Three Types of Dogs People watched for dogs with the traits to do the job, and then they bred them. The process, called selective breeding, started thousands of years ago. The two oldest breeds–greyhounds and mastiffs–developed because people wanted fast-running dogs for hunting and powerful fighting dogs for war. Today, these and other selectively bred dogs are known as purebreds. Because purebred dogs are bred only with each other, you can trace their pedigree, or family tree. Some greyhounds have pedigrees that reach all the way back to ancient Egypt! Because of the selective breeding, there are over four hundred known breeds of dog at present time. (Michaels 96-102).
But all the variety of dogs can be divided into three types: sporting, working and herding.
Sporting dogs were bred to hunt game birds both on land and in the water. Breeds in this group include pointers, retrievers, setters, and spaniels. They have tremendously good sight and smell. It is also said that sporting dogs were bred to help bird hunters. Spaniels, like this English cocker spaniel, flush birds from hiding. Pointers point them out. Setters freeze, or “set,” next to a downed bird, while retrievers go get them.
These dogs pursue prey by air scentas contrasting to most hounds, which are ground centersand their excavation is chiefly game birds. There are the pointers, setters, retrievers, and spaniels among them. Pointers can wait with nose and body firmly still in front of their excavation, thus directing the hunter to its position. The setters were initially trained to set, or crouch, in front of game, the hunter then making the capture with a net. As bird shooting became popular, setters were trained to point. Retrievers find and come back killed game to the hunter. Land spaniels spring, or flush, game, they shock a bird from its cover into flight. Water spaniels and many retrievers are especially equipped, as with a water-repellent coat and webbed feet, for retrieving downed waterfowl. (Michaels 96-102).
Play in Dogs Play means much in a dogs life and its development. Plays share in everyday dogs activities is very considerable. Some dogs love to play at a mature age, some even when they are senior. Humans should not overlook dogs calls to play, even when dogs have an opportunity to play with their mates. When playing with people, a dog learns to understand our words, gestures and mimics much ...
Working dogs are used to pull carts and sleds and to guard property. They are also good at search and rescue missions. They are cute, cheap and reliable. Breeds of working dogs include Saint Bernards, Doberman pinschers, boxers, and Siberian huskies. So they tend to be large and strong. That would warrant training to ensure they’re properly controlled.
They were also bred to rid property of vermin such as rats, moles, and weasels. Working dogs, such as the Saint Bernard (below), have performed many jobs throughout history, from boldly guarding their owners to rescuing mountain travelers to pulling sleds. (Peterson 205-211).
For centuries, working dogs, including guarding dogs, have provided many benefits to their producers world-wide. These dogs allow for more efficient use of pastures and possible expansion of the flock because of decreased labor and space requirements. The behavior characteristics of the guarding dogs differ radically from those of the herding dogs, the result of centuries of breeding for selective traits that make for a successful guard dog. Guarding dogs are selected to show more of the puppy-like or juvenile behavior of their wild ancestor, the wolf.
The development of the guard dog progresses to include the social, submissive, and investigative behaviors, and the dogs mature at that stage. The crush-bite-kill behavior pattern does not express itself. (Peterson 212-218).
Herding dogs help shepherds and ranchers. They keep the animals together in groups and make sure none stray away. The specific purpose of herding dogs is to move large numbers of livestock effectively and efficiently at the command of the owner or livestock producer.
For the past 20 years, there has been an on going heated debate on whether experiments on animals for the benefit of medical and scientific research is ethical. Whether it is or in't, most people believe that some form of cost-benefit test should be performed to determine if the action is right. The costs include: animal pain, distress and death where the benefits include the collection of new ...
There are breeds that are better with sheep, others better with cattle, and some work many species of herd animals. Some examples of gathering dogs include the collie, Border collie, and Australian shepherd. The cattle dogs include the Welsh corgi, and the Queensland blue heeler or Australian heeler. Through centuries of breeding, herding dogs have been developed by selection of particular behavioral characteristics. Herding dogs are selected to show hunting characteristics that include eye (staring at livestock), stalk, and grip or heel (chase).
The herding dogs have been selected to display the eye, stalk, and chase, but to mature before the deadly crush-bite-kill patterns of the predator develop. (Dysart 129).
Gathering dogs, such as the Border collie, circle the livestock and work the flight zone of the animal, moving the lead animals with their presence and eye. The dog will instinctively position itself directly opposite the handler on the other side of the livestock. When the handler moves to the left, the dog will move to the right and vice-versa. This gathering instinct is part of the predatory pattern, but the dog can be taught to go out, circle the livestock, and bring the animals towards the handler. Acoustic signals are used to command the herding dogs, usually in the form of whistles, which can be heard over the distances involved when gathering large flocks of sheep in a vast pasture. The physical characteristics and behavior of herding dogs differ from those of working dogs.
Herding dogs are within the 10 to 20 kilogram weight range (22 to 42 pounds) with ears that are often pricked. The color of the breeds is often dark with white or brown markings, and some are white or gray with darker spots. (Dysart 130-132).
Words: 871. Works Cited: Dysart, F. 2002. Dogs in Society. Washington, DC: Animal Institution Press, 129-132. Michaels, E.
1999. Purebred Dogs. New York: Allen and Unwinds, 96-102. Peterson, N. 2000. Working Dogs.
Dogs are known to be man’s best friend. Cliche as it may sound like, dogs have proven continually over the centuries since they were first domesticated, just how helpful they can be in human lives. From being mere allies on the hunting grounds during the Neolithic period to adored and prized pets of families, dogs have been trained to take on more and more roles in human society. The ...
Animal World. Oceania 70(3): 205-218..