As time approaches the 21st century, the automobile has become our major source of mass transportation. Everything about our culture and society has developed around this necessary form of travel. However, along with this necessity comes the issue of pollution to the environment. These great gasoline powered vehicles have contributed greatly to the impurity of our environment. The two prominent alternative fueled vehicles yet brought up are the Electric car (EV) and the hybrid electric car (HEV).
The ultimate clean, efficient car is the EV, a vehicle powered by an electrical motor, which is powered by batteries and controlled by an on-board computer. But there are questions about the mid-term viability of EV vehicles. This is due to unresolved technical issues of on-board energy storage capacity, high vehicle cost, and infrastructure limitations (e.g., lack of public charging stations, repair/replacement facilities, and battery recycling centers).
HEV vehicles are almost as clean as the EV?s and have vehicle performance comparable to that of today?s standard internal combustion engine vehicles. More important, such performance appears to be available in the mid-term future (e.g., 2002), and therefore represents a practical, technically achievable alternative approach. Some suggest we develop both the EV?s and HEV?s in parallel, because many of the technical advancements can be shared and because either or both will be needed to achieve efficiency and clean air goals. Unlike EV or the HEV vehicles, motor vehicles generate more air pollution than any other human made machine. This air pollution, or toxic mixture of chemicals released by motor vehicles, is recognized as a major health hazard. According to the American Lung Association, this air pollution kills between 60,000 and 120,000 people in the United States each year and costs $93 billion dollars in medical bills. Some of these air-polluting greenhouse gases that are emitted or attributed to gasoline powered vehicles are chlorofluorocarbon (CFC?s), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and the precursors to tropospheric ozone – hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx).
... sources, like power plants and motor vehicles. “In both developed and developing countries, the largest contributors to urban outdoor air pollution include motor transport ... . If everybody does the small things to reduce air pollution, the environment would benefit collectively. * Clean the Air: Offers 50 ways for keeping the ...
These gasoline-powered vehicles are also a major source of carbon monoxide (CO).
CFC?s are the most potent greenhouse gases on a per-unit mass basis. They now contribute nearly 24 percent of the total global warming effect. While incremental improvements can be made in standard vehicles, regulators and auto makers have defined at least two new vehicle classes that may provide a step-wise improvement in emissions. These are the electric vehicle and the Hybrid Electric Vehicle. Unlike an EV, an HEV utilizes the intermittent operation of a small engine to assist a typically battery-powered electric propulsion system. The electric motor propels the front wheels at low speeds. At higher speeds the internal combustion engine takes over. When the engine drives the vehicle, it automatically charges the batteries used for the electric motor, therefore making the battery pack a lot smaller. EV and HEV vehicles are a lot more beneficial to the environment than internal combustion engines. The EV vehicles have a zero tailpipe emission. Another major problem of motor vehicles is its unsafe nature after its life dies out. Automobile junkyards, which litter the American landscape, contain thousands upon thousands of old broken up cars. From such junkyards are the problem of oil, lead, and battery acids, which enter the ground.
... the battery is charged and all the battery and starter relay wires are secure. Now if the starter motor spins but the engine doesn ... the starter. The battery supplies the electrical energy to the starter motor, which does the actual work of cranking the engine. This is ... starter control circuit. This prevents operation of the starter motor unless the vehicle is in neutral or park. If your ride is ...
However the lead in the batteries of electric vehicles is in a very stable form, unlike the trace amounts of lead in even unleaded gasoline and since electric vehicles do not contain oil or chlorofluorocarbons, they do not risk contaminating the area. Noise is also an advantage of getting an electric vehicle. Because motor vehicles have combustion motors, they tend to be loud and obnoxious. On the other hand, EV vehicles do not have a combustion engine; thus, they are noticeably quieter. Because the electric vehicle motors are also more efficient compared to motor vehicles, they are expected to last over a million miles compared to the motor vehicles? one hundred thousand miles. Initially, HEV vehicles are not expected to compete directly with standard vehicles on performance alone (e.g., acceleration and range), but they are expected to offer benefits that a standard vehicle does not offer. Compared to today’s standard vehicles, HEV vehicle will reduce local/regional pollution, by means of: increased vehicle mileage, (two times per gallon of fuel) , lower emissions per vehicle mile traveled. Propulsion systems that can be cycled off during stop-and-go driving, producing no emissions, fuels or fuel systems with reduced fuel evaporation and refueling losses. As with any new technology, there are obstructions to its ready acceptance by consumers. Initially there may be resistance to the vehicles’ higher price and slightly reduced performance. Rugged and durable systems will be needed to provide credibility to a claim of long life with low emissions.
