In chapter one, the Sumer culture is discussed at lengths including their religion of several Gods from the “natural world” and their technology and innovations. I particularly find it interesting that despite the Sumer’s lack of mineral, they were still able to make innovations and weapons using traded copper. The Sumer people may not have had access to various resources but they are still to be thanked for technology such as the seed drill. It is very useful of the Sumerian people to be so innovative and creative despite their lack of resources.
Also in chapter one, the civilization of Ancient Egypt is explored. In contrast with the Sumerians, the Egyptians did not have futile resources as their lands were renewed each year when the Nile River flooded. Although I was already aware that Alexander the Great ruled Egypt for quite some time, I still find it fascinating that Ancient Egypt thrived for so long under this sort of government and rule. Ancient Egypt witnessed several rulers all with the title of pharaoh. How the original pharaohs claimed their spot as ruler is not entirely clear, which I find interesting.
What was known, however, was that the pharaohs played a larger role than just Egypt’s ruler; they embodied everything that Egypt stood for. Egyptian culture is responsible for several technological innovations such as hieroglyphs. These hieroglyphs are still, to this day, not fully understood. I find it difficult to believe given how many historians and archaeologists have studied them. These hieroglyphs are apart of one of the first written languages. Although I was already aware of this, it continues to fascinate me.
... deities that they worshiped. In Ancient Egypt, it was believed that, when a Pharaoh passed away, he was ... Pharaohs and important nobles. The Chinese spent their efforts building roads for easier trade and canals for efficient, improved farming. Ancient Egypt and ancient ... , just as Taoism emphasized balance. Both Ancient Egypt and Ancient Egypt were both river civilizations that faced the challenge ...
In Ancient Egypt, women had rights as their own person, while not able to hold office; they were still allowed more rights than in societies to come. I find it interesting that women were given rights in this ancient society that some women in other societies would never receive. Also in Ancient Egypt, the first semi-accurate calendar was created based upon the Sun. This solar calendar was far more reliable than the former lunar calendar and was even later used, with some corrections, by Rome’s Julius Caesar. I find it especially innovative that the Egyptians were able to create such a calendar in these medieval times.
The Egyptians also created their own irrigation systems to assist in their agriculture. Perhaps they were so creative and thoughtful in this because of the constant flood of the Nile River. In Ancient Egypt, the wheel was not utilized for quite sometime; it is thought that this is so because there was no lack of manpower. I find it interesting that so many Egyptians were willing to work tirelessly day after day. In Ancient Egyptian religion, to be Egyptian was to be special. The Egyptians told a vast amount of religious stories, but one of the key messages that were portrayed was that life was an endless cycle of renewal.
The two central Gods, Osiris and Isis, while brother and sister, were still married. I think the fact that they are siblings and husband and wife, displays how close everyone in the Egyptian culture is, or is supposed to be. Osiris is said to be “the first pharaoh” and despite his brothers several attempts, he could not be killed. In Egyptian religion, it is proper to mummify the dead so to preserve them as they enter their next cycle of life. I find it interesting that the richer citizens were buried with several luxury items to use in their next stage in life.
The extensive procedures that go into the mummification process are extremely interesting to me because their work was so intricate several mummies are still intact today. Also buried with the mummies were “coffin texts” which contained magic spells and instructions that might be needed in their future life. By the Middle Kingdom era, it was difficult for the majority of Egyptians to ensure that their bodies would be taken care of after their passing. As important religion was to the Ancient Egyptians, I would have thought that there would have been more assurance and opportunities to be mummified after their deaths.
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