The British rule completed one hundred years in 1857. During these hundred years different sections of people were badly affected by the policies of the British government. Economic, social, political and other factors combined together to strike a blow to the British rule.When the atmosphere was surcharged with an anti-British feeling amongst the Indians the episode of greased cartridges provided the spark which turned it into a conflagration.The new ‘Enfield Rifle’ introduced by the British in the army needed a special type of cartridge which had a greased paper cover.This paper had to be bitten off before the cartridge was loaded into the rifle. The grease used in the paper was made of beef and pig fat.this enraged both the Hindu and the Muslim sepoys. Both the religious communities felt that their religions were at stake. This worked as a spark in the magazine room and the Mutiny began.The idea of having anything which might be tainted with pig or beef fat in their mouths was totally unacceptable to the sepoys, and when they objected it was suggested that they were more than welcome to make up their own batches of cartridges, using a religiously acceptable greasing agent such as ghee or vegetable oil. This seemed to prove that the issued cartridges were, in fact, grease d with pig and/or beef fat
Various repressive measures undertaken by the British authority in India led to the growth of suspicion and hatred towards the British. During the time of Lord Lytton, the Viceroy, certain repressive laws like Vernacular Press Act and Arms Act of 1878 were passed to suppress the Indian mass.By the Vernacular Press Act of 1878 the editors of the Vernacular newspaper were directed to execute a bond not to publish anything in their paper which would excite feelings of dissatisfaction against the Government. But this Act was not to be applicable to the English news papers. It was, of course abolished by Lord Ripon, another Viceroy in 1882.By the Indian Arms Act of 1878, the Indians were prohibited to possess any arms without license. Possession of arms by any Indian without license was treated as criminal offence. But this law was not applicable to the British in India.Lytton made another provision regarding the fixation of age limit for candidates who liked to appear at the Indian Civil Service Examination. He deliberately reduced the age limit for the above purpose from 21 to 19 years in order to debar the Indian youth from competing for the Indian Civil Service.The Grand Delhi Durbar was held in 1877 to proclaim Queen Victoria from England, the Empress of India when a great famine took toll of more than 60 lakhs of people in one part of the country. This apathetic attitude of Lord Lytton infuriated many cautious people of the country.All these Acts of British authority created a great storm of opposition in the country and led to the formation of various organizations to carry on anti-British propaganda in the country by fanning the fire of nationalism.
... be there birth right. Sadly, even though the Indian Act has been around for over one hundred and thirty ... fear its unstable situation. Another clause in the Indian act prohibits them to connect to the major sewage system ... ensure the assimilation of Native Americans in Canada, the Indian Act instead had achieved the total opposite. It has ... The first Canadian Indian Act was issued in 1876. Though it has ...
In 1867 Naoroji helped establish the East India Association, one of the predecessor organizations of the Indian National Congress with the aim of putting across the Indian point of view before the British public. The Association was instrumental in counter-acting the propaganda by the Ethnological Society of London which, in its session in 1866, had tried to prove the inferiority of the Asians to the Europeans. This Association soon won the support of eminent Englishmen and was able to exercise considerable influence in the British Parliament. In 1874, he became Prime Minister of Baroda and was a member of the Legislative Council of Bombay (1885–88).
He was also a member of the Indian National Association founded by Sir Surendranath Banerjea from Calcutta a few years before the founding of the Indian National Congress in Bombay, with the same objectives and practices. The two groups later merged into the INC, and Naoroji was elected President of the Congress in 1886. Naoroji published Poverty and un-British Rule in India in 1901.
... cause. Indian concerns with British rule began to gain momentum as certain events taking place in British India were beginning ... to unfold against the British. Hearsay and other propagandist ic elements had begun taking its place among Indians ... unprecedented level of widespread unrest among ordinary Indians, who saw the British government's actions as disrespectful and ...