Emissions Austin, T.C.; J.M. Lyons; P.L. Heirigs; L.S. Caretto; R.W. Joy; G. Fauth (1994).
The Cost-Effectiveness of Further Regulating Mobile Source Emissions. Sierra Research, Inc. and Charles River Associates for American Automobile Manufacturers Association. Automotive Engineering (March 1994).
“Advanced-Technology Vehicle Emissions with California Phase 2 Gasoline.” Automotive Engineering: 59-61. Benson, D.K., and Potter, T.F., 1994 U.S. Patent #5,318,108, “Gas-Controlled Dynamic Vacuum Insulation with Gas Gate,” (June 7, 1994).
... and 20% of other emissions. Also in 1990, the California Air Resources Board introduced the strictest vehicle emission controls in the world. Many ... plants, and other industrial factories burn fossil fuels such as gasoline, coal, and fuel oils. When combusted, the non renewable ... pollution emissions from Canada and the U. S. are crossing into each others territory. For example coal-powered electric ...
Benson, D.K., Potter, T.F., and Tracy, C.E., 1994 “Design of a Variable-Conductance Vacuum Insulation,” SAE Technical Paper #940315. Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Teagan, Peter; Walls, David; Balles, Eric; Parish, Thomas (1992).
The Impact of Electric Vehicles on CO2 Emissions. Prepared for INEL. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Arthur D. Little, EGG-EP-10296. Blumel, H. (1992).
“Inner city driving with battery powered or hybrid cars only A comparison from the viewpoint of air pollution control.” Presented at Aspects of Alternative Energies for Vehicle Drive, Wolfsburg, Germany, November 24 – 26, 1992. Dusseldorf, Germany: Verlag des Verein Deutscher Ingenieure GmbH. Also published in: VDI Report No. 1020. Born, G.L.; S.V. Lucas; R.D. Scott; T.H. DeFries; S. Kishan (1994).
Effect of use of low oxygenate gasoline blends upon emissions from California Vehicles. Prepared for the California Air Resources Board and the South Coast Air Quality Management District. East Liberty, Ohio: Automotive Testing Labs. Burch, S., Potter, T., Keyser, M., Brady, M., and Michaels, K., 1995 “Reducing Cold-Start Emissions by Catalytic Converter Thermal Management,” SAE Technical Paper #950409. Burch, S., Keyser, M., Potter, T., and Benson, D., 1994 “Thermal Analysis and Testing of a Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter,” SAE Technical Paper #941998. Cadle, S.H.,Gorse, R.A., Lawson, D.R., 1993 Real World Vehicle Emissions: A Summary of the Third Annual CRC APRAC On Road Vehicle Emissions Workshop, Air & Waste, v.43 p.l084 1090 California Air Resources Board (CARB) (1993).
Methodology for Estimating Emissions from On-Road Motor Vehicles: Volume I: EMFAC7F. Mobile Source Division, California Air Resources Board. California Air Resources Board (CARB) (1993).
Methodology for Estimating Emissions from On-Road Motor Vehicles: Volume II: Weight (E7FWT).
Mobile Source Division, California Air Resources Board. California Air Resources Board (CARB) (1993).
Methodology for Estimating Emissions from On-Road Motor Vehicles: Volume III: BURDEN7F. Mobile Source Division, California Air Resources Board. Calvert, J.G., J.B.Heywood, R.F.Sawyer, J.H.Seinfeld (1993) Achieving Acceptable Air Quality: Some Reflections on Controlling Vehicle Emissions, Science, v261 p37 45. Chock, D.P.; S.L. Winkler (1992).
