1. Progressive Movement Th Progrssiv Movmnt was th gratst priod of rform that changd Amrica to what it bcam today. Bfor th 20th cntury, changs of improvmnt wr not vidnt. Also, th ffcts of Rconstruction was now dying down and America needed many legislation of reform. The Progressive Movement was brought on by President Theodore Roosevelt (1902-1907).
Before the executive branch took on a more lazze-fare attitude toward their position.
However, the beginning of the 20th century, the Progressive Movement became extremely popular because of the many reforms and jobs created by this movement, thus being one of the greatest period in American history. (Chambers, p.31) Economically, the nation was not doing well. Unemployment was high and public morale was at its low point. However as Theodore Roosevelt took office, he brought on many new jobs created by the government in his “square deal” to the nation. This pumped more money into the economy, thus, reviving it. Roosevelt, also created national parks, that also created more jobs and started a new belief in “conservation.” He also pledged to break up monopolies with the enforcement of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890).
As a result, the Progressive Movement revived the economy, thus, making the people happy. Socially, America needed much reform.
Cities were unsanitary and the food and water were also spoiled and unhealthy. As a result, the Water and Pure Food and Drug Acts (1906) were ratified to improve the tap water condition and regulating the sanitation of food. Also, city streets were cleared and a sewage system was created, thus providing a healthier environment for the people. Beautification of the cities was evident, such as parks, so people could see the changes brought on by the Progressive Movement. (Chambers, p.134) However, many problems still existed. To reveal these problems “muckrakers,” investigative journalists and authors, often acted as publicity agents for reforms. Thus, the social condition of the people was greatly improved, raising the basic quality of life among the Americans and the corruption of the government was revealed through muckrakers, building confidence in the nation.
... during this time period. The progressives where middle class people that where mostly composed of young people who wanted things to change, they ... some are fighting for the old. The city and state reforms, where to stops powerful figures like boss Tweed who was ... to pass laws with enough peoples support. Also with the reform, workman's compensation became, now if people where hurt to the point ...
This brought an overwhelming popularity of the movement. Politically, the Progressive Presidents, Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson were more active in the internal affairs of the country. They were seen among the people and took an active role in politics as well. Politically these presidents had to persuade Congress in passion these new reform acts. Also, presidents had to work along with the people. The Coal Strike of 1902 was the first time the government intervened in a labor dispute without automatically siding with the management. Roosevelt held negotiations between the two sides, which quickly ended the strike. (Chambers, p.201) Throughout history many interpretations of the Progressive Movement and its goals and motives have been produced.
Historians during different ages have analyzed the different aspects of the progressives and what made them who they where. Gnrally spaking, progrssivism was th rspons of various groups to problms raisd by th rapid industrialization and urbanization that followd th Civil War. Ths problms includd th sprad of slums and povrty; th xploitation of labor; th brakdown of dmocratic govrnmnt in th citis and stats causd by th mrgnc of political organizations, or machins, allid with businss intrsts; and a rapid movmnt toward financial and industrial concntration. Many Amricans fard that thir historic traditions of rsponsibl dmocratic govrnmnt and fr conomic opportunity for all wr bing dstroyd by gigantic combinations of conomic and political powr. (Chambers, p.142) Actually thr was not, ithr in th 1890s or latr, any singl Progrssiv movmnt. Th numrous movmnts for rform on th local, stat, and national lvls wr too divrs, and somtims too mutually antagonistic, vr to coalsc into a national crusad. But thy wr gnrally motivatd by common assumptions and goals–th rpudiation of individualism and laissz-fair, concrn for th undrprivilgd and downtroddn, th control of govrnmnt by th rank and fil, and th nlargmnt of govrnmntal powr in ordr to bring industry and financ undr a masur of popular control.
... time urgency. 2. Unfavorable political climate. An unfavorable or even hostile political can make it particularly difficult to conduct business in some foreign countries ... it imperative for people of certain nationalities to leave a country. Political attitudes may also interfere with equitable human resource practices in ...
Th origins of progrssivism wr as complx and ar as difficult to dscrib as th movmnt itslf. In th vanguard wr various agrarian crusadrs, such as th Grangrs and th Populists and Dmocrats undr Bryan, with thir dmands for stringnt railroad rgulation and national control of banks and th mony supply. At th sam tim a nw gnration of conomists, sociologists, and political scintists was undrmining th philosophical foundations of th laissz-fair stat and constructing a nw idology to justify dmocratic collctivism; and a nw school of social workrs was stablishing sttlmnt houss and going into th slums to discovr th xtnt of human dgradation. Allid with thm was a growing body of ministrs, prists, and rabbis–proponnts of what was calld th social Gospl–who struggld to arous th social concrns and conscincs of thir parishionrs. Finally, journalists calld “muckrakrs” probd into all th dark cornrs of Amrican lif and carrid thir mssag of rform through mass-circulation nwspaprs and magazins. (Chambers, p.194) As times goes on different beliefs from different historians begin to become more persuasive to what they are taking about. Living in a time about a century later the envisioned thoughts of Progressives (liberal) and what they were trying to accomplish seems the most logical. Basically the Progressives believed that by fighting the people on top they would to have the best results.
