Wilbur Schramm, a well-known communication expert did not make a sharp distinction between technical and non-technical communication. But drawing upon the ideas of Shannon and Osgoods, Schramm proceeded from a simple human communication model to a more complicated one (Figure 3).
His first model has a lot of similarity with Shannon and Weaver Model. Destination Signal Source EncoderDecoder Figure 3 Schramm Model
In the second model (Figure, 4, Schramm visualized the process of communication as a process of sharing of experience and commonality of experience of those communicating. It introduced the concept of shared orientation between sender and receiver. The circles in this model indicate the accumulated experience of two individuals engaged in communication. The source can encode and the destination can decode in terms of the experience Field of experience Field of experience Signal Source Encoder Destination Decoder Figure 4 Schramm Model
In this model the accumulated experience of two individuals engaged . in communication is emphasized unlike in the linear models discussed earlier in which interaction, feedback and sharing of experiences find no place. . The source can encode and the destination can decode in terms of the experience/s each has had. Communication becomes easy as both the participants have a common field of experience. If the circles do not meet there is an absence of such common experience which makes the process of communication difficult.
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Schramm further elaborated his model by highlighting the frames of reference of the persons engaged in communication. He took into account the wider social situations and the relationships of both source and destination. He maintained that when both have the same kind of situations, the message is selected, received, and interpreted according to the frames of references in which noise and feedback play important roles. He also included the idea of feedback by expressing that communication is reciprocal, two-way, even though the feedback may be delayed.
The weakness of this model is that it is a less linear model, but it still holds good for bilateral communication. The complex, multiple levels of communication among several sources that may take place simultaneously, say in a group discussion, is not accounted for. The linear models of communication held that a message flows only from the sources to the recipient as for instance from a radio to a listener. Later on the interactive model was developed which takes into account bilateral communication.
Then the transactional model of communication was developed. It includes the components of linear model as well as the interactive ones. It emphasizes both the content, i. e. what is being communicated and also includes the component of relationship of the source and the recipient. Example: A teacher and learners will interact more if the content taught is based upon the experience of the learners and also if the teacher is friendly and has a good relationship with the learners, there will be more interactions.