: I. -18-02010 Arkhangelsk Archangel, city, northern European Russia, capital of Arkhangelsk Oblast, on the Northern Dvina (Severnaya Dvina) River, near the White Sea (Beloye More).
It is a major seaport, although icebound in winter months. The city is also a trade and processing center for an important timber-producing region. A maritime school, a forestry institute, and a regional museum are located here.
Arkhangelsk was the chief Russian seaport from its founding (1584) as Novo-Kholmogory until the building of the Baltic port of Saint Petersburg in 1703. It received its present name in 1613. The city declined in the 18 th century, but trade revived at the end of the 19 th century, when a railroad to Moscow was completed. During World Wars I and II Arkhangelsk was a major port of entry for Allied aid.
The city resisted Bolshevik rule during 1918-20 and was a stronghold of the White Army, supported by Allied forces. , , , , (Severnaya), (Beloye).
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Kaliningrad Kaliningrad, formerly Kinigsberg, city, western Russia, on the Pregolya River. The capital of Kaliningrad Oblast, it is a major industrial and commercial center, connected by channel with Baltiysk, an ice-free port on the Baltic Sea. Among its principal manufactures are ships, machinery, chemicals, paper, and lumber. Historic landmarks in Kaliningrad include the Schloss, or Castle (1255), and a cathedral (14 th century).
World Cities are cities that act as control or command centres, transport and communication hubs, and often the headquarters of trans-national companies. (senior geography 2). They can also be defined as a very large city that has outstripped its national urban network and become part of an international global system. The three dominant world cities are New York (United States), London (England), ...
The German philosopher Immanuel Kant, a native of the city, taught at its university (now Kaliningrad State University), which was established in 1544. The city, founded in 1255 as a fortress by the Teutonic Knights, became a member of the Hanseatic League in 1340. From 1457 to 1525 it was the official seat of the grand master of the Teutonic Knights, and from 1525 to (1618) it was the residence of the dukes of Prussia. Frederick I was crowned as the first king of Prussia in the chapel of the Schloss in 1701. During World War I (1914-18) the city was the scene of heavy fighting between the Germans and the Russians. Following the war it was made the capital of the German province of East Prussia.
The city was severely damaged in World War II (1945-45), and in 1945, after a two-month siege, it was occupied by Soviet troops. By agreement among the Allies at the Potsdam Conference (1945) the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) annexed the city and surrounding territory. In 1946 the city’s name was changed from Knigsberg to Kaliningrad, in honor of the Soviet leader M. I.
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1946 Knigsberg, … Murmansk Murmansk, city, northwestern Russia, the largest city in the world north of the Arctic Circle. Situated on Kola Inlet, an arm of the Barents Sea, the city is an important port with an ice-free harbor. It is the capital of Murmansk Oblast.
Murmansk is a Russian naval base and has major shipbuilding and fish-processing facilities. It is the seat of institutes of oceanography and polar research. Murmansk was founded in 1915, during World War I, as a port of entry for Allied supplies after Russian ports on the Black and Baltic seas had been closed. In 1916 it was linked by rail with Petrograd (now Saint Petersburg).
After the Russian Revolution, an Allied force briefly occupied Murmansk, and it was an Allied port of entry in World War II (1939-45).
Part 1: Complete the Chart 1. Using your own words, complete the chart below to describe causes and effects of Cold War events and policies. Refer to the information you gathered in the online activity The Cold War Begins to help you complete each column. Topic Brief Description Causes Effect and/or Outcome Truman Doctrine He established that the United States would provide political, military and ...
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Nizhniy Novgorod Nizhniy Novgorod, city in western Russia, at the confluence of the Oka and Volga rivers. Nizhniy Novgorod is a major river port, railroad hub, and industrial center. The city is the site of one of the largest automobile factories in Russia, and its manufactures also include aircraft, textiles, and railroad and electric equipment. Nizhniy Novgorod has libraries, museums, a large university, and several technical schools.
Historical structures include a stone kremlin (citadel) built in the 13 th century, two 13 th-century churches, and a 17 th-century palace. Nizhniy Novgorod was founded in 1221. In the late 14 th century the city was plundered by the Tatars before being annexed by Moscow in 1392. Important for its trade with Asia, the city became famous for its trade fairs, held annually from 1817 until 1917. From 1932 to 1991 it was named Gorkiy (also spelled Gorky or Gorki) in honor of the Russian writer Maksim Gorkiy, who was born in the city, . -, , , .