As time goes on historians outlook of this era of reform will change to ones different form the ones known today. On thing that wont is the knowledge of the Progressive Movements motives and importance. In conclusion, during the Progressive Era, many reforms were made to better the nation. Economically, socially and politically the nations government had restored confidence to the people. Countries around the world now adopted the same policies America once did at this period of time, and American has not gone through so much change in such a short period of time. 2. Internationalism and Isolationism Isolationism is a term associated with U.S foreign policy in the 1920s and 30s, Isolationism examples can occur in economic situations or politics.
... a lot of countries, these countries have declared war on the United States or its allies. America has fought in wars throughout history, ... United States would not be the country it is today. The Civil War shaped what America is today. Civil Rights movements ... spreading, so declaring war on these countries would be deemed essential. Throughout history America has fought in wars, having advantages and ...
The United States was seen as an isolationist country, this was because of its economic polices and also politics. The United States was considered isolationist because of involvement without commitment – “advantages without obligations” as it was described. (Goldberg, p.79) This meant the U.S would help be involved in world affairs but not act by interfering or having alliances with other countries. The republicans saw isolationism as a way of keeping the US as sovereign free and at peace. An example of isolationism was the 4-way naval power treaty where the US was involved but did not commit its self. The isolationist view is often interpreted as having no ties or any official economic or political alliances with other countries. World War I had ended leaving America in a position of great financial importance, this put America far above Europe economically.
In the 1920s the USA were still recovering from the war, the effects of the war meant that the power of the government had increased exceptionally. The power was almost too dangerous so liquidation of assets had begun. The railroads had all been sold back and railroad consolidation had been encouraged by the government.(Goldberg, p.80) The parts of the government dealing with war time administration had been partly removed as they were not needed. The war still left a greater number of federal employees as many areas the government had acquired. The war led to increased involvement with Germany over Germanys finances after the loss of World War I. America and European countries damaged by the war wanted reparations from the German government. When Germany could not afford to pay the counties involved the U.S helped them structure the finances with the Dawes plan and Young plan.
America could not obviously go into Isolationism as they had come far and had dealt with international problems, so a lax in foreign commitment would make them look weak and also encourage countries which were not crippled by war to seize opportunities. (Goldberg, p. 112) In the early 1920s not just politics was isolationist, economics were also involved, the US put tariffs upon the imports therefore creating a domestic market which would buy American goods. This led to retaliation by countries loosing out the U.S still kept dealings in south America and Asia trading and market officials and traders in the USA did not know their own governments policies. Frank Costogligla said Americans sought involvement that was economic rather than political, unofficial rather than official private rather than governmental. (Goldberg, p.135) This proves that lessaiz faire meant no real control of big businesses by the government so economics were the foreign policy and the people controlling them were monopolies owners.
... united cause. The Second Great War Many critics suspect that Roosevelt steered the country to war while professing all the while to ... to his cabinet, 'Anybody who thinks that isolationism is dead in this country is crazy,' he spoke privately. "As soon ... their experience with America in World War I, continued without any dramatic inducement to war. In the meantime, Roosevelt had been increasing ...
The republicans wanted Harding the president who did little to carry on regardless this the republicans thought would be best for the booming USA. Harding was forced to get involved when inflation hit and economic trade shifts occurred. The United States was still very much involved financially in the Far East as it still traded there like most places. The republicans favored big US business and helped by putting trade tariffs on imports this created bitterness from competitive markets. Treaties were signed which benefited the US and did not offend the public. Overall they signed 76 bi-lateral agreements this was a contradiction to the league of nations as the US wanted to avoid the league but they sign these treaties.
An example is a Kellogg Brand pact which was a world wide pact signed in 1928 but was scorned upon. This was ironic that the US was proud of it and the public liked it but did not like the League of Nations. The USA earlier in 1922 held the Washington naval treaty looking at countries ratios of battleships, the treaty was seen as a way by the US of showing areas of influence so the US had Atlantic and Japan had the middle east also Britain was involved. If the USA were concerned about isolationism why did they interfere in other countries military. The disarmament treaties were cheated by countries that faked ship tonnage and also arms production. The US wanting to be isolationist ignored this and did not police treaties. (Goldberg, p.