... fuel, replacing gasoline, diesel or other types of combustible fuels, thus producing no tailpipe or evaporative emissions. These vehicles have the ... then one percent of all vehicles on the road. However, the growing severity of air pollution, combined with the need ... long lasting effects. For the last hundred years, ever since the first automobile was developed, most vehicles have been gasoline powered. ...
Exhaust emissions of reformulated gasolines and methanol fuels based on the working datasets of the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program. Presented at the International Specialty Conference: PM10 standards and nontraditional particulate source controls, January 12-15, 1992, Scottsdale Arizona, Volume 2. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania : Air and Waste Management Association. Clossey, T.J.; J.M. DeJovine; K.J. McHugh, D.A. Paulsen, L.A. Rapp; J.S. Segal; B.K. Sullivan; D.J. Townsend (1992).
The EC-X Test Program – Reformulated Gasoline for Lower Vehicle Emissions. Warrendale, Pennsylvania: Society of Automotive Engineers. SAE 920798. Also published in SP-900. Colucci, J.M.; J.D. Benson (1991).
Impact of reformulated gasoline on emissions from current and future vehicles. Symposium on the impact of U.S. environmental regulations on fuel quality, Austin, Texas, December 11, 1991. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: American Society for Testing and Materials. Darrow, K.G. (1994).
Light Duty Vehicle Full Fuel Cycle Emission Analysis. Prepared for the Gas Research Institute, Contract 5193-294-2573. Bellevue, Washington: Energy International, Inc. Report No. 9333R440. Dowlatabadi, H.; A.J. Krupnick; A. Russell (1990).
Electric Vehicles and the Environment: Consequences for Emissions and Air Quality in Los Angeles and U.S. Regions. Washington, D.C.: Resources for the Future, Discussion Paper QE91-01. Dunn, Donald A.; Reuyl, John S.; McCormick, David L. Hybrid Electric Vehicles – Their Possible Roles in Emissions Reduction and Fuel Saving Finlayson Pitts, B., and J. Pitts, Jr., 1993a Atmospheric Chemistry of Tropospheric Ozone Formation: Scientific and Regulatory Implications, Air & Waste, v.43 p.1091 1100. Finlayson Pitts, B., and J. Pitts Jr., 1993b Volatile Organic Compounds: Ozone Formation, Alternative Fuels and Toxics, Chemistry and Industry (UK), 18 October 1993. p.796 800. Goodger, E., 1980 Alternative Fuels, MacMillan, ISBN 0-333-25813-4 Gorse, R.A.; Benson, J.D.; Burns, V.R.; Hochhauser, A.M.; Painter, L.J.; Reuter, R.M.; Rippon, B.H.; Rutherford, J.A. (1992).
“Toxic Air Pollutant Vehicle Exhaust Emissions with Reformulated Gasolines.” Proceedings of the International Specialty Conference on Toxic Air Pollutants from Mobile Sources: Emissions and Health Effects, Detroit, Michigan, October 16-18, 1991. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Air And Waste Management Association. Hartsock, D., Stiles, E., Bable, W., and Kranig, J., 1994 “Analytical and Experimental Evaluation of a Thermally Insulated Automotive Exhaust System,” SAE Technical Paper #940312. Hempel, L.C.; D.Press; D. Gregory; J.M., Hough; M.E. Moore (1989).
... fuels are the main source of energy for cars, trucks, busses, and other vehicles. Gasoline and diesel are transported to service ... any electrically conductive material moves across a magnetic field an electric current is produced in that wire. The inside of ... " electrons is measured in volts. Batteries store chemical energy. An electric circuit connects the positive and negative poles of the battery ...
Curbing Air Pollution in Southern California: The Role of Electric Vehicles. Claremont, California: Claremont Graduate School. Hochhauser, A.M.; J.D. Benson; V. Burns; R.A. Gorse; W.J. Koehl; L.J. Painter; B.H. Rippon; R.M. Reuter; J.A. Rutherford (1991).