A rumour that the cartridges supplied by the East India Company to the soldiers in its army contained pork or beef fat began to spread throughout India in the early months of 1857. On May 10, 1857 the Indian Rebellion started in Meerut. Lakshmibai was then ruling Jhansi alone and she led her troops swiftly and efficiently to quell skirmishes initiated by other princes. The city was relatively calm in the midst of unrest in the region but the Rani conducted a Haldi Kumkum ceremony with pomp in front of all the women of Jhansi to provide assurance to her subjects, and to convince them that the British were cowards and not to be afraid of them.Till this point, Lakshmibai was reluctant to rebel against the British. Her forces did not kill any East India Company officials and their wives and children in Jokhan Bagh on 8 June 1857 but she was subsequently accused by the British of that. She fought against British troops when Sir Hugh Rose besieged Jhansi on 23 March 1858. An army of more than 20,000, headed by Tatya Tope, was sent to relieve Jhansi but they failed to do so when they fought the British on 31 March. Hugh Rose and an Indian general betrayed Rani Lakshmibai. Three days later the besiegers captured the city.
The Rani escaped in the night with her son, surrounded by guards.With Anand Rao, she decamped to Kalpi with her troops, where she joined additional rebel forces, including Tatya Tope. They moved on to Gwalior, where she grouped rebel forces and defeated the army of the Maharaja of Gwalior. They intended to occupy a strategic fort at Gwalior. However, on 18 June 1858, in Kotah-ki-SeraiWikiMiniAtlasnear the Phool Bagh of Gwalior, a squadron of the 8th (King’s Royal Irish) Hussars, under Captain Heneage, fought the large Indian force commanded by Rani Lakshmibai which was trying to leave the area. The 8th Hussars charged into the Indian force, killing many Indian soldiers, taking two guns and continuing the charge right through the Phool Bagh encampment. Rani Lakshmibai, the Queen of Jhansi, dressed as a cavalry leader, was badly wounded; not wishing the British to capture her body, she told a hermit to burn it. After her death a few local people cremated her body.The British captured the city of Gwalior after three days. In the British report of this battle, Hugh Rose commented that Rani Lakshmibai is “personable, clever and beautiful” and she is “the most dangerous of all Indian leaders”.
... indigenous organizations such as, the National Indian Youth Council and American Indian Movement. In December of 1969, members of ... the United States helped develop the American Indian Movement. Educated young urban Indians were becoming involved in rights issues and ... assisted in the more radicalized approach of the American Indian Movement. Radical tactics combined with media attention stained the ...
The repressive policy of Lord Curzon was the most potent cause of political discontent. His regime was full of missions, omissions and commissions. He was a diehard conservative and seldom paid any heed to political sentiments and demands. The Calcutta Corporation Act, the official Secrets Act and the Indian Universities Act created great resentment in India. The Delhi Dubar held in 1903 at a time when India had not fully recovered from the devastating effects of the famine of 1899-1900 was interpreted as a pompousj pageant to a starving population.
Finally, the last official act of Curzon was the partition of Bengal in 1905. It was the worst and most foolish Act of his viceroyalty. Although the partition was made apparently on administrative grounds, its underlying aim was to disrupt the political unity of Bengali people. According to R.C. Majumdar it was a master strategy to destroy the nascent nationalism in Bengal. While the discontent of the people was piling up, Curzon’s partition of Bengal provided the matchstick to enflame it. A vigorous agitation started against the move. Curzon paid no need to a petition signed by thousands of Indian people. The tremendous upsurge in Bengal found expression in the emergence of a new slogan, new method of agitation and new leadership. Swadeshi, Boycott and National Education suddenly became the battle cries of a resurgent nationalism
The Swadeshi movement, part of the Indian independence movement and the developing Indian nationalism, was an economic strategy aimed at removing the British Empire from power and improving economic conditions in India by following the principles of swadeshi (self-sufficiency), which had some success. Strategies of the Swadeshi movement involved boycotting British products and the revival of domestic products and production processes.
... began in Bengal, then spread across India by 1820. 10,000 British troops and countless Indians died during this pandemic. Between 1736 ... 1858 when, following the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Government of India Act 1858 led to the British Crown assuming direct control ... and 1834 only some 10% of East India Company’ ...
The Swadeshi Movement started with the partition of Bengal by the Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon, 1905 and continued up to 1908. It was the most successful of the pre-Gandhian movements. Its chief architects were Aurobindo Ghosh, Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal and Lala Lajpat Rai. Swadeshi, as a strategy, was a key focus of Mahatma Gandhi, who described it as the soul of Swaraj (self rule).
