pH is the measure of H+ (a proton) a concentration of a solution. In order to understand pH, a scale has been designed, this scale ranges from 0 to 14. Anything from 0 to 6.99 is acidic, a substance that increases hydrogen ions concentration in a solution, such as lemon juice. If the scale ranges from 8 to 14 would be determined as a basic solution, a substance that reduces the hydrogen ions concentration in a solution, an example of this would be ammonia. If the solution concentrate has a pH of 7 this would be neutral, such as pure water. Although pH can be determined in various ways, the most common ways to indicate pH are by using indicator papers. One type of paper is called litmus paper, this paper merely tells you whether it is acidic or basic, it does not establish what the pH may be.
pH paper, which is another type you may use, can actually approximate the actual pH of a solution. pH measure is important to many biologists in order to study the effects an acidic solution may do to the environment. For example, as stated in, Biology the 4th edition book (p. 50), Some scientists have observed and experimented and confirmed that acid precipitation is harming both terrestrial and fresh water Eco systems. I attempted to experiment with some solutions, I used lemon juice, antacid, coke , aspirin, and ammonia. I believe that lemon juice and ammonia are strong solutions so they will be acidic.
The aim of this experiment is to test whether more water moves out of a potato when it is placed in a sweeter sucrose solution than a potato in a less sweet solution. The hypothesis of the experiment is that we expect more water to move out of the potato placed in the sweet solution than the potato placed in a less sweet solution. Independent variable: concentration of sucrose, concentrations: ...
The remaining solutions I believe will be basic. The prepared solutions were filled in a beaker and placed on a counter top for the purpose of experimentation. I used red and blue litmus paper to determine whether the solution was a base or an acid. Before starting my experiment I recorded my test substances I would be using, I tore of a small piece of blue litmus paper and dipped into my solution number one a recorded the color. I repeated this step and recorded the colors as I went along to each different solution. I then preformed the same experiment with my red litmus paper. This paper determines the approximate pH of a solution.
I dipped the paper in each of the solutions and recorded the color and I then compared the color to the pH color key code, which establishes the pH. Solution No. Solution Litmus TestBlue/ Red pHydrionpH pH bypH meter As stated above in my hypothesis the lemon juice did turn out to be acidic, although the ammonia actually turned out to be a basic solution. Coke and Aspirin were determined to be acidic and ammonia and antacid turned out to be basic solutions. The experiments coincided with each other, the blue litmus paper said antacid and ammonia are basic and the remaining solutions lemon juice, coke and aspirin were acidic. The red paper, which determines the pH more approximately also, determined the same results. Campbell, Neil A.
Biology 4th edition, The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc., California. DeYoe, Hudson R. ed. General Biology Lab Manual 3rd edition, Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Iowa. pp. 37-39.