37 years of Korean martial law The modern South Korea is counted among twelve most developed countries is the world. It is usually referred to as an Asian Tiger because of its economy rapid growth. Yet by the beginning of sixties South Korea used to be poor agrarian country with highly corrupt government, low standards of living and huge unemployment rate. The governments used to be replaced very often, because of political scandals. This, of course, didnt help regaining the economy. People rightly considered their corrupt politicians being incompetent to be able to solve many Korean social problems at the time. They also lacked a political will to really help their country getting on its feet.
Situation changed in 1961 after the military coup, led by General Park Chung Hee. General established a very strict control over press, economy and peoples civil freedoms. The censorship policy was introduced, thus considerably reducing the freedom of speech, if not eliminating it altogether. Park Chung Hee legitimized its military junta by being elected president in 1963 and in 1967 he was reelected for the second term. New government had an overwhelming support among Korean peasantry and workers. It secured the USA support by proclaiming anti-communism as its official doctrine.
General Hee had adopted a so-called state capitalism economic model for its country and as it turned out later, it was the right choice. The economy was revived with a mean of attracting financial investments from abroad, mainly USA and Japan. Such policies caused Korean heavy industrys boom, which resulted in living standards being rapidly raised. Parks government has also introduced economic five years development plans that that were to help building up a healthy economy. The Korean economy is still ruled by those plans since 1962 the time when first such plan was being launched. By the year 1970 the manufacturing became the most important out of Korean all economic sectors. In 1972 Parks government has made the martial law regulations even stricter, as there were negotiations going on between North and South Koreas about their reunification and it was very crucial to have a social order within the country.
Brazil Introduction Brazil is said to be the type of country a thousand or more words could never adequately describe. It is one of the largest, most populated countries in the world. But it's vast size, breath taking geographical features, and diverse people are not what make Brazil. Its history, economy, government, culture and resources that make it the country it is today. It is the largest ...
The unity of the nation had to be demonstrated at any cost. It is no wonder that Parks government became very popular with Koreans for being able to revive the economy in such effective way. So in 1972 Park Chung Hee he was reelected for another 6 years. The constitution had to be revised in order for him to be able to run for the third term and National Conference an institution that replaced the dissolved National Assembly, effectively did it. Thus, Park became nothing else but a dictator, yet he never lost his popularity with common folk. People didnt care much about what form their government would adopt democracy or dictatorship, as long as this government was benefiting the country.
In 1979 Park was assassinated and it caused his successor Choi Kyu-hah to reinstitute a martial law once again. The internal turmoil was being successfully dealt with and in 1980 it became possible to hold another elections, where Chun Doo Hwan was elected president. He continued encouraging investors from abroad, so the economy growth never stopped. By year 1982 Korea became the second richest industrial nation after Japan in Asia. But nevertheless, the social unrest among people was growing. It can be explained by the fact of generation change.
Those who were dissatisfied with governmental policies were mostly born in sixties and they never knew any economic hardships that their parents used to experience. The youth just took for granted that they lived in one of the most developed countries in Asia. It was hard for them to understand that there were a certain sacrifices to be made if Korean economy was to continue progressing. On May 20, 1980 a crowd of about fifty thousand people gathered for a meeting, protesting against Korean martial laws in city of Kwangju. This rally turned into riot, so special riot police had to be called in. When it arrived, the situation got worsened to a point where police had to start shooting at people.
Persuasive Essay Can a Cultural Revolution take place in the US, one of the most powerful countries in the would? The Revolution had a great effect on China, origin of the eastern civilization. During the Cultural Revolution in China, the economy stopped growing, the development of China nearly stopped and the Chinese teenagers did not get enough education. We don't know what would happen in the ...
As result, 144 civilians were killed and a number of police officers. This event became to be known as Kwangju massacre. The government of Chun Doo Hwan had lost much of its credibility on international level, because of that. Ever since than, Chun Doo Hwan regime was being shaken by students riots and mass anti-government rallies on continually increased scale. South Korean police has gained a reputation as one of the fiercest in the world, while dispersing demonstrations. Regime was widely criticized internationally and it was just a matter of time before some democratic reforms would take place.
In 1987 newly reestablished National Assembly came up with a project of new constitution, which was approved by 80% of those people who took part in National referendum shortly afterwards. This was the first substantial victory of democratic movement in South Korea. According to this new constitution, presidential powers were greatly diminished and military is forbidden from influencing the political process. In 1993, after thirty years of military rule, the first democratic president is being elected, Kim Young Sam. He immediately proclaimed an anti-corruption camping and announced that his government will try reestablishing economical and cultural links with North Korea. Yet in 1997 South Korean economy sustained a powerful blow because of Asian financial crisis. For the first time in thirty years it showed signs of slowing down. These days, the anti-democratic sentiment again begins to be popular with more and more people. Although military regime was repressive, it nevertheless guarantied a social stability. People want to know, whether it is a right thing to do to maintain democratic principles at expense of social security.
Did Japan modernize or Korea? Scholars have debated this question with vigor throughout this century. I do not believe the answer is so black and white. While looking at the history of the colonization, evidence of both should appear. The word colonization alone generally means to move into another people's land and exploit resources. However, positive results can appear during a negative ...
The idea of strong leadership is gaining more supporters within South Korean society. In my opinion, thirty years of martial law imposed on Korean people, did them much more good then bad. Only a consolidated nation could turn its country from agrarian into highly developed industrial one within twenty years. Apparently, the democracy is not necessarily the best form of government that can be applied in all countries of the world. The example of South Korea is an effective proof of that..