesville Publishing Company; 1990 Richard A. Schimdt, Contemporary management of motor control problems proceedings of I step conference APTA 1991: Motor learning principles for physical therapy. Baxter MF, Baxter DA. Neural mechanism of learning and memory.
In: Cohen H. Neuroscience for rehabilitation. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 1999. p. 321-48. Jacobs AB, Bittel LS. Neuroplasticity. In: Ehman LL.
Neuroscience fundamentals for rehabilitation. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company; 2002. p. 67-80 Nicholson DE. Motor learning. In: Fredericks CM, Saladin LK, editors.
Pathophysiology of the motor systems principles and clinical presentations. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company; 1996. p. 238-54. Lac SD.
Motor Learning. In: The MIT encyclopedia of cognitive sciences. MIT Press. 1999. Available from: URL: http://www.snle.salk.edu/n200b/Publications/du_Lac -1999.pdf Wolpert DM, Gharamani Z, Flanagan JR. Perspectives and problems in motor learning. Trends in Cognitive Sciences [cited 2001 November];5(11):[8 screens]. Available from: URL:http://www.hera.ucl.ac.uk/sml/publications/pap ers/WolGhaFla01.pdf Gowitzke,Miller: Scientific Bases Of Human Movement,ed2.Williams And Wilkins,Baltimore,1980..