PART 1- 3: Outline findings from the early studies of domestic terrorism.
Early studies of domestic terrorism were conducted by H.H.A. Cooper and the National Advisory Commission. H.H.A. Cooper and his coauthors provided conceptual framework for domestic terrorism. Cooper and his coauthors presented a series of recommendations for emergency response. A task force was developed on disorders and terrorism.
The following studies/ findings on domestic terrorism were documented by Ted Robert Gurr and J. Bowyer Bell. Terrorism is a tactic used by the weak to intimidate the strong and, in turn, used by the strong to repress the weak. Terrorism in the nineteenth century was primarily aimed at protecting the status quo and the economic environment. Some vigilante actions equaled terrorism, e.g., the Ku Klux klan. The shift toward left-wing violence was derived from foreign models. Even though the US has avoided significant domestic terrorism, both criminals and political activists have used terrorist tactics on a local level. Nationalistic terrorists from Puerto Rico have been far more successful than revolutionaries at launching terrorist campaigns because they have an indigenous base of support.
Ted Robert Gurr classifies terrorism three ways; Vigilante terrorism- the purpose of vigilantes is to defend the status quo or return to the status quo of an earlier period. Insurgent terrorism- insurgent terrorism aims to change political policies through direct threats of action against the government. Transitional terrorism- transitional terrorism occurs when nonindigenous terrorists cross national borders. In conclusion, terrorism developed slowly in America. Terrorists did not routinely target the United States until 1982.
When we think of the term “terrorist” or “terrorism”, we sometimes connect the terms to some far-off land in the Middle East, or in Africa or Asia, or to some obscure group who have been extremely violent in the attainment, or trying to attain, their ends. We cannot escape the fact that the picture that comes to our mind is a man, totting a machine gun, shouting something that most of us ...
in Iran; Thus proving that it was possible to establish a truly Islamic State. Just to the North in Afghanistan, Mujahidin were gathering from all over the World, armed mainly with their fierce faith, determined to push back the awesome invading force of the Soviet military (Gunaratna, 2002).
Usama bin Laden, a young son of a wealthy Saudi construction magnate, felt it was his calling to share his resources, his energy and if necessary his life to support the Afghan resistance. Bin Laden brought workers and equipment to build, and executive skills to help create and develop a recruiting and support system to reach and sustain Muslims from throughout the world to unite in a holy struggle against the PART 2- 5: Outline the birth and growth of al Qaeda’s organization.
Al Qaeda evolved from a relatively small cadre of recruiters and supporters for a localized Afghan resistance to a fully developed transnational terrorist network, and ultimately to an ideological movement that would inspire tens of thousands of Muslims worldwide. In 1979, against the backdrop of the Cold War, the initial plans were being established for what would become the next major threat to the security of the World (al Qaeda).
During this year, the Muslim world witnessed the Islamic revolution godless communist oppressor. Bin Laden was drawn to an older spiritual mentor, Abdullah Azzam, a Jordanian of Palestinian descent who had been a leader in the Muslim Brotherhood. Bin Laden’s money and business know how complemented Azzam’s spiritual leadership. Together they created the Maktab al-Khidamat (MAK), or Afghan Services Bureau. The MAK, operating from a base in Pakistan, served as the hub of a transitional support network for Mujahidin guerillas. They developed links and relationships with leaders of jihadist groups throughout the world, and supported the Mujahidin through a ten year struggle as they ultimately pushed back the Soviet bear and reclaimed their land in the name of Allah (Corbin, 2003; Gunaratna, 2001).
... Support Systems (2. 1) We begin by describing the two argumentation systems. The first is the Zeno system of the German National ... provoke reactions from, secondly, Nature, whose responses are in turn mediated through, thirdly, ... A.I. (1999): Knowledge in a Social World. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Gordon, ... types of locutions (i. e., speech acts) appropriate for such discussions. Because these ...
PART 3-3: Summarize the USA Patriot Act of 2001 and the renewal in 2006.
The United States Congress passed the USA Patriot Act in response to the terrorist’s attacks of September 11, 2001. The Act was signed by the President on October 26, 2001. The Act provides federal officials greater authority to track and intercept communications, both for law enforcement and foreign intelligence gathering purposes. It provides for the secretary of the Treasury with the regulatory powers to combat corruption of US financial institutions for foreign money laundering purposes. It seeks to further close our borders to foreign terrorists and to detain and remove those within our borders. It creates new crimes, new penalties and new procedural efficiencies for use against domestic and international terrorists. In 2006, the US Congress renewed controversial provisions of the USA Patriot Act. The approval in the House of Representatives, by a vote of 280-138, sent the measure to President Bush for his signature. The Senate voted 89-10 to approve the compromised package, which covers 16 provisions in the Act that will have expired on March 10, 2006. President Bush, as well as top Justice Department and FBI Officials, lobbied hard for the renewal of the Act, calling it a vital tool in the battle against terrorism. Source CNN Politics, March 7, 2006.
Identify and explain the key NIMS Components.
The United States National Response Framework (NRF) is part of the national Strategy for Homeland Security that presents the guiding principles enabling all levels of domestic response partners to prepare for and provide a unified national response to disasters and emergencies. Building on the existing National Incident Management System (NIMS) as well as Incident Command System (ICS) standards, the NRF’s coordinating structures are always in effect for implementation at any level and at any time for local, state and national emergency or disaster response. The National Incident Management System (NIMS) is a system used in the United States to coordinate emergency preparedness and incident management among various federal, state and local agencies. The key NIMS Components include: Preparedness, which occurs before an incident including planning, organizing, training, equipping, exercising, evaluating and maintaining readiness. Communications and Information management, which provides for a common operating picture, to keep everyone on the same page. Resource management, which ensures that resources are readily available when needed. Command and Management, which utilizes ICS, MACS as well as public information. Ongoing Management and Maintenance, which ensures that everyone stays up to date and that input is received for all affected parties.
In the last decade, more and more companies have started to look into e-commerce to connect them to the infinite world of global suppliers, partners, consumers and much more. This boom in technology has placed multiple assets are risk from a security stand point allowing hackers/crakers and anyone on the internet to gain access to these network and gain information or try to jeopardize business to ...