Using APA Style taken from Bank Street College Graduate School Writer’s Handbook The following explanations from the American Psychological Association will guide you in setting up bibliographies, reference lists, and citations in the text of your work. If you are accustomed to using another style sheet, you will find some striking differences between APA style and the others with which you may be familiar. Most notably, in the APA style sheet, capitalization in the title of an article or of a book follows the same rules as capitalization in a common sentence. According to most other style sheets, each important rule in any title should be capitalized. In APA style, capitalization of each important word applies only to titles of journals. The following definitions are in keeping with APA style: A reference list appears on a separate page at the end of an article.
Titled ‘References,’ it documents books and articles actually used in the preparation of an article or essay and provides the information necessary to identify and retrieve each source. The writer should include only the sources that were used in the research and preparation of the article. A bibliography cites works for background or for further reading. Often a bibliography is annotated; that is, it includes a brief objective description of the article or book. A reference citation in text, in preference to footnotes, briefly identifies the source of information for readers, and enables readers to locate the source in the alphabetical reference list at the end of the article. Content footnotes are discouraged because they are distracting to the reader, and because important information merits inclusion in the text.
... interesting, personal information. In the second article, Press Association quotes a statement from a different source that says schools can make a ... idea to “give them other things to do.” This writing style is beneficial with its ability to catch the reader’ ... comparing the similarities and differences between two articles with a shared topic, the writing style or tone is what reveals them. ...
Citing References in the Body of the Paper Each time you quote a source directly, paraphrase an idea, or refer to something that another person said or wrote, identify the original source by inserting the author’s last name and the date within the text of your paper. Each source you cite must also appear in the reference list at the end of your paper. These arguments against standardized education (Duckworth, 1986) explore science as a process of discovery. Give page numbers for direct quotations.
Note that any sentence punctuation comes after the closing parenthesis. As Dewey (1938) noted, the educational continuum was united by this ‘connectedness in growth’ (p. 75).
If the author’s name is used in the text, only the date needs to be inside parentheses.
When both the author and the date are used in the citation, separate them with a comma. If the author’s last name and the date both happen to appear in the text, there is no need to give further reference. Duckworth (1986) discussed this. In 1986, Duckworth argued… You need include the year only once when referring to a particular study within a paragraph as long as the study will not be confused with other studies. In her study of how individuals learn about density, Duckworth (1986) makes a critical case…
Duckworth also found… When referring to a particular part of a source, give the page number, chapter, figure, or table at the appropriate place in the text. Abbreviate page and chapter. (Meyers & Jackson, 1991, p. 78) (Johnson, 1990, chap.
5) When a work has more than two authors and fewer than six, cite all the authors the first time the reference occurs; subsequently, only the last name of the first author followed by ‘et al.’ and the year. If there are six or more authors, cite only the first author and replace the rest with the abbreviation ‘et al.’ Marra, Jacobson, Hardy, K rance, and Center (1982)… [first citation]Marra et al. (1982)…
[subsequent citations]When citing two authors in the text, join their names by the word ‘and.’ In parenthetical material, in tables, and in the reference list, join the names by an ampersand (&): As Keisel and Drapewski (1990) demonstrated… As has been shown (Keisel & Drapewski, 1990)… If you are referring to a source cited by another author, use the following form: Ainsworth’s study (cited in Kagan, 1984) demonstrated… Note: Be sure to list Kagan’s work, not Ainsworth’s, in your reference list, since you found the information in Kagan. Reference Lists and Bibliographies General Style Preferences List all sources alphabetically by the author’s last name. The first line of a bibliography or reference list is flush with the left margin; all subsequent lines are indented 3 spaces.
... effective practices designed to prevent violence in schools. (Journal of School Violence, 2002) Reference list: Cobia D.C., Carney J.S. Creating ... Actions to Prevent Hate-Motivated Violent Incidents.Journal of School Violence, Vol. 1, Number 2, 2002 Journal of School Violence, Vol. 1 ... To help in this uneasy task, there are a number of publications dealing with causes and consequences of school violence ...
Authors List the author’s last name first, comma, then the author’s initial (s).
With two or more authors, separate each author’s name with a comma and use an ampersand (&) before the last author. If the work has no author, list the title first. Write the full name of a corporate author. Date of publication Give the year the work was copyrighted.
Periodicals Periodical example: Ravens, E. C. , & Schwimmer, S. (1990).