Gandhi, at the time of the actual movement, remained loyal to the British Crown. This phase is marked by moderate techniques of protest such as petitions, public meetings, press campaign, etc. to turn public opinion in India as well as in Britain against partition. This movement also involved the boycott of the British products. The western clothes were thrown in bonfires and it was an act of honour to wear the local Indian clothes.The British products were also boycotted in the markets and the sales of the British fell dramatically. The movement was strongly influenced by the writings of Sri Aurobindo Ghosh.
at the initial stage the Swadeshi movement aimed at the annulment of the Partition of Bengal. But ultimately its objective had assumed a greater dimension to include the freedom from the foreign domination itself.Thirdly, the ‘boycott’ aspect of the Swadeshi movement had the objective of pressurizing the mill-owners of Manchester economically so that they could bring pressure upon the British govt, for the annulment of Partition.But in course of time the ‘boycott’ did not remain confined to the British goods alone. It was applied in a wider scale to include everything that was foreign, particularly British.Fourthly, the cultural aspect of the Swadeshi movement was no less important. There was the flowering of Bengali literature during the Swadeshi days. The patriotic compositions of Rabindranath Tagore, Rajanikanto Sen, etc. touched the patriotic mind of the people by magic
The Congress was founded by Indian and British members of the Theosophical Society movement, most notably A.O. Hume. It has been suggested that the idea was originally conceived in a private meeting of seventeen men after a Theosophical Convention held at Madras in December 1884. Hume took the initiative, and it was in March 1885 that the first notice was issued convening the first Indian National Union to meet at Poona the following December.
... -status that was wholly unacceptable to the Indian movement.  Resolution for immediate independence The Congress Working Committee meeting at Wardha (14 July ... , and thereafter all parties unitedly make demand of Quit India. If the British refuse, start total disobedience…” On August 8 ...
Founded in 1885 with the objective of obtaining a greater share in government for educated Indians, the Indian National Congress was initially not opposed to British rule. The Congress met once a year during December. Indeed, it was a Scotsman, Allan Octavian Hume, who brought about its first meeting in Bombay, with the approval of Lord Dufferin, the then-Viceroy.
Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee was the first President of the INC. The first meeting was scheduled to be held in Pune, but due to a plague outbreak there, the meeting was later shifted to Bombay. The first session of the INC was held from 28–31 December 1885, and was attended by 72 delegates.Within a few years, the demands of the INC became more radical in the face of constant opposition from the government, and the party became very active in the independence movement. By 1907 the party was split into two halves—the Garam Dal (literally “hot faction”) of Bal Gangadhar Tilak, or Extremists, and the Naram Dal (literally “soft faction”) of Gopal Krishna Gokhale, or Moderates—distinguished by their attitude towards the British. Under the influence of Tilak, the Congress became the first integrated mass organization in the country, bringing together millions of people against the British. The Indian National Congress was the only political party to provide harmony to all the sects of the Indian society.In the pre-independence era, the INC featured a number of prominent political figures: Dadabhai Naoroji, a member of the sister Indian National Association, elected president of the Congress in 1886, and between 1892 and 1895 the first Indian Member of Parliament in the British House of Commons; Bal Gangadhar Tilak; Bipin Chandra Pal; Lala Lajpat Rai; Gopal Krishna Gokhale; and Mohammed Ali Jinnah, later leader of the Muslim League and instrumental in the creation of Pakistan.