The Effect of Aromatics, MTBE, Olefins and T90 on Mass Exhaust Emissions from Current and Older Vehicles – The Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program. Warrendale, Pennsylvania: Society of Automotive Engineers. SAE 912322. Hoekman, S., 1992 Speciated Measurements and Calculated Reactivities of Vehicle Exhaust Emissions from Conventional and Reformulated Gasolines, Environ. Sci. Technol., v.26 p.1206 1216. IEA, 1993 Energy related Carbon Dixode Emissions per Capita for OECD Collntries during 1990, International Energy Agency. (1993) Koehl, W.J.; J.D. Benson;; V. Burns; R.A. Gorse; A.M. Hochhauser; R.M. Reuter; (1991).
Effects of Gasoline Composition and Properties on Vehicle Emissions: A Review of Prior Studies – Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program. Warrendale, Pennsylvania: Society of Automotive Engineers. SAE 912321. Korotney, D.J.; V. Rao; C.E. Lindhjem; M.S. Sklar (1995).
Reformulated Gasoline Effects on Exhaust Emissions: Phase III; Investigation on Effects of Sulfur, Olefins, Volatility, and Aromatics and the Interactions Between Olefins and Volatility or Sulfur. Warrendale, Pennsylvania: Society of Automotive Engineers. SAE 950782. Also published in SP-1095. Kubsh, J.E. (1993).
Emission Performance Relationships to Gasoline Composition for Vehicles Equipped with Electrically Heated Catalytic Converters. Washington, D.C.: National Petroleum Refiners Association. Laing, P.M., 1994 “Development of an Alternator-Powered Electrically-Heated Catalyst System,” SAE Technical Paper #941042. Lyons, C.E. (1993).
Quantifying the emissions reduction effectiveness and costs of oxygenated gasoline. Presented at the 86th Annual Meeting and Exhibition of the Air and Waste Management Association, June 13-18, 1993, Denver, Colorado. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Air and Waste Management Association. Mark, Jason; James M. Ohi; David V. Hudson, Jr. (1994).
... hybrid vehicles more financially affordable.Electric vehicles have several advantages. They reduce fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions or tailpipe emissions are zero and recover or recycle energy ... : from chemical energy, battery-electric vehicle, hybrid vehicle generated on-board using a combustion engine, fuel cell vehicle and from wind and solar.Electric vehicles are a good ...
Fuel Savings and Emissions Reductions from Light Duty Fuel Cell Vehicles. Golden, Colorado: National Renewable Energy Lab. NREL/TP-463-6157. Marshall, W.F.; M.D. Gurney (1989).
Effect of Gasoline Composition on Emissions of Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Warrendale, Pennsylvania: Society of Automotive Engineers. SAE 892076. Matthews, R., 1994 The Rise and Rise of Global Warming, New Scientist, November 1994. p.6. Maxwell, Timothy T.; Jones, Jesse C. (1995).
Alternative Fuels: Emissions, Economics, and Performance. Warrendale, Pennsylvania: Society of Automotive Engineers. Mayotte, S.C.; V. Rao; C.E. Lindhjem; M.S. Sklar (1994).
Reformulated Gasoline Effects on Exhaust Emissions: Phase II; Continued Investigation of the Effects of Fuel Oxygenate Content, Oxytenate Type, Volatility, Sulfur, Olefins, and Distillation Parameters. Warrendale, Pennsylvania: Society of Automotive Engineers. SAE 941974. Mayotte, S.C.; C.E. Lindhjem; V. Rao; M.S. Sklar (1994).
Reformulated Gasoline Effects on Exhaust Emissions: Phase I; Initial Investigation of Oxygenate, Volatility, Distillation and Sulfur Effects. Warrendale, Pennsylvania: Society of Automotive Engineers. SAE 941973. Moore, W., and Mondt, J.,1993 “Predicted Cold Start Emission Reductions Resulting from Exhaust Thermal Energy Conservation to Quicken Catalytic Converter Lightoff,” SAE Technical Paper #931087. Oser, P., Mueller, E., Hartel, G., and Schurfeld, A., 1994 “Novel Emission Technologies with Emphasis on Catalyst Cold Start Improvements Status Report on VW-Pierburg Burner/Catalyst Systems,” SAE Technical Paper #940474. Osman, M.M.; M.S. Matar; S. Koreish (1993).
