Supermarkets and checkouts.
The advancements in the technological world have allowed supermarket chains and other national stores to quickly dominate the market and are driving out the concept of the ‘local stores’. This surge in the market has seen shares rise and profits bulge with the three main contenders in mind being Sainsburys, Safeways and Tescos who now serve the whole of the UK between them and are the household names of the shopping world. The ICT input to these businesses is vital in that it provides speedy service; controls stock levels and will even allow bank balance transfers to be carried out with minimal difficulty or technical experience.The ‘till’, arguably a simple word has been given several names in the information technology world depending on the tasks, which the one in question can perform.· POS- Point Of Sale terminal (ordinary checkout)· EPOS- Electronic Point Of Sale terminal (Checkout connected to a computer data base using a laser scanner to read bar codes).· EFTPOS- Electronic Funds Transfer Point Of Sale (the same as EPOS with the capability to make transfers for customers to pay for goods via credit or debit cards. The checkout uses the ICC (integrated chip card which is very popular on the continent) or Magnetic strip on the card to request the information of the user to see whether or not they are eligible to make an EFT. The magnetic strip can only hold a limited amount of data such that an 11 or so digit code is sufficient to recall the same data from the bank servers. The ICC however can hold much more information and is much harder to copy or have data changed by criminals or hackers.The checkouts used in modern supermarket chains are all capable of EFT and are therefore all considered EFTPOS. In the next few years checkouts or ‘tills’ in all retail shops will use the ICC
Executive Summary mySupermarket is a grocery shopping and comparison website which aims to provide customers with the best price for their shopping. This report examines how data warehousing provided mySupermarket with the foundation in which to build a successful enterprise, and allowed a subsequent expansion into the ‘business intelligence’ sector. The research draws attention to the problems ...
BarcodesThe goods found in supermarkets are labelled with barcodes used to identify specific items on a central database. When the good is scanned a request is sent from the checkout to this main database where the request is handled and the appropriate information returned to that terminal and the correct amount reduced from the stock of that item. The bar codes are formed of lines of different widths and as each line represents a number the resulting code is the information sent to the main computer. The barcode hold several important pieces of information about the product including the country of origin, the manufacturers number, the product code and the Check digit or check sum that verifies that the rest of the code has been read correctly.
StockThis stock number is used to alert the manager or whom it may concern that a product needs to be ordered, as the stock is too low or that an item might need to go onto special offer as it is perishable and the stocks are too high. The computer has no way of compensating for theft and therefore a manual ‘stock check’ is periodically carried out and the entire contents of the super market is counted and recorded on the database. Even this aspect of the supermarket does not neglect the use of ICT; the stock is counted with handheld wireless scanners that feed the information straight to the database and eliminate yet another time consuming human reliant task. The database holds several important fields about the stock number of the item such as the minimum order quantity, the reorder quantity and the supplier code to make an automatic order form again saving time. The supermarket uses a LAN for connecting the checkouts to the main computer and WAN for connecting the main computer to bank and supplier servers.
Each company has an information system that uses data, knowledge, and information in order to make operations more effective. Although this system may vary, each company records some type of data, analyses it, and uses the feedback to make decisions or changes through tout the company. This is having an information system within the company. Throughout this essay, information systems will be ...
Loyalty CardsTesco supermarkets first introduced the loyalty card in 1995 that saw a boost in their sales and put pressure on its competitors to follow suit. These cards have similar magnetic strips to those of the credit cards and so carry the same volume of information. The code held on the strip is used to access the customers information from the required database and then, in the same way as the items, the right information is transmitted back to the checkout and the appropriate amendments made concerning the amount of points or vouchers that the person has earned and therefore what sort of reward they are entitled to.
