The Golden Age of Spain was golden for the Jews not only because of their succession in science, literature, diplomacy and military pursuits, but also in their endeavors to advance. The history of Spain, between the rule of the Romans and the Catholic Monarchs was not among the highlights of the Jews. Nonetheless, this was the life of the Jews then, but the years before their departure were prosperous, and they created a strong and arduous culture. The economic and political situation, during the middle centuries of Moorish rule created an atmosphere in which the Jews were able to build up their cultural confidence. They transformed the life style, learning more about agricultural, and focusing on business and trade. Also during this time, the Jews were able to create literary, musical and artistic styles, for the first time, mixing both the cultures of Spain and Judaism. Many of these cultural features have lasted into modern times, in their songs, celebrations and language. During this period the Jews were successful in creating a synthesis between the culture around them and Judaism.
However, before we can look at why the Golden Age of Spain proved to be so prosperous for the Jews, we must first understand the circumstances of the Jews before the arrival of the Moors. In Spain, from about 616-711 C.E. the Jews had been oppressed, and persecuted for their differences under Roman Visagothic rule. Furthermore, 711 C.E proved to be the turning point in the lives of the Jews. At this point in time, the Moor’s had conquered Spain and were thoroughly welcomed by the Jews. The Moorish rule looked to be very different from that of the Jews previous rulers, and soon their well constructed political foundation developed into a fair and open society. Now, free from the devastating oppressions of the Visagoths, the Jews were now at liberty to indulge in other parts of their culture.
... , Ferdinand and Isabella, decided to throw all the Jews out of Spain. This time, in the expulsion edict, the monarchs were not ... at least erroneous in faith" in theology (Thompson, 60). Jewish culture in the 10th through 12th centuries ran parallel to Christian ... when the Almoravids came to rule the Islamic side of the frontier, Jewish cultural achievements in Muslim Spain began to decline, disappearing ...
As time moved on, Jewish culture had started to become very strong. Furthermore, the Jews became very important to the Muslim leaders. During this time, a variety of unique Jewish poets, philosophers and scientists began to thrive.
One of the more important Jews of this time, and certainly one of the Golden Ages most profound man was Hasdai Ibn Shaprut. Hasdai, who happened to be the doctor of the Caliph, started his legacy as a physician and continued his practice throughout his life, for he had a passion to discover and learn new things. He was a great statesman who took on important diplomatic missions for the Caliph (Moslem leader), and was a great Jewish leader who helped Jews inside and outside Spain. As his diplomatic reputation grew, he was able to help maintain peace between Mohammedans and the Christians. Furthermore, he took greater leadership by establishing means of communication between Russia and the Jewish Kingdom of the Khazars. He was a man who abided by Jewish code, and therefore he encouraged the pursuit of knowledge wherever he went. Another extremely important Jewish figure-head during this time was Shmuel Hanagid. He began his career as a mere grocer in a grocery shop. He was modest yet hard working individual who over the years developed a strong sense of education in languages, mathematics, and philosophy. He lived in Cordoba but civil wars there forced his family to move to Malaga. He wrote poetry and about Halaka (Jewish law.) When asked to write letters on behalf of the Vizier of Granada, his skill propelled him to be part of the staff of the King of Granada. One of his responsibilities was to lead the army in battle. Once the Vizier passed away, Shmuel became the new vizier of Malaga and was appointed the name of Nagid by the King, hence making him the new Jewish leader. He supported poets and scholars, for he was also a great poet himself. Soon, he began to establish and conduct a Talmudic academy where students were encouraged to study Torah and all other forms of knowledge. Furthermore, he wrote an introduction to the Talmud, and a dictionary of biblical Hebrew.
... with the most outstanding army in their time. What a great place to live where everyone even the ... Ancient Greece: A Time Of Great Cities And Lives Ancient Greece was an interesting time and place with huge ... and plenty of wonders to behold from the great architecture right down to the shops and smiths ... ethics of male domination. very cruel and yet enticing time to be alive. 'Get your pots and pans... ...