Effect of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) as a gasoline additive on engine performance and exhaust emissions. Fuel Science and Technology International 11:10:1331-1343. Saitoh, T.; Hisada, T. (1991).
Reduction of air pollution by changing the pollutant emission from vehicles. Proceedings of the 26th intersociety energy conversion engineering conference, Boston, Massachusetts, August 3 9,1991. pp. 126 131. La Grange Park, Illinois: American Nuclear Society. Sawyer, R., 1993 Trends in Auto Emissions and Gasoline Composition, Environmental Health Perspectives Supplements, v.101 s.6 p.5 Schaper, V.; J. Mark; T. Wheat; C. Hammel (1995).
Transportation Market Characterization. Internal Draft, NREL Schatz, O., Nader, F., and Rossi, S., 1992 “Latent Heat Storage,” Automotive Engineering, February 1992, pp. 58-61. Schmidt, R., Bogdan, P., and Gilsdorf, N., 1993 Meeting the Challenge of Reformulated Gasoline, Chemtech, February 1993. pp.41 42. Schoonveld, G.A.; W.F. Marshall (1991).
The Total Effect of a Reformulated Gasoline on Vehicle Emissions by Technology (1973 to 1989).
Warrendale, Pennsylvania: Society of Automotive Engineers. SAE 910380. Schuetzle, D., et al, 1994 The Relationship between Gasoline Composition and Vehicle Hydrocarbon Emissions: A Review of Current Studies and Future Research Needs, Environmental Health Perspectives Supplements v.102 s.4 p.3 12. Smith, T., S K Hammond, and O. Wong, 1993 Health Effects of Gasoline Exposure, Environmental Health Perspectives Supplements, v 101 s 6 p.13 Socha, L., Thompson, D., and Weber, P., 1994 “Optimization of Extruded Electrically Heated Catalysts,” SAE Technical Paper #940468. Stump, F.D.; K.T. Knapp; W.D. Ray; P.D. Siudak; R.F. Snow (1994).
Influence of oxygenated fuels on the emissions from three pre-18995 light-duty passenger vehices. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina: ManTech Environmental Technology, Inc. PB-94-192796/XAB. Tennis, Michael W. (1992).
Impact of Battery-Powered Electric Vehicles on Air Quality in the Northeast States. Boston, MA: Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), 1992 “Tomorrow’s Energy Today?Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,” DOE/CH10093-90, DE91002110, April 1992. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 1993 “Federal Test Procedure Review Project: Preliminary Technical Report,” EPA 420-R-93-007, May 1993. Valenti, M., 1994 Hybrid Car Promises High Performance and Low Emissions, Mechanical Engineering, July 1994, pp. 46-49. Wang, Quanlu; Daniel Sperling; Janis Olmstead (1993).
Emission Impacts, Life-Cycle Cost Changes, and Emission Control Cost-Effectiveness of Methanol-, Ethanol-, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-, Compressed Natural Gas-, and Electricity-Fueled Vehicles. David, California: Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis. UCD-ITS-RR-93-7. Wang, Quanlu; Daniel Sperling; Janis Olmstead (1993).
Emission Control Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative-Fueled Vehicles. David, California: Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis. UCD-ITS-RR-93-7. Wang, Quanlu; Santini, Danilo L. (1992).
Magnitude and Value of Electric Vehicle Emissions Reductions for Six Driving Cycles in Four U.S. Cities with Varying Air Quality Problems. Paper for presentation at the 72nd Annual Meeting of Transportation Research Board, January 10-14, 1993, Washington D.C. Wang, Q.; M.A. DeLuchi; D. Sperling (1990).
Emission Impacts of Electric Vehicles, Journal of Air and Waste Management Association, 40:1275-1284. Energy Storage Anerdi, G., Brusaglino, G., 1994 Technology Potential of Flywheel Storage and Application Impact on Electric Vehicles, 12th International Electric Vehicle Symposium (EVS-12), v. 1, pp. 37-47. Burke, A.F. (1993).
