What is the most effective concentration of Chili and Kamias mixtures with the highest effectiveness as an insect repellant. 2. What is the significance of the study in terms of cost of production and effectiveness compared to commercially available insect repellants? 3. Will there be adverse effects of the natural insect repellent on the different species of insects to be used in this study? II. Background of the Study An insect repellent is a substance applied to skin, clothing, or other surfaces which discourages insects (and arthropods in general) from landing or climbing on that surface. Most pesticides ans insecticides are used in homes, gardens and farms to kill or deter pests and insects. Insects and pests need to be kept away because they cause diseases and cause damage to property. Some pests like the cockroach are also very unhygienic. The most common household pesticides are chemically manufactured and may contain toxins that may be harmful to our health, especially to children. These chemically manufactured spray-can of insecticide generate fumes, releasing chemicals that spread everywhere and are inhaled.
Also, most farmers use pesticides to protect their crops and increase yield. However, these pesticides seep into the soil, contaminate ground water and hence, adversely affect the food chain. Natural pesticides are products made of only naturally occuring substances and are a much safer way to keep pests and insects away without harming our environment. Since natural pesticides are made of natural substances, they will not harm us. Examples of how natural pesticides are used include the use of borax acid to repel termites and cockroaches.
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Lemon juice, bay leaves and cucumber peel help to keep ants away. Pepper spray can repel and kill crickets. Honey is very useful in attracting flies and used as fly traps. Termites are usually repelled by borax and vinegar (acetic acid).
Because of the differences between types of insects, studies show that products that contain multiple repellents tend to be more effective than those containing a single ingredient. This study will explore the importance of the chili and kamias fruit as an insect repellent.
According to recent studies on the feasibility of Chili peppers as a potent pesticide, it was found out that Powdered chili pepper deters the onion fly, Delia antiqua, from laying eggs and a chemical from from hot peppers reduces growth of the spiny bollworm, Earias insulana and may repel cotton pests. Researchers at Kentucky State University studied how well pepper insecticide worked and what kind of peppers make the best insecticide. They found that powdered chili pepper kept onion flies from laying eggs.
Also hot peppers worked well against some types of worms and pests found in the cotton field. Researchers only found one pepper insecticide that killed spider mites, and that was made from tabasco chili peppers. The best general insecticide seemed to be made from just about any kind of hot pepper. 2 Kamias fruit, on the other hand, is considered as an antibacterial, astringent, antiscorbutic, febrifuge, antidiabetic, stomachic, refrigerant. The fruit also has high oxalic acid content. Studies show that vaporized oxalic acid, or a 3. % solution of oxalic acid in sugar syrup, is used by some beekeepers as a miticide against the parasitic varroa mite and can be explored as a helpful ingredient for an organic insect repellent. In turn, this study would like to implore on the affectivity of the combined property of each fruit. III. Significance of the Study The effectiveness and low cost of production of the proposed natural insect repellant will help alleviate the high cost of commercially available insect repellants in the market. The high availability of the fruits in the country ould suffice for the production of the chili-kamias insect repellant. IV. Scope and Limitations This research will focus on the combined effectiveness of chili and kamias mixtures as an insect repellant on specific plants and insects only. It will also focus on the toxicity it may have on plants. For this study, the researchers will only use 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% and 0% concentrations of chili extract in kamias extract. V. Materials and Methodology Materials: ? kilo of kamias fruit 1 ? kilo of chili mortar and pestle kettle gas stove product container Procedure: 1.
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For this study, the independent variable is the concentration of the chili extract– 100%, 75%, 50% and 25%, 0% in kamias extract. 2. Near accessible plants are to be used as a test factor and will measure qualitatively the number of insects affected by the chili-kamias extract. 100grams of chili and kamias each are purchased from the supermarket. 3. Beakers, spray dispensers and plants are labeled as “100%”, “75%”, “50%” and “25%” and “0%” according to the concentration of the chili extract used. 4. Grind 150grams of chili and add 300ml of distilled water whilst grinding. Do the same for the Kamias fruits.
Grind 100 grams of Kamias and add 250 ml of water whilst grinding. After grinding, the mixtures are boiled for 5 minutes to maximize juice extraction. The juices are then extracted and poured in a measuring cylinder. After straining out remaining solids, pour 100ml of the ground chili extract into the beaker labeled “100%”and 75ml Into the beaker labeled “75%”. 75ml chili extract is mixed with an additional 25ml of Kamias extract. The beaker marked “50%” will contain 50ml of chili juice mixed with an additional 50ml kamias extract. The beaker marked “25%” will contain 25ml of chili juice mixed with an additional 75ml of Kamias extract.
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The beaker marked “0%” will contain 100ml of Kamias extract. 10 drops of detergent are added to each of the mixtures. 5. Pour the corresponding mixtures into the respective spray dispensers. 6. The respective concentrations of Bird’s Eye chili are sprayed 5 times in each plant. The plants are to be observed every two to three hours until a week. The results are recorded in a table. References: 1 www. wikipedia. com – http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Insect_repellent 2 Homemade Organic Pepper Insecticide | eHow. com http://www. ehow. com/way_5763469_homemade-organic-pepper-insecticide. html#ixzz21itGOaOy