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The Advanced Construction And Building Technology Construction Essay
Need help? ☎ 0115 966 7955 In decades, the conventional construction industry has been considered as a labourintensive, low-tech industry with low productivity. It seems construction sector has been lef t behind by technologies innovations and sciences developments that have already reshaped many other industrial sectors. Construction industry f acing challenges to responds to change technical, economic and social conditions, there is an increasing need of changing construction technique, communication and management strategy within the sector. Mass production and automation was introduced in the early twentieth century. It was a method of producing products in large quantities with relatively low cost. T he product were produced in many dif f erent components and assembled into a f inish product through an assembly line, the approach of this method has reshaped manuf acturing industry especially in the sector of automobile, aircraf t, train etc. it has proved that automation is the key to increase productivity. Industrialized construction (modular, panelised, sub-assemblies etc.) became popular during the post-war period, due to the huge demand in housing. Because of the nature of the concept, instead of adopting automation technology to traditional construction methods, there is a potential opportunity to integrate and apply manuf acturing technology to enable a revolutionary change in construction sector in terms of design, production and management.
•The forecast where a technology will be on the future of wireless LAN•The current level of wireless technology•The development of wireless networking•The influence on the future of wireless LAN•The trend of the time of wireless networkingBackgroundIn June, 1997 the IEEE, the body that defined the dominant 802.3 Ethernet standard, released the 802.11 standard for wireless local area networking. ...
T he aim of this paper intends to discover and recognise the opportunities and challenges that advanced technology and modern manuf acturing process of f er to the industrialized construction sector, and how would the sector to embrace automation and enhance the way its operate, along with the introduce of a integrated management system f rom manuf acturing industry. T he paper will also provide an overview of the issues and dif f iculties the industry will f ace during introducing new technology innovations and adopting advanced automated production process into construction sector.
Challenges emerged and changes need to be made within construction sector due to the changes in global phenomenon, economic, science and technology. T here is a need f or construction industry to improve its productivity, quality and f lexibility, along with requirement to adapt technologies and management methods of other manuf acturing industry. T he f ormation of of f -site construction sector has the advantages to adapting technologies directly f rom manuf acturing sectors which support the principles of mass production and customization. Of f -site construction methods can easily provide an ef f icient design and management process to allow customized products at mass production prices with a better quality, so that an entire building will be no longer constructed with conventional methods but to be produced as a product. T here are numerous advantages of using of f -site construction methods. As the production process is carried out in a f actory environment which provides better communication
between clients, designers and engineers, to ensure high quality standards, increase the speed of production as well as minimise impact on the environment by eliminating wastes. In recent years, there is a growing interest in the area of adopting automation technologies to construction and many building systems have been developed by implementing robotic technology to assist both on-site and of f -site activities. T he principle of f uture automated construction is to create a highly ef f icient automated system and to produce a customer orientated product, which involves apply advanced technologies both of f -site and onsite, new design methods will be launched to develop of a new building systems, customized sof tware and dif f erent management approach will be integrated in manuf acturing process. Development of integrated construction automation and robotics building processes will assist component producing process and onsite construction. Lif e cycle of a building will be increased by use of new materials and new def inition of building construction. However, in order to optimise the use of automated construction methods, it is important that design concept is compatible with technology available. It is necessary that research and development (R&D) sector plays a very important role in terms of select and discover available approach f or manuf acturing methods. While designers and engineers need to apply the concept of automation whereby adjusting the design to f it production as a result the structural, f unctional, and the f lexibility of the building could be implemented.
... in-situ, prefabricated and composite building systems. Each building system is represented by its respective construction method which is further characterised by its construction technology, functional and geometrical ... this, a novel prefabrication system can overcome the requirement of many standardised elements by automating the design and production process. c) There is ...
Under one roof
Design method evolution T he goal of Industrialised building construction is to establish a new method of producing a per-engineered product rather than building in conventional method. Finished design is completed by a group of assembled components. A building will be no longer to be designed as a whole but developed as a range of components and accessories. T he changing of design process results in the changes of practices. Traditional building design methods will be challenged by automated design methods. From the success of other manuf acture industry has shown the benef it of using automated production methods. Building product development stage will be a systematic process; building system will be designed with f lexibility of using robotic erection. Compare to conventional method, Designers will be increasingly relying on using CAD system and assisted with other technologies such as virtual reality system (VR).
