The number of correctional institutions has been increased during the last decades. The reason is the increase of imprisonment level. The correction officers realize that their works is highly responsible and risky. The paper provides the analysis of five empirical articles related to the topic and identifies the job-related stress during working. Corrections The guideline of this paper is to provide critical analyze of the five give articles and to point out what problems they are dealing with. It is seen that the entire article discuss the problems of correctional administration and ways of its improvement.
One more common issue is detecting influence of sex differences while working and the level of job-related stress. It is stated in all articles that women are more subjected to stress than men do. (Kiffer 2003) Articles identify main goals of corrections and admit that corrections personnel have to do their best to follow and to achieve these goals. Correctional administration has to provide the staff with necessary training, because correctional officers deliver policy in correctional institution. Therefore they must be aware of their responsibilities and duties. They must also understand they have no rights to exceed their authorities.
And articles shed light on these problems. The article Burnout and stress: does gender matter? deals with the problem concerning women correctional institutions and prisons. It was mentioned that women correctional officers suffered more from job-related stress than men did in the similar situation, because women were more affected by emotional feelings. According to the article tests are needed to find out the relationship between gender and working in a prison. Due to testing it was stated that women perform greater sense of personal achievement while working in correctional institution. (Carlson 2003) The positive moment is that women are nowadays allowed to work in correctional institutions, but the negative moment is that they are more subjected to occupational stresses and burnout than men officers. It is found in the article that burnout is rather controversial and complex aspect and it is difficult to detect gender differences and job stress. The problem being discussed in the article has direct impact on correctional administration, because they must be aware of all problems related to job.
The National Sleep Foundation's 2000 Omnibus Sleep in America Poll found that forty-three percent of the people surveyed complained of excessive daytime sleepiness (Mooe). Many had medically significant sleepiness based on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Over a third of people surveyed said that the sleepiness interfered with their daytime activities, and many of these were women. The average woman ...
(Carlson 2003) The article Insiders view of prison amenities deals with the problems of correctional staff members. It was mentioned that correctional staff tried to be more favorable and to provide prison amenities. The research was taken in order to find out whether it is necessary to provide programs, services and available resources in the prison. Many correctional staffers think that such amenities are positive and must be kept in prison, although there are opponents of such idea. Correctional administration has to consider the possibility of providing prisons with available amenities. Correctional staff believes that the possible amenities of the prison can involve psychological counseling, meetings with relatives and family members, telephone calls, conditioning of air and job training. (Tewksbury 2005) The article correctional officer burnout deals with examining and analyzing of data relating to correctional officer job-related stress.
This article complement the first article mentioned as to the problem of stress and represent new statistics and new variables. It was pointed out that older and more experienced workers are characterized by more personal attitude and accomplishment. But younger and less experienced officers are characterized by increasing level of stress, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. This article coincide with the first, because thy admit women officers are more subjected to stresses than men. Correctional work requires great responsibility. It is mentioned in the article that racial differences dont influence officer burnout.
Persuasive articles about Gun Control Persuading an audience can be done in several different fashions, one of which is Hugh Rank's Model of Persuasion. Rank's model states that two major strategies are used to achieve the particular goal of persuasion. These strategies are nicely set into two main schemes; the first method is to exaggerate an aspect of something, known as "intensify." While the ...
And this finding is considered to be very important. (Morgan 2002) The article Prison use and social control evaluates the increase of imprisonment level in the USA and provides reasons of such prison booming. The article states that such increase significantly undermine social norms and social control involving communities and family life. And imprisonment level is expected to increases further. It is apparent that the use of imprisonment increased considerably over the last decades. And the highest rate is among young black males.
As the number of imprisoned people increased the number of state and federal correctional institutions increased as well. It was mentioned that such increase in imprisonment is highly clustered in social and geographic space, which further increases the likelihood of group disruption. (Lynch 2000) The models of positive effect in correctional institutions are community solidarity, informal social control, stability, reducing of crime level, voluntary associations. The model of negative effect is that imprisonment can reduce the marriage ability of men and in such a way marriage formation. Other negative factors involve parochial control, private control and increasing of crime level throughout the country. (Lynch 2000) The last article The goals of corrections: perspectives from the line made an effort to define main goal of corrections.
They succeeded and found that they are rehabilitation, incapacitation, retribution and deterrence. And the task of the article was to assess professional support. The important factors for prison staff according to the article are age, gender, experience, military service. Correction staff always tries to find best way to run the system. (Kifer 2003) Analyzing these articles is very important, because they provide new necessary information. Rather new fact was that women are more subjected to job-related stresses and they have more personal accomplishment.
The sociological approach to addressing social problem provides a different perspective of those social problems than other disciplines. Sociology demands a look at the self created structures of a society that result in the creation of social problems (Gurrero, 2011). This perspective allows sociologists to examine the relationships between the macro view of society and the micro view of society ...
The statement that older generation have more personal attitude towards imprisoned people is also rather new and interesting. Therefore literature search concerning topic is useful to have clear idea and different points of view on the problem being discussed. The range of materials concerning correctional administration is huge and public is rather aware about its activities and goals. But public have to read only specific literature as non-professional issues may have incorrect materials. References Kifer, M., Hemmens, Cr., and Stohl, M. (2003, Spring).
The Goals of Corrections. Criminal Justice Review, 28, 47-70. Lynch, J., and Sabol, W. (2000).
Prison Use and Social Control. Control Criminal Justice, 3, 7-45. Morgan, R., Van Havern, R., and Pearson, Ch. (2002, April).
Correctional Officer Burnout. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 29, 144-161. Tewksbury, R., and Mustaine, E.
Insiders View of Prison Amenities. Criminal Justice Review, 30, 174-189. Carlson, J., Anson, R., and Thomas, J. (2003, Spetember).
Correctional Officer Burnout and Stress: Does Gender Matter? The Prison Journal, 83, 277-289..