Energy Storage Specification Requirements for hybrid-electric vehicles. Idaho Falls, Idaho: EG and G Idaho, Inc. EGG-EP-10949. Burke, A., 1994. Electrochemical Capacitors for Electric Vehicles–Technology Update and Implementation Considerations, 12th International Electric Vehicle Symposium (EVS-12), v. 1, pp. 27-36. Burke, A., 1995. Electric/Hybrid Super Car Designs Using Ultracapacitors, 30th IECEC Meeting, Orlando, FL, August 1995. Mason, W.T., Kristiansson, U., 1994 Hybrid EVs versus Pure EVs: Which Gives Greater Benefits? Society of Automotive Engineers, paper 94C017, pp. 135-149. USCAR, 1994 Partnership for New Generation of Vehicles Program Plan. Wang, M.Q.(1994).
Construction of Battery Recharging Profiles. Internal Draft. Prepared for the Electric Vehicle Total Energy Cycle Analysis Project. Argonne, Illinois: Argonne National Laboratory, Center for Transportation Research. Environmental Issues Acurex Environmental Corporation (1995).
Reclamation of Automotive Batteries: Assessment of Health Impacts and Recycling Technology. Prepared for California Air Resources Board et al. Mountain View, California: Acurex Environmental Corporation, Contract No.93-323. Holman, C (1992).
Environmental impact of electric cars. Proceedings of the Seminar on Battery Electric and Hybrid Vehicles, London, December 10-11, 1992. London: Institution of Mechanical Engineers. International Energy Agency (1993).
Cars and Climate Change. Paris: OECD/IEA. Johansson, A. (1993).
Consequences on energy and environment associated with electric and hybrid vehicles. Stockholm, Sweden: Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development (NUTEK).
NUTEK R 93 17.>p> Petrakis, L.(1993).
Transportation: Environment, Energy, and the Economy. Upton, New York: Brookhaven National Lab. BNL-49418. Socolow, Robert H.; Anderson, Dennis; Harte, John, eds. (1992).
Annual Review of Energy and the Environment. Palo Alto, California: Annual Reviews, Inc. Development/Design/Testing Aceves, S.M.; Smith, J.R. (1994).
A hybrid vehicle evaluation code and its application to vehicle design. Washington, D.C.: US Department of Energy. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. UCRL JC 117918. Biermann, J. W.; Renner, C. (1994).
Development and testing of a close to production hybrid drive for compact passenger cars. Proceedings of the 25th FISITA Congress Automobile in Harmony with Human Society, Beijing, China, October 17-21, 1994. Beijing, China: Society of Automotive Engineers of China. Dunn, Donald A.; Reuyl, John S.; McCormick, David L. (1994).
Hybrid Electric Vehicles – Their Possible Near-Term Roles in Emissions Reduction and Fuel Saving. Presented to the Air and Waste Management Association, April 11, 1994. Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc. (1994).
Automotive Technologyies to Improve Fuel Economy to 2015. Prepared for the Office of Technology Assessment. Arlington, Virginia: Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc. Liebenberg, Leon; Nel, Andre L.; Pullen, Keith R. (1994).
Computer simulation of electric , gas turbine , and gas turbine hybrid electric vehicles. Proceedings of the SAE International Off Highway and Powerplant Congress and Exposition. Milwaukee, Wisconsin, September 12 14, 1994. Warrendale, Pennsylvania: Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. Lovins, A.B. (1994).
Supercars: Advanced Ultralight Hybrid Vehicles. Preprared for the Encyclopedia of Energy Technology and the Environment. Snowmass, Colorado: Rocky Mountain Institute. Society of Automotive Engineers (1993).
Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Advancements. John M. Olsen and Thomas M. Sebestyen, eds. Warrendale, Pennsylvania: Society of Automotive Engineers. SP-969. Society of Automotive Engineers (1992).
Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology. Bradford Bates, ed. Warrendale, Pennsylvania: Society of Automotive Engineers. SP-915. Society of Automotive Engineers (1994).
Advancements in Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technology. Bradford Bates, ed. Warrendale, Pennsylvania: Society of Automotive Engineers. SP-1023. Society of Automotive Engineers (1995).
Design Innovations in Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles. Bradford Bates and Frank Stodolsky, eds. Warrendale, Pennsylvania: Society of Automotive Engineers. SP-1089. Financial/Economic Issues Collins, M.M.; W.M. Carriere (1983).