The lives of these two men alone dictate the greatness of the life of the Jews in this Golden Age of Spain. Their accomplishments and high political positions truly revere the Jews as an extraordinary society during this time. Freedom and numerous job-opportunities surrounded the Jews. They were becoming very well educated and were assuming respected statures that Jews hadn’t received in a very long time. However, they had only just began to scratch the surface, and soon their would be an outbreak of modern and intellectual literature developed by the Jews.
Poetry was among these great pieces of literature and it flourished throughout Spain. Poetry had always been an interest of the Jews, as it gave them a creative way in which to express themselves. However, this interest increased around the time of the Mohammedans. The Mohammedans were a people of a traditional Arab tribe, and they brought about poetry in many forms of secular and religious writings. It was the Mohammedans that had the largest impact on the Jews, for they encouraged poetry. As well, their impact also sustained value upon a rebirth of interest in the Hebrew language. Since the Mohammedans were so interested in the purity of the Arab language, this trait seemed to rub off immediately on the Jews. This in turn lead to a more intellectual thought process headed by a wider range of cultural interests, that allowed the Jews of Spain to enjoy poetry in all essences.
In the midst of all this, there were many prominent Jewish Poets, such as Dunash Ben Labrat whose’ poetry reflected the fact that he was sad that Israel was not in Jewish hands. Isaac Ben Khalfon, who was actually regarded as the very first Hebrew poet. Solomon Ibn Gabriol, a spiritual poet that regardless of his death at age 37 managed to compose over 400 poems. Moses Ibn Ezra who took a enthusiastic approach in writing about wine, woman and song, and Lastly Abraham Ibn Ezra a famous poet and biblical commentator. Although there many great poets during this time, there was one specific man who’s poems conjured beautiful imagery and sleekness like no other. This man was none other than Judah HaLevi.
... been created in the past and maintained for a long time, so they possess a certain amount of grace, taste and ...
Judah HaLevi was originally a physician. He was happy with his family, his profession and life in general. He was indeed a man of great charm, and possessed a wide range of friends. Hence, he expressed his hope, of exiled Israel to one day be redeemed and restored. The themes of his hypnotic poetry were secular, as well as religious. Some of Judah HaLevi’s poetry included themes of Religion, war, and Zionism. He also composed books on grammar, philosophy, religion, and astrology. He also holds commentary in the Pentateuch and in many other books of the bible.
The Jews were quickly becoming an advanced civilization due to vast majority of interest in literary works and other knowledge. However, the Jews would have even more to gain in this time from one of the most respected and scholarly Rabbis of all time, Rabbi Moses Maimonides, A.K.A RAMBAM.
RAMBAM was born into a well established family of Cordova. There, the Jews were pressured to convert, but many Jews moved. The Maiman family fled to Morocco and from there went to the Holy Land for a year and then finally settled in Egypt. He was the greatest sage of the medieval period. A religious philosopher, ethicist, codifier and commentator. He wrote many great works, including the “Guide to the Perplexed,” “Thirteen Principles of Faith,” “Mishna Torah,” and a commentary on the Mishnah.
During the Golden Age of Spain the Jews not only learned a numerous amount of secular and religious knowledge, but they became successful and prosperous because they were became a very educated people. It was this time period that presented them with job opportunities that they couldn’t possibly dream of before. Jews had become successful Doctors, Politicians, engineers, pharmacists, wine makers, translators, educators, bankers, astronomers, merchants, scientists, farmers, architects, and ambassadors. The possibilities for the Jews were endless.
The high status that the Jews were regarded in, thoroughly gives a clear view to why the Jews were so respected and tolerated during this era. The Jews were not just another people to conquer, they were the heart and soul of Spain and therefore became a necessity to their ruling nation. Furthermore, the fact that the Jews did not just assimilate proves exactly how useful they must have been, considering the history of the Jews is to usually assimilate when tolerated. Nonetheless, the Jews thrived in this time, when they were able to live in peace and harmony, and it is for these reasons that the Jews had the touch of Midas during the Golden Age of Spain.
... children. Education plays a major role in our family, especially for the younger generation, which would include ... service on July 8 th, 1943. My great-grandfather participated in the battle of Normandy in 1944 ... of 159, 000 in enlisted personnel. My great-grandfather was awarded an E amet Campaign Medal ... America in October of 1945. He and my great-grandmother, Willie Mae Green, conceived only one ...