Internet Shopping.The most recent development in the supermarket world is the introduction of the Internet shopping service. From the comfort of ones own home the customer can order which goods they require without having to visit the store. The customer now can choose at what time they would like the delivery and can pay with a large range of different formats. As the integration of these systems grows stronger the customer is provided with a better service and comes to expect more therefore putting pressure on the market to evolve all the time. Tesco, again the pioneer, was the first in 2000 to provide an online shopping service and for a time was the biggest online retailer in Europe seeing its orders rise from 15,000 to 60,000 a week worth approximately 5m each week. Paying for these goods involves handing over personal data and the supermarket is obliged under the data protection act of 1998 to keep the data safe and not use or distribute it in any unlawful way. Here is the section of the data protection act that is relevant to the data of an individual.
Excerpt from the “Data Protection Act 1998”
An Act to make new provision for the regulation of the processing of information relating to individuals, including the obtaining, holding, use or disclosure of such information. [16th July 1998]”Data” means information which-(a) Is being processed by means of equipment operating automatically in response to instructions given for that purpose,(b) Is recorded with the intention that it should be processed by means of such equipment, (c) Is recorded as part of a relevant filing system or with the intention that it should form part of a relevant filing system, or(d) Does not fall within paragraph (a), (b) or (c) but forms part of an accessible record as defined by section 68;”Data processor”, in relation to personal data, means any person (other than an employee of the data controller) who processes the data on behalf of the data controller;”Data subject” means an individual who is the subject of personal data;”personal data” means data which relate to a living individual who can be identified-(a) from those data, or(b) from those data and other information which is in the possession of, or is likely to come into the possession of, the data controller, and includes any expression of opinion about the individual and any indication of the intentions of the data controller or any other person in respect of the individual; “processing”, in relation to information or data, means obtaining, recording or holding the information or data or carrying out any operation or set of operations on the information or data, including-(a) Organisation, adaptation or alteration of the information or data,(b) Retrieval, consultation or use of the information or data,(c) Disclosure of the information or data by transmission, dissemination or otherwise making available, or(d) Alignment, combination, blocking, erasure or destruction of the information or data.”Relevant filing system” means any set of information relating to individuals to the extent that, although the information is not processed by means of equipment operating automatically in response to instructions given for that purpose, the set is structured, either by reference to individuals or by reference to criteria relating to individuals, in such a way that specific information relating to a particular individual is readily accessible.Data obtained from (http://www.hmso.gov.uk/acts/acts1998/80029–a.htm#2)
You have to make a staff leaflet. This can be A4 size or folded A4 size. This is what you need to write: U 7 1.1 The different reasons people communicate * Express needs * Share ideas and information * To reassure * Express feelings * Build relationships * Socialise * Ask questions * Share experiences U7 3.1 The barriers to effective communication * Background and culture * Sensory impairment * ...
Implications of the Data Protection Act 1998This act means or at least suggests that the data handed over to the supermarket or retailer when a transaction, electronic or otherwise, is made is to be used in a way that does not violate this or any part of the act in its entirety and should not be used against the will, consent or knowledge of the person or persons to which the data identifies.This act has been passed in order to:“Make new provision for the regulation of the processing of information relating to individuals, including the obtaining, holding, use or disclosure of such information.”With this act people have the right to disclose the ‘data’ which identifies them at there own discretion and have the right to expect that the use of the data which they hand over in a transaction or such an agreement will be compliant with the act although the certain powers who are exempt from various parts of the act, may request pieces of data without the permission of the party or parties to whom the data identifies and are therefore mentioned in part IV of the complete act (e.g. for the purpose of safeguarding national security).
1. Introduction Interlanguage pragmatics (ILP) is new branch of pragmatics and second language acquisition (SLA). Initiated by Kasper (1981), it has received more attention and become quite fruitful through eighties, then was established as an independent discipline with the publication of! ^0 Interlanguage Pragmatics! +/- (Kasper & Blum-Kulka, 1993). It was first defined by Kasper & Dahl ...
If the processor breaks any article of the data protection act then part V encompasses for the enforcement of the act by the authority in that situation.