The Financial Impact of Electric Vehicles on Power Generation. Santa Barbara, California: General Research Corporation, Releasable Memorandum 2495/R1. Henderson, T.P.; M. Rusin (1994).
Electric Vehicles: Their Technical and Economic Status. American Petroleum Institute, Research Study #073. Kling, C; D. Sperling; Q. Wang (1991).
Economic Incentives for the Introduction of Electric and Natural Gas Vehicles. CIEE Work Plan Update. Davis, California: University of California. Penney, T.; Christensen, D.; Poulos, S. (1994).
Developing a standardized test procedure for hybrid vehicles: The challenge of the SAE HEV task force. Golden, Colorado: National Renewable Energy Lab. NREL/TP 473 7026. Samuel, J. (1992).
Some aspects of the economics of hybrid vehicles. Proceedings of the Seminar on Battery Electric and Hybrid Vehicles, London, December 10-11, 1992. London: Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Fuel Economy An, F. (1992).
Automobile Fuel Economy and Traffic Congestion. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Applied Physics. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan. Burke, A.F. (1992).
Development of test procedures for hybrid/electric vehicles. Idaho Falls, Idaho: EG and G Idaho, Inc. DOE/ID 10385 Rev.; INEL/MISC 92055. Deluchi, M.; Q. Wang; D.L. Greene (1992).
Motor Vehicle Fuel Economy, the Forgotten HC Control Strategy? Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, ORNL-6715. HEV Drive Systems Harmon, R. (1992).
Alternative vehicle propulsion systems. Mechanical Engineering 114:3: 58 65. Kalberlah, A. (1991).
“Electric hybrid drive systems for passenger cars and taxis.” Proceedings of the SAE International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Michigan, February 25 – Mar 01, 1991. Warrendale, Pennsylvania: Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. Also published in: SP 862. Murrell, J. Dillard (1995).
Vehicle Powertrain Modeling. Prepared for NREL, Consultant Agreement CCD-4-14303-01. Padeste, L. (1994).
Three way catalysts in a hybrid drive system 1: Experimental study of dynamic behavior. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research. 33: 1113 1119. Miscellaneous HEV Related Issues Brown, P. (1992).
“Electricity.” Alternative Transportation Fuels and Vehicles, American Solar Energy Society Roundtable, April 28, 1992. Boulder, Colorado: American Solar Energy Society. Cackette, T California’s Zero Emission Vehicle Requirements and Implications for Hybrid Electric Vehicles. Sacramento, California: California Air Resources Board. California Air Resources Board (CARB) (1994).
Staff Report: 1994 Low-Emission Vehicle and Zero Emission Vehicle Program Review. Mobile Source Division, California Air Resources Board. California Air Resources Board (CARB) (1994).
Technical Support Document Zero-Emission Vehicle Update. Mobile Source Division, California Air Resources Board. Friedmann, Siegfried; Scheuerer, Klaus (1994).
“On the way to clean(er) vehicles Challenges, key problems, possible solutions.”e Proceedings of Leading Change: The Transportation Electronic Revolution, Dearborn, MI, October 17 -19, 1994. Convergence Transportation Electronics Association. Also published in: P 283. Fulton, Lewis M. (March 10, 1994).
Alternative-Fuel Vehicles and the Energy Policy Act: A Case Study in Technology Policy. A dissertation in Energy Management and Policy, University of Pennsylvania. Draft. Greene, D.L.; D.J. Santini, eds. (1993).
Transportation and Global Climate Change. Washington, D.C.: American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy. Heitner, K.L. (1991).
“The range extender hybrid vehicle.” Proceedings of the 26th intersociety energy conversion engineering, Boston, Massachusetts, August 3 9, 1991, pp. 323-328. La Grange Park, Illinois: American Nuclear Society. Northeast Sustainable Energy Association (1993).
Proceedings of Sustainable Transportation S/EV 93, Boston, Massachusetts, October 21-23, 1993. Greenfield, Massachusetts: Northeast Sustainable Energy Association. O’Connell, Kenneth P. (1992).