Thinking together: The value of discussion in the five-year-old’s classroom. Thought and Practice: The Journal of the Graduate School of Bank Street College of Education, 2 (2), 16-26.
Article title The title is written as a sentence would be: only the first word is capitalized, as are any proper names and any word following a colon. The title has no quotation marks around it, nor is it italicized (or underlined): Looking beyond test scores: An approach to reading assessment. journal title and publication information journal title is written in full with all important words capitalized. The title is italicized (or underlined): Thought and Practice: The Journal of the Graduate School of Bank Street College of Education, 2 (2), 16-26. Italicize (or underline) the volume number. Do not use ‘Vol.’ before the number.
If, and only if, each issue begins on page 1, give the issue number in parentheses immediately after the volume number, but do not italicize (or underline) it. Give inclusive page numbers. Use ‘pp.’ before the page numbers in references to newspapers and magazines, but not in reference to journal articles. EXAMPLES OF HOW TO LIST PERIODICALS IN REFERENCE LISTS AND BIBLIOGRAPHIES Journal article Meier, D.
... By: Anonymous 1) Title of Book: The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test 2) Author: Tom Wolfe 3) The grounds on which Thomas Wolfe created ... "Author's Note" section of the book but also in the writing style used to develop this masterpiece. Writing in a basic journal ... ) Although it provides and interesting documentation through the use of journal form writing, Wolfe probably failed English class due to the ...
Reinventing teaching. Teachers College Record, 93, 594-609. Journal article, two authors, journal paginated by issue Brinton, B. , & Fujii, M. (1993).
Communication skills and community integration in adults with mild to moderate retardation. Topics in Language Disorders, 13 (3), 9-19. Magazine article Sacks, O. (1993, May 10).
A neurologist’s notebook: To see and not see. The New Yorker, pp. 59-73. BOOKS Book example: Gardner, H. (1983).
Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences.
New York: Basic Books. Authors or editors List the author by last name first, then initial (s).
To refer to an edited book, put the editor’s names first and enclose the abbreviation ‘Ed.’ or ‘Eds.’ in parentheses after the last editor. Tate, G.
, & Corbett, E. P. J. (Eds. ).
The writing teacher’s source book (2 nd ed. ).
New York: Oxford University Press. book title The title is written as a sentence would be. Only the first word is capitalized, as are any proper names and any word following a colon.
The book title is italicized (or underlined).
Cognitive development (2 nd ed. ).
Other information necessary for identification and retrieval (e. g. , 2 nd ed.
or Vol. 4) goes in parentheses right after the title without any period or comma separating this information from the title. Publication information Write the name of the city. If the city could be confused with another location, also name the state (or country).
The state is identified by its two-letter postal code, such as NY.
Give the name of the publisher in a brief form. Omit unnecessary terms such as Publishers, Co. , or Inc. If more than one publisher location is given, give the location listed first in the book.
... select few of them from their demise. The book Night, like Schindler’s List is relatively devoid of color. Color describing ... concentration camp, shown during the movie Schindler’s List. Schindler’s List is Spielberg’s award winning masterpiece- a ... accounts of the Holocaust; Spielberg’s Schindler’s List, and Elie Wiesel’s Night. There are many similarities ...
EXAMPLES OF HOW TO LIST BOOKS IN REFERENCE LISTS AND BIBLIOGRAPHIES Book, third edition, Jr. in name Strunk, W. , Jr. , & White, E. B. (1979).
The elements of style (3 rd ed. ).
New York: Macmillan. Edited book Wing, L.
Early childhood autism: Clinical, educational and social aspects (2 nd ed. ).
Oxford: Pergamon. Referring to an article or chapter in an edited book Yarrow, L. J. , & Messer, D. J. (1983).
Motivation and cognition in infancy. In M. Lewis (Ed. ), Origins of intelligence: Infancy and early childhood (2 nd ed. , pp. 451-478).
New York: Plenum. With two or more names, use an ampersand (&) before the last name. Identify the editor by the abbreviation ‘Ed.’ in parentheses after the surname. To identify a translator, use ‘Trans.’ Give initials and surnames for all editors, regardless of the number of editors. When an editor’s name is not in the author position, write the name initial (s) first, then last name (note the placement of M. Lewis in the example above).
When referring to a specific section of an edited book, use the abbreviation for page or chapter.