African American people have had the feeling of being discounted, having an economic struggle, and a sense of an inadequate meaning of life. African Americans thoughts of upward mobility, meaning “economic success for white ethnic groups”, gave them a level they knew they would never be able to reach (57).
In Dr. J. Owens Smith’s book, “The Politics of Ethnic and Racial Inequality”, explains the reason for African Americans struggles with poverty and the upward mobility compared to non black Americans. White southerners were anxious to regain power over African American so they use the law in order to achieve that objective. In 1865, southerners created Black Codes, which served as a way to control and inhibit the freedom of ex-slaves. Codes controlled almost all aspects of life, and prohibited African Americans from the freedoms that had been won. The political, social, psychological, and economic effect resulted in the caused of the downfall of African Americans growth with society and as a people, which in turn gave other ethnic groups an upward mobility over the African American people. These laws were worded in a way such that blacks rights would be restricted which resulted in African American impossibility to gain any real freedom.
Competing against other ethnics groups could be extremely hard when your ethnic group was a lost from the beginning. The political effect of the black codes regulated African Americans jobs and white southern felt that blacks were destined to continue to work in the fields. Unlike the Japanese who developed human capital and bootstraps from American jobs, African Americans were restricted from renting or leasing any land outside of cities or towns and black ownership was left up to local authorities. Dr. Smith states, “Both the Japanese and Chinese were able to gain a foothold in the economic system despite structural barriers and racism”, while the African Americans could not build any capital due to racial discrimination (111).
... a national market for African American literature and music. Finally, in the autumn of 1926 a group of young black writers produced Fire! ... staff; published poetry and short stories by black writers; and promoted African American literature through articles, reviews, and annual ... League was founded in 1910 to help black Americans address the economic and social problems they encountered as they ...
Even though African Americans were considered “freed slaves”, the government continued to control their lives through their pay which they suppose to have received from their employer to the non growth of achievements, which develop in being held back in society. In contrast, the Japanese develop human capital for their farming, education, and work ethic abilities to build America with the help of the de facto system. The creators of the black codes did not try to hide the obvious bias and prejudice, because the government and employers agreed with the effects.
In relation to political effect, the government felt that the African Americans had an affect of their social progress, therefore creating another black code to keep African Americans downcast. Stated by Dr. Smith the social effect are, “codes prescribed that African Americans males conduct themselves “properly”: that is, they demanded “obedience to all proper orders” that his employer gave him” (137).
While things could no longer be exactly the same as in slavery, white southerners found a way to guarantee that African Americans would serve as their laborers and basically become a different person, which Dr. Smith states as the “caste system” (137).
African Americans who accepted this caste system was called “Uncle Tom” or “sambo” (137).
In comparison, the same downcast was made to Puerto Rican migrants because of their dark skin and limited education. Unlike the Puerto Rican and African American people, West Indians immigrants were shown continuous slavery. West Indians carried a human capital through economic success and African Americans didn’t achieve such progress. As one may see, the black codes, kept them from achieving any type of human capital that would help them in growing along with society. The government wanted African Americans to remain dependent on their employers, placing them back into a slavery way of life.
... and jailed the protestor (and sometimes lynched or otherwise killed African Americans), King compared the fight for civil rights with the ... convictions that cannot Constitutionally exist within the legislative capacities of American politics and society. King's appeal, therefore is not ... moral failings which he believed were inherent in the American political system was based not only on a formal ...
As mentioned previously, African Americans were doom from the beginning. The economic effect, “prevented African Americans from interacting in such an environment, but also foreclosed their freedom to take advantage of a wide range of other economic opportunities in society” (138).
African Americans didn’t have the chance to pursue goals, property and liberty like the West Indians. The government didn’t give African Americans any protection, but West Indians were granted protection which they use to protect their trades in America. This resulted in African Americans being left behind while other immigrants develop stability in life, without the help of the American government.
The consequences of the economic effect of the black codes, as well as the others that were mentioned created a development of psychological discouragement. African Americans lost their human pride and develop an everlasting depression. The depression kept them from continuing to try to grow with society. Being continuously kept back from jobs, money, and land becomes a never ending battle. As Dr. Smith continuously repeats, “that race alone does not promote or constrain a group’s economic mobility…the focus of analysis must be on government action” (121).
Clearly stating that the downward mobility isn’t African Americans fault, but the government’s black codes along with the white society that continue to put a brick wall up whenever African Americans tried to achieve upward mobility.
An act of inhumanity is created and African American people suffered through the politics of the government. They were treated as slaves, even though they were release from slavery after the Civil War. There was nothing “civil” about the treatment that was giving to African Americans after the Civil War. The black codes together with boot straps and human capital are the main points as to why African Americans stayed at the bottom, while immigrants develop a place in society. Creating the black codes, is an eye opener as to how the government tricked the African American people into thinking the Civil War gave them freedom, and in turn yes African Americans had freedom, but lost they own human respect, thrive and compassion about the American lifestyle after slavery. The color “black” has become African Americans ladder, a never growing ladder that never seems to get them to the top.
... the white men. The American government was destroying traditions and culture of the Native American. Moving the Native American around and taking away their ... into “dream time” is a big part of Native American culture.Black Elk for most of the book was caught between the ... domination. This was the start of the fall down for Black Elk's people. Their reservation, their land was taken away ...