121) Franklin Roosevelt saw that U.S depression had led to world wide depression his new deal had helped America get over the economic problems and a cut in government spending had begun. Some countries profited from the depression but many were in a situation where they could not support themselves. Cordell hull described Roosevelts foreign policy as keeping this country out of war. Recovery was important to most Americans and at the top of Roosevelts a gender he had managed to help stabilize the dollar. Roosevelt had to move away from isolationism but also try to keep public opinion happy by sorting the domestic problems America encountered. The NYE committee was a group of senators who were pro isolationism and anti internationalist they hated the thought of an internationalist president.
... canal and basically control of Latin America. Roosevelt didn t stop there with the Caribbean countries he continued to try to get ... recently had a war with. Roosevelt worked behind the scenes with both countries and after the treaty was made both felt cheated ... of trouble getting started building the canal. Roosevelt signed the Haybunau-Vanilla treaty which helped them gain Panama land right under ...
Britain and France were blamed by the NYE committee who thought that they caused depression by failing to repay loans. Roosevelt had to tread on careful ground because by upsetting people he would not get acts passed by congress. In 1935 he introduced neutrality laws declaring the USA free of any wars. This was a guarantee to people that the US would stay separate of any international affairs. The rise of dictators in dictators in Europe led to Roosevelt renewing the laws in both 1936 and 37. Growing events in Europe led to the suspicion of isolationism being a bad thought. The rise of Dictators occurring which was causing growing resentment by the American public.
As Roosevelt had extended the neutrality laws in 1936 and 37 this caused America in effect to be free from intervention. Roosevelt had pledged himself to the “policy of the good neighbor.” (Goldberg, p. 197) Secretary of State Cordell Hull had interpreted this to mean no unilateral U.S. intervention in Latin America. This reassured many Americans that America was isolationist. During the quarantine speech in 1937 Roosevelt for the first time mentions any foreign policy he talks about a world of lawfulness and then talks of a world where America is not safe.
Roosevelt knew he had to move away from isolationism as it would lead to other countries attacking the U.S and a world at war. Roosevelt sent dignitaries to meetings and he set up a Munich conference but did not act too much as he still was on soft ground. American businesses saw that they could economically expand and sell countries such as Japan large exports Roosevelt was starting to spread the U.S word. When in his 3rd term Roosevelt saw he had educated the public successfully and still kept support. Roosevelt now saw a chance to get involved and used economic reasons as an excuse and encouraged big companies to join in international affairs. Roosevelt sold the French old aircraft creating a growth of capita. Because of the U.S s economic power Roosevelt could stop trades of arms to dictators. Roosevelt had people attending many conferences he used his propaganda machine to make it look like a crusade to spread U.S idealism.
... the better. This shows that American foreign policy is on the rise. Strength of America's Foreign Policy As the world grows smaller through ... Strengths of Foreign Policy Decline Of America In Foreign Policy. Introduction A. Foreign Policy 1. Foreign Policy 2. Areas Foreign Policy Involves 3. Is America On The Decline ...
Roosevelt eventually used fire side chats again to turn opinion his way and also to condemn Hitlers actions. This successfully ended isolationism. Roosevelt also had different policies for the Far East and also Latin America. (Goldberg, p.189) Roosevelt wanted to move away from isolationism for a number of different reasons in 1939 he saw Europe at war this created a problem for the U.S as they were backing Britain by sending arms with cash and carry policies in place. America became known as the arsenal of democracy due to its shipments of arms and protection to Britain. These furthered to lend lease plans, thus creating opposition in the government against Roosevelt. In 1941 the U.S officially involved its self with war after the Pearl Harbor attack.
(Goldberg, p.190) Roosevelt had to move away from isolationism as he had a crisis in the Middle East he was never fully isolationist due to the open door policy in china. The depression caused Japan problems which they blamed on the U.S they saw chinas resources as a way of stopping their economic problems. Roosevelt knew that Japan was messing in China and he had to move away from isolationism to protect U.S assets and trade in the Far East. He also had to move to try and combat the power problems in Europe it is always best and safest to count on the Americans for nothing but words. This quote from Neville chamberlain shows that America was seen as weak people who could not enforce what they said. Overall it was hard for Roosevelt to move away from isolationism as the noose around his neck tightened each time he tried to be internationalist rather then isolationist.
John Whiteclay Chambers, The Tyranny of Change: America in the Progressive Era, 1890-1920, Rutgers University Press; 2nd edition, 2000. David J. Goldberg, Discontented America: The United States in the 1920s (The American Moment), Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999..