The Congress was transformed into a mass movement by Surendranath Banerjea and Sir Henry Cotton during the partition of Bengal in 1905 and the resultant Swadeshi movement. Mohandas Gandhi returned from South Africa in 1915 and with the help of the moderate group led by Ghokhale became president of the Congress and formed an alliance with the Khilafat movement. In protest a number of leaders—Chittaranjan Das, Annie Besant, Motilal Nehru—resigned from the Congress to set up the Swaraj Party. The Khilafat movement collapsed and the Congress was split With the rise of Mahatma Gandhi’s popularity and his Satyagraha art of revolution came Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru (the nation’s first Prime Minister), Dr. Rajendra Prasad (the nation’s first President), Khan Mohammad Abbas Khan, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Chakravarti Rajgopalachari, Dr. Anugraha Narayan Sinha, Jayaprakash Narayan, Jivatram Kripalani and Maulana Abul Kalam Azad. With the already existing nationalistic feeling combined with Gandhi’s popularity the Congress became a forceful mass organization in the country, bringing together millions of people by specifically working against caste differences, untouchability, poverty, and religious and ethnic boundaries.
... the hypocrisy that came from a country that fought the British for independence, yet was unwilling to extend that right to his ...
Although predominantly Hindu, it had members from virtually every religion, ethnic group, economic class and linguistic group. In 1939, Subhas Chandra Bose, the elected president in both 1938 and 1939 was expelled from the Congress for his socialist views and the Congress was reduced to a pro-business group financed by the business houses of Birla and Bajaj. At the time of the Quit India movement, the Congress was undoubtedly the strongest political and revolutionary organization in India, but the Congress disassociated itself from the Quit India movement within a few days. The Indian National Congress could not claim to be the sole representative of the Indian people as other parties were there as well notably the Hindu Mahasabha, Azad Hind Sarkar, and Forward Bloc.The 1929 Lahore session under the presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru holds special significance as in this session “Poorna Swaraj” (complete independence) was declared as the goal of the INC. 26 January 1930 was declared as “Poorna Swaraj Diwas”, Independence Day, although the British were remain in India for seventeen more years. (To commemorate this date the Constitution of India was formally adopted on 26 January 1950, even though it had been passed on 26 November 1949.) However in 1929 Srinivas Iyenger was expelled from the Congress for demanding full independence, not just home rule as demanded by Gandhi.After the First World War the party became associated with Mohandas K.
Gandhi, who remained its unofficial, spiritual leader and mass icon even as younger men and women became party president. The party was in many ways an umbrella organization, sheltering within itself radical socialists, traditionalists and even Hindu and Muslim conservatives, but all the socialist groupings (including the Congress Socialist Party, Krishak Praja Party, and Swarajya Party members) were expelled by Gandhi along with Subhas Chandra Bose in 1939.Members of the Congress initially supported the sailors who led the Royal Indian Navy Mutiny. However they withdrew support at the critical juncture, when the mutiny failed.During the INA trials of 1946, the Congress helped to form the INA Defence Committee, which forcefully defended the case of the soldiers of the Azad Hind government. The committee declared the formation of the Congress’ defence team for the INA and included famous lawyers of the time, including Bhulabhai Desai, Asaf Ali, and Jawaharlal Nehru
The Indian National Army (INA) or Azad Hind Fauj (Hindi: आज़ाद हिन्द फ़ौज ; Urdu: آزاد ہند فوج) was an armed force formed by Indian nationalists in 1942 in Southeast Asia during World War II. The aim of the army was to liberate India from the British occupation with Japanese assistance. Initially composed of Indian prisoners of war captured by Japan in the Malayan campaign and at Singapore, it later drew volunteers from Indian expatriate population in Malaya and Burma. The INA also was at the forefront of women’s equality and the formation of a women’s regiment, the Rani of Jhansi regiment was formed as an all volunteer women’s unit to fight the British occupiers as well as provide medical services to the INA.
Initially formed in 1942 immediately after the fall of Singapore under Mohan Singh, the first INA collapsed in December that year before it was revived under the leadership of Subhas Chandra Bose in 1943 and proclaimed the army of Bose’s Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind (The Provisional Government of Free India).
This second INA fought along with the Imperial Japanese Army against the British and Commonwealth forces in the campaigns in Burma, Imphal and Kohima, and later, against the successful Burma Campaign of the Allies. The end of the war saw a large number of the troops repatriated to India where some faced trial for treason and became a galvanising point of the Indian Independence movement.