“Discussion and model of an electric/gas turbine power plant system for hybrid vehicles.” Proceedings of the SAE International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Michigan, February 24 28, 1992. Warrendale, Pennsylvania: Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. Also published in: SP 910. Paterson, J. ; Leonid, T. ; Drozdz, P. (1993).
Hybrid electric vehicles. Mississauga, Ontario: ORTECH International. OI 91 7 253 1993E; MICROLOG 94 01992. Patil, P.G. (1990).
“Prospects for electric vehicles.” Proceedings of the 25th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference. Reno, Nevada, August 12-17, 1990. pp.112 115 Edited by Nelson, P.A. ; Schertz, W.W. ; Till, R.H. New York: American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Riley, Robert Q. (1994).
Alternative Cars in the 21st Century: A New Personal Transportation Paradigm. Warrendale, Pennsylvania: Society of Automotive Engineers. Society of Automotive Engineers (1994).
1993 Ford Hybrid Electric Vehicle Challenge. Warrendale, Pennsylvania: Society of Automotive Engineers. SP-980. Sperling, Daniel (1995).
Future Drive: Electric Vehicles and Sustainable Transportation. Washington, D.C.: Island Press. Sperling, Daniel (1994).
Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Always Second Best? Palo Alto California: Electric Power Research Institute. Stecco, Sergio S.; Moran Michael J., eds. (1990).
“A Future for Energy.” Proceedings of the Florence World Energy Research Symposium, Firenze, Italy, May 28-June 1, 1990. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Valenti, M. (1994).
Hybrid car promises high performance and low emissions. Mechanical Engineering 116:7:46-49. Safety Corbus, D., Hammel, C.J., 1995 Current Status of Environmental, Health, and Safety Issues of Lithium Polymer Electric Vehicle Batteries National Renewable Energy Laboratory, paper NREL/TP-463-7540, pp. 1-35. Corbus, D., Hammel, C.J., Mark, J., 1993 Current Status of Environmental, Health, and Safety Issues of Nickel Metal-Hydride Batteries for Electric Vehicles National Renewable Energy Laboratory, paper NREL/TP-463-5475. DOE, 1995 ad hoc DOE EV Battery Readiness Working Group Meeting Summary Mark, J., 1992 Environmental, Health, and Safety Issues of Sodium-Sulfer Batteries for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles — Volume IV In-Vehicle Safety National Renewable Energy Laboratory, paper NREL/TP-463-4952. Ohi, J.M., 1992 Environmental, Health, and Safety Issues of Sodium-Sulfer Batteries for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles — Volume I Cell and Battery Safety National Renewable Energy Laboratory, paper NREL/TP-463-7540, pp. 1-35. Vimmerstedt, L.,J., Ring, S., Hammel, C.J., 1995 Current Status of Environmental, Health, and Safety Issues of Lithium Ion Electric Vehicle Batteries National Renewable Energy Laboratory, paper NREL/TP-463-7673, pp. 16-43. Westinghouse and Department of U.S. Navy, 1993 NAVSEA Battery Document — State-of-the-Art Research and Development Projection Environmental Issues, Safety Issues, Degree of Maturity, pp. 8, 33, 35, 55, 57. Utility Issues Ford, A. (1992).
The Impact of Electric Vehicles on the Southern California Edison System. Los Angeles, California: University of Southern California. Hamilton, W.; S. Kiselewich (1983).
Benefits of Daytime Recharging of Electric Household Vehicles.Santa Barbara, California: General Research Corporation, Releasable Memorandum 2487. Kiselewich, S.J.; M.M. Collins; W.F. Hamilton (1983).
Effect of Time-of-Use Rates on the Recharging of Electric Vehicles. Santa Barbara, California: General Research Corporation, Releasable Memorandum 2490. Nesbitt, K.A.; K.S. Kurani; M.A. DeLuchi (1992).
Home Recharging and the Household Electric Vehicle Market: A Near-Term Constraints Analysis. Davis, California: University of California, Institute of Transportation Studies. U.S. Department of Energy (1993).
Utility Emissions Associated with Electric and Hybrid (EHV) Charging. Interim Report. Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy. DOE/CE-0395.