1.1 Describe the anatomy and physiology of the skin in relation to skin breakdown and the development of pressure sores Skin is the largest organ of the body and can be damaged easily. Pressure sores can happen when there is a constant deficiency of blood to the tissues over an area. The most commonly affected areas include ankles, sacrum area, buttocks, hip and other bony areas of the body. 1.2 Identify pressure sites of the body
1.3Identify factors which might put an individual at risk of skin breakdown and pressure sores
•Staying in bed for extended period of time
•Staying in one position for extended period of time
•Sitting in a chair or wheelchair for long periods
•Skin being weak can be easily damaged
1.4Describe how incorrect handling and moving techniques can damage the skin If a service user is nursed in bed and is not turned regularly onto various sides and back this can cause pressure sores as the service user is staying in one position for an extended period of time this leads to the breakdown of the skin. If the user is kept in wheelchair or curtain chair for too long this can also damage the skin. Incorrect or non use of glide sheets and hoists affect skin as moving without these can cause pressure and damage. Service users should be moved and repositioned according to their care plan. 1.5Identify a range of interventions that can reduce the risk of skin breakdown and pressure sores
What is a pressure sore? A pressure sore is an area of skin that becomes damaged over time when the blood supply to a particular part of the body is reduced or cut off. This can be caused by sitting or lying in the same position for too long. If you notice any red patches anywhere on the skin that do not disapear after a few hours, this may be a pressure sore and should not be ignored. If you ...
•Turning service users nursed in bed regularly.
•Correct use of glide sheets, hoists and manual handling.
•Regular checks on pressure sites to find a pressure sore early.
•Not keeping service user in one chair or wheelchair for long periods.
1.6Describe changes to an individual’s skin condition that should be reported
•Cool or hot skin
•Red patches that wont go away
All of these should be reported.
Understand good practice in relation to own role when undertaking pressure area care
2.1 Identify legislation and national guidelines affecting pressure area care
•Human rights act
•National pressure ulcer advisory panel
•Care standards act
•European pressure ulcer advisory panel
2.2 Describe agreed ways of working relating to pressure area care
2.3 Describe why team working is important in relation to providing pressure area care We should check and adhere to our workplace’s procedure. Adhere to correct moving and handling, turning charts, agreed care plans (how often to turn service user’s) always report and record. PPE checking of equipment. All staff should be up to date in training and agree on how to carry out tasks, ensure all staff are working from the same clear instructions. If there is consistency there it is less likely the service user will develop a pressure sore.
Be able to follow the agreed care plan
3.1 Describe why it is important to follow the agreed care plan Residents are assessed regularly and care plans updated. Care plans are to ensure the resident is getting the best care for their diagnosis and that it gives them a safe environment and quality of life. If care plans are followed it is less likely the service user can develop a pressure sore. Care plans are agreed between the service user, staff and family which makes the service user’s best interest at the heart of the care plan. If staff are up to date on a care plan it means they are all working under clear instruction and not following separate routines. Correct and consistent care decreases the service user’s chance of sores and damage to the skin. 3.3 Identify any concerns with the agreed care plan prior to undertaking the pressure area care In my workplace we have a service user Mr X who usually gets up in the morning into a wheelchair. Putting him into bed one night we noticed a small pressure sore starting, we informed senior staff (nurse) as we are meant to and looked at care plan. We had to amend the care plan as soon as possible to be kept in bed instead of up in wheelchair for a few days, we had to amend turning times in care plan to 2 hourly from left to right and to be kept off back as much as possible.
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We also had to include not to be left in wheelchair for long periods of time. 3.4 Describe actions to take where any concerns with the agreed care plan are noted If we have any concerns with the agreed care plan we must communicate this verbally or in writing to senior staff (nurse manager) and fellow colleagues immediately. We would write this in a carer communication book but also report to nurse manager. The nurse manager must then assess the service user again and discuss the care plan with colleagues, service user and service user’s family to ensure the service user is getting the best possible care. 3.5 Identify the pressure area risk assessment tools which are used in own work area In our nursing home we carry out a risk assessment as the service user is being admitted. We continuously check the skin for any breakdown when moving, handling or repositioning. We also ensure the service user’s facilities matches their needs such as mattress, if they need an air flow mattress or ordinary mattress. Armchairs, whether they need an armchair, curtain chair or recliner, and have an OT that will assess wheelchair suitability. All of these precautions help prevent pressure sores.
3.6 Explain why it is important to use risk assessment tools We must use risk assessment tools to ensure all equipment and facilities are suitable for the service user. With the correct precautions pressure sores can be avoided. We must also do it to ensure we are complying with all guidelines and policies and procedures. Understand the use of materials, equipment and resources are available when undertaking pressure area care
Explain how a working relationship is different from a personal relationship 1. A working relationship is different because of boundaries, professional codes of conduct, employer policies and procedures. In your working relationship you would be friendly have a different approach treat with equality you would know your role and responsibility you would not share personal information as you friends ...
4.1 Identify a range of aids or equipment used to relieve pressure
•Soft foam mattresses
•Pro pad cushions
4.2 Describe safe use of aids and equipment.
It is important that you are up to date with the service user’s care plan to identify any risks. Use the correct equipment for that service user. Glide sheets and hoists should be used correctly by 2 carers and staff should be up to date with all training. Any electrical equipment such as airflow mattresses need to be installed by professionals and kept at the correct pressure for that service user. Check and maintain all equipment regularly. 4.3 Identify where up-to-date information and support can be obtained about:
•Materials – Policys and procedures, management or colleagues, provider of the materials, and the internet.
•Equipment – Moving and handling training and guidelines, management, provider of the equipment, LOLER and the internet.
•Resources – resources provider, management, colleagues, the internet.