The legacy of the INA is controversial given its associations with Imperial Japan, the course of Japanese occupations in Burma, Indonesia and other parts of Southeast Asia, its alliance with the Axis in Europe, as well as Japanese war crimes and the alleged complicity of the troops of the INA in these. However, after the war, the Red Fort trials of captured INA officers in India provoked massive public outcries in support of their efforts to fight for Indian independence against the Raj, eventually triggering the Bombay mutiny in the British Indian forces. These events in the twilight of the Raj are accepted by historians to have played a crucial role in its relatively rapid end.
Soon after the Mountbatten Plan was accepted by both the Congress and the Muslim League, the British Government prepared a bill for the Independence of India. The Bill was passed by the British Parliament on 18th July 1947 which was famous as the Indian Independence Act 1947.
According to this Act (1) two independent states such as Indian union and Pakistan were to be created in the Indian sub-continent on 15 August, 1947. (2) These newly independent states were to be at liberty to choose whether they would like to be the members of British Commonwealth of Nations or not. (3) The existing Legislative Assemblies were empowered to frame laws concerning their respective states until new constituent assemblies were formed these states. (4) The offices of the Secretary of state for India and his adviserss were to be abolished. The Commonwealth Secretary was to be assigned responsibility of maintaining relations with Pakistan and the Indian Union. (5) The title of the British king as ‘Emperor of India’ was to be abolished.
The Indian Independence Act of 1947, thus, marked the close of the constitutional development of India under the British rule.
In the night of 14th August 1947 a special session of the constituent Assembly was held at Delhi. As the clock struck twelve Dr. Rajendra prasad, the President of the constituent Assembly, triumphantly announced that the Constituent Assembly of India had assuemd power for the governance of India.
A wave of thrill and sensation passed over the great sub-contienent. The midnight of 14th August 1947 was indeed a memorable day in the history of India. Speaking the Constituent Assembly Nehru said; “Long years ago, we had made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we shall redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but substantially.When the world sleeps, India will awake to life of freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in the history, when we step out from the old to new, when an age ends and when the soul of a nation long supressed finds utterance.”Lord Mountbatten was sworn in as the governor general and Pandit Nehru as the first Prime Minister of free India. Mountbatten remained as a mere constitutional figure head where as Jawaharlal Nehru became the real administrative head of the Government with his council of ministers. On the otherside of the Radecliff Line Mahammed Ali Jinnah was sworn in as the first Governor General of Pakistan on 14 August 1947.The British army left India immediately after the Indian people took over the Government of the country. The partition of the country, followed by the withdrawl of the British, created new problems.There were Hindu-Muslim riots in many places on the eve of independence.
Hindus in Pakistan were massacred in large numbers. The Hindus and Sikhs began to migrate from the West-Punjab to the East and Muslims from the East-Punjab to the West.Gandhiji was deeply shocked on the day when country got freedom. He observed a 24 hours’ fasting. He undertook a walking tour in the riot-stricken areas of Noakhali.Soon after Independence Act of 1947 was passed in the British Parliament, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the iron man of India, advised the Indian Princes to join the Indian Union, immediately. There was wide response to the call of Sardar Patel. The Princely States joined India partly on their own intiative and partly after military intervention.The Constituent Assembly became the Parliament of Indian Dominion immediately after the transfer of power. A Drafting Committee was formed under B.R. Ambedkar on 29 August 1947 to prepare the constitution of India. India was declared a Sovereign Democratic Republic on 26th January 1950 after the completeion of constitution.
Massive population exchanges occurred between the two newly-formed nations in the months immediately following Partition. Once the lines were established, about 14.5 million people crossed the borders to what they hoped was the relative safety of religious majority. Based on 1951 Census of displaced persons, 7.226 million Muslims went to Pakistan from India while 7.249 million Hindus and Sikhs (and very small amounts of Muslims) were forced to move to India from Pakistan immediately after partition. About 11.2 million or 78% of the population transfer was on the west, with Punjab accounting for most of it; 5.3 million Muslims moved from India to West Punjab in Pakistan, 3.4 million Hindus and Sikhs were moved from Pakistan to East Punjab in India; elsewhere in the west 1.2 million moved in each direction to and from Sind. The initial population transfer on the east involved 3.5 million Hindus moving from East Bengal to India and only 0.7 million Muslims moving the other way