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Stavropol Stavropol, city in southern European Russia, capital of Stavropol Territory (Kray), in an area known as Caucasia. Since the collapse of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in 1991, Stavropol has attracted many refugees from neighboring regions as a result of political and economic chaos and armed conflict near Russia’s borders. The city’s economy is concentrated on heavy industry; it has factories that produce automobiles, cranes, furniture, and reinforced concrete. Light industry is also represented with the production of shoes and dairy products. Stavropol has air, rail (the Kavkazskaya-Divnoe-Elista rail line), and highway connections to other major cities.
It is also linked by bus routes within northern Caucasia. Buses provide important linkages because of the mountainous nature of the area. The city has technical-training institutes for medicine, education, art, and construction. The city was founded in 1777 as a fort for the Russian army. It was established as a city in 1785, and in 1822 became the center of the North Caucasus Territory. From 1935 to 1943 it was known as Voroshilovsk.
Directions: For each of the four timelines that follow (1914, 1915, 1917, and 1918–1919), complete the timeline replacing the words “[Paste description here]” with the text of the correct description from the table beneath it. 1914 Timeline June 28, 1914| The event that triggered World War I| Sarajevo| The heir to the Austro-Hungarian Empire and his wife are assassinated by Gavrilo Princip, a ...
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1785, 1822. 1935 1943 Voroshilovsk. Volgograd Volgograd, formerly Stalingrad, city, capital of Volgograd Oblast, southwestern Russia, on the Volga River. Volgograd, an important industrial, commercial, and transshipment center of Russia, is a railroad hub and a major Volga River port.
It is linked to the Don River by the Volga-Don Canal, constructed between 1950 and 1957. A large hydroelectric power dam is just north of the city. Among the main industries in Volgograd are petroleum refining, shipbuilding, and the manufacture of aluminum, chemicals, processed food, farm machinery, iron and steel, and forest products. The University of Volgograd (1980) is located in the city. Volgograd was founded in 1589 as Tsaritsyn, a fortress on the southeastern frontier of Russia. It was taken by cossack rebels twice: in 1670 by Stenka Razin and in 1774 by Yemelyan Pugachev.
With the expansion of the Russian Empire in the 19 th century, Tsaritsyn became an important port for products shipped down the Volga River. Early in the Russian Revolution, in 1917, the city was taken by the Bolsheviks. During the civil war that followed it was occupied by White Russian troops for three months in 1919. In 1925 the city was renamed Stalingrad, for Joseph Stalin, who had been notable in the defense of the city against the White Russians.
During World War II, Stalingrad, a strategically located industrial center, was a vital German objective. A large German force mounted an assault on the city on August 20, 1942, after a period of heavy air raids. A successful Soviet counteroffensive began on November 19, and on February 2, 1943, the Sixth German Army surrendered, thus ending the German advance into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).
German casualties alone totaled more than 300, 000, and the Soviet city was almost completely destroyed. Reconstruction began immediately after the war. The city was renamed Volgograd in 1961.
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Katyn and VinnytsiaWorld War II, itself a source of immense crimes, revealed two Soviet crimes of hideous mass murder which might never have been discovered without German intervention. Ironically, the methodical Germans fully documented these two crimes perpetrated by Stalin's Soviet Union. The better known one was in the forest near Katyn, a Russian village, where the Germans in 1943 reported ...
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1961. Yekaterinburg Yekaterinburg, formerly Sverdlovsk, city, capital of Yekaterinburg Oblast, Russia, on the Iset River. Located on the eastern slope of the Ural Mountains in a mineral-rich region, Yekaterinburg is a major industrial center and a station on the Trans-Siberian Railroad. Among the large industrial works located in the city are platinum refineries, copper and iron smelters, and factories producing electrical equipment, chemicals, and heavy machinery.
Yekaterinburg’s educational institutes include the Urals A. M. Gorkiy State University (1920) and the Yekaterinburg State Medical Institute (1931).
The city was founded in 1721 by Czar Peter I as an iron working center and was named Yekaterinburg for his wife, who was later proclaimed Empress Catherine I. Industrial development was spurred by the construction of the Great Siberian Highway in the late 18 th century and the Trans-Siberian Railroad in the late 19 th century. Czar Nicholas II and his family were held captive in the city by the Bolsheviks after the Russian Revolution and were executed here in 1918.
The city was renamed Sverdlovsk in 1924 in honor of Bolshevik and Soviet leader Yakov M. Sverdlov. During World War II (1939-1945) industry from threatened European areas of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was transferred here. Following the disintegration of the USSR at the end of 1991, the city’s name was changed back to Yekaterinburg. , , , , , Iset.
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