1. What is a standardized test? Describe different types of standardized tests. Standardized test are used to evaluate achievement in comparison to that of a sample group of children, also to measure a child’s achievement on specific test objectives. Some types of standardized test are: intelligence, achievement, and aptitude all measuring facets of ability. 2. What is meant by quantifiable scores? Quantifiable scores support interpretation of the test results. Most psychological test provides numerical scores which allow statistical comparisons. 3. Describe norm referencing. Norm referencing provides information on how the performance of and individual compares with that of others. The individual’s standing is compared with that of a known group. 4. Why does a test need to have validity? Reliability? Can you have one without the other? Test needs validity to make sure of clear directions when reading vocabulary and items that are appropriate for the objectives. Reliability to accurately determine the number of items used the length of the test, and the rating. No, you can not have one without the other because together they balance each other.
5. Why is the description of a test’s purpose important? How does test purpose affect test design? It is important because information on test validity and reliability are used to determine the dependability of the test. When first designing a test, the developers describe its purpose by which test objectives or the test outlines provide the framework for the content of the test. 6. List some factors that test developers must consider before starting to develop a test. Consider: the purpose of the testing; the characteristics to be measured; how the test results will be used; the qualifications of the people who will interpret the scores and use the results; and any practical constraints. All are important for selecting tests for young children. 7. What area the vest test formats to use with preschool children? Test designed for very young children are usually presented orally by a test administrator. An alternate is to use a psychomotor response; the child is given an object to manipulate or is asked to perform a physical task.
Standardized testing is a serious issue to all students in schools today. Standardized testing is taken more serious than ever. Standardized tests may affect what classes a child is placed in during grade school or whether someone gets into college. Standardized tests even affect a school in many ways. Albert Einstein once said, "Not everything that counts can be counted and not everything that ...
8. How are experimental test forms used? The experimental test forms resemble the final form. Before tried out, each achievement test may be reviewed and rewritten by test writers, teachers, and other experts in the field. Many may be rewritten because some questions may be eliminated or revised during the editing stages. 9. What is meant by item tryout and analysis? What is accomplished during this procedure? Instructions are written for administering the test. The test may have more questions than will be used in the final form because man questions will be revised or eliminated after the tryout. The sample of people selected to take the preliminary test is similar to the population that will take the final form of the test. 10. Discuss three types of item analysis. The difficulty level refers to how many test takers in the tryout group answered the question correctly. Discrimination involves the extent to which the question distinguishes between test takers who did well or poorly on the test. Test takers who did well should have been more successful in responding to an item than test takers who did poorly. The grade progression of difficulty refers to test that are taken by students in different grades in school. If a test question had good grade progression of difficulty, a greater percentage of students should answer it correctly in each successively higher grade.
Information that is found on blogs, social media, net and .org are not always valid. Credibility is information or data that will have reference and resources. When it is researched you can determine the reliability of the data or information by its sources. The author or source of information will have validity from peers, journals etc. There was recently on Facebook, about 2015 taxes being ...
11. What kinds of information are acquired when a test id standardized? Standardized test, despite their shortcomings, are useful for test users. They have been carefully developed through a series of steps that ensure their dependability, educational institutions, in particular, using them to measure student’s characteristics. 12. How is a norming population selected? The norming group is chosen to reflect the makeup of the population for whom the test is designed. It a national school achievement test is being developed, the standardization consisted of children from all sections of the country to include such variables as: gender, age, community size, geographic area, and socio-economic and ethnic factors.
13. Explain content validity, criterion-related validity, and construct validity. content validity example; on an achievement test, content validity id the extent to which the content of the test represents and adequate sampling of the instructional program it is intended to cover. Criterion-related validity is concerned with the validity of an aptitude test. Rather than analyzing course content, test items focus on skills or tasks that predict future success in some area and stability over time. Intelligence quotient (IQ) and Scholastic Aptitude test scores may predict school achievements for success in high school and college. The validity is predictive because the criteria for success are the future grades the student will earn in college or the student’s future grade-point average. construct validity is the extent to which a test measures a relatively abstract psychological trait such as personality, verbal ability, or mechanical aptitude. Rather than examine test items developed from test objectives, one examines construct validity by comparing test results with the variables that explain the behaviors.
14. Explain alternative-form reliability, split-half reliability, and test-retest reliability. Alternative-form reliability is when test developers construct two equivalent forms of the final test. Both forms are administered to the norming group within a short period and the correlation between the results measures the coefficient of reliability. The split-half reliability is used to establish reliability, the norming group is administered a single test, and scores on half of the test are correlated with scores on the other half of the test. Split-half reliability is determined from the contents of a single test. A test with split-half reliability is also considered to have internal consistency; that is the items on each half of the test are positively correlated in measuring the same characteristics.
A focus group can be defined as a group interview- centered on a specific topic and facilitated and co-ordinated by a moderator or facilitator- which seeks to generate primarily qualitative data, by capitalizing on the interaction that occurs within the group setting. The idea behind the focus group method is that group processes can help people to explore and clarify their views in ways that be ...
15. Why does every test have a standard error of measurement? No matter how well designed, no test is completely free from error. Although there is a hypothetical true score, in reality it does not exist. The reliability of the test depends on how large the standard error of measurement is after analysis of the chosen method of determining reliability. If the reliability correlations are poor, the standard error of measurement will be large, the larger the standard error of measurement, the less reliable the test. Standard error of measurement is the estimate of the amount of variation that can be expected in test scores as a result of reliability correlations.