There are two (2) acts in Malaysia that govern the building construction activities, that is The Factories and Machinery Act 1967 and The Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994. However, the Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) which is under the Ministry of Human Resources is the lead authority in the enforcement of such law. The law that DOSH enforces cover building operations ...
Virtual reality system creates a computer- simulated environment, which enables a physical presence, interaction with real environment. Client assisted by the system enable the simulation of the design process. An on-line virtual tool provides a selection of components; simulate real-time designing and environment, then client can import selected 3D design elements such as window, doors, roof into the system, to enable designer to gain a good perception of the project, the use of computer simulated tool in conjunction with automated data collection tool to schedule and manage the project. T he cost, design, material usage and assembling specif ication of the project can be generated automatically. In the past two decade, Automobile industry has benef ited f rom using Computer Integrated Manuf acturing (CIM) the system has not only changed the productivity of automobile manuf acturing but also def ined the concept of customer oriented product concept. While the construction industry still based on labour intense type of work, there is a need f or automating building process, thus an improved productivity, quality and better working environment could be achieved. Overview of Industrialised building system (mainly on residential housing sector) Nowadays, with housing stock market reaches highest demands in many countries, take UK f or example, government aiming to build 50,000 units a year to f ill the gap, however, if just rely on
example, government aiming to build 50,000 units a year to f ill the gap, however, if just rely on conventional methods this target is unlikely to meet. T hus, sustainable and modern design approaches became more and more crucial. Highly industrialized building method (modular, panelised, sub-assemblies etc.) has been wildly accepted and recommended. Factory manuf actured homes (pref ab homes) are transported on site sim-f inished, which may only take days or even hours to complete, while in traditional construction method, homes are built f rom tons of basic materials using on-site labor and technique, which cost more and take longer to f inish build. Advanced technology and automation in manuf acturing industry has set up a successf ul example to construction industry. Due to the uniqueness of construction process, it is dif f icult to adopt automation techniques f rom other manuf acturing sector directly. T he advanced manuf acturing methods which chosen have to be amended then integrated gradually into construction process. Compared with traditional methods of construction, the advantages that pref ab of f ers shown as below: Reduce labor costs, f or example, to build a small f amily house in England, client expect to pay up to £250 a day to cover contractors and builder’s cost, this not even including costs of materials and equipments, also weather condition could ef f ect on speed of on-site construction, as in extremely cold or damp condition, mortar will take longer to set due to f rost, and one coat of plaster could take up to a day to set, this will slow down speed of construction dramatically and increase costs of labour. In comparison, of f -site construction has most of their role carried out in f actory environment with tight quality control and completely weather proof , specialist worker will produce building components at maximum ef f iciency. Reduce material costs; normally, client or contractor will have to set up an account with local building merchants and price charged is depending on the amount of material purchased. On the other hand, of f site manuf actures whose order certain material in bulk directly f rom suppliers will normally receive better prices. Environmental f riendly, as most components is produced of f -site and ready f or on-site assembly, it will reduce the amount of waste during on-site construction, Many pref ab components are made of recyclable material and the building is to be designed more energy ef f icient. Pref ab building is not something new, but it was once re-homed tens of thousands f amilies in Britain af ter the Second World War. However af ter decades, pref ab housing has not been as marketable as traditional housing. T here are numbers of barriers and disadvantages of using such system have also occurred in several cases. Design limitations, while a pref ab wall component are designed f or a f lat roof to sit on, and then it is unsuitable f or it to be adapted f or a dif f erent roof design. Components are manuf actured in huge quantity, if there is a f ault appeared on one, and then the same issue could be f ound on all. T his could lead to unnecessary time waste. Lack of individuality, has shown on many post-war of f -site designs. Even today, most of f -site designed home is virtually same as traditionally built house, they are of ten been treated as lower-grade or temporary shelter by the general public. Skill shortage, builders and contractors are not f amiliar with the system, so on-site assembly will be carried out by f actory engineers and specially trained labor, this would reduce the need of employ local contractors and cost local labor market. Despite the disadvantages of modular system, industrialized construction attribute vast numbers of benef its, there is a potential opportunity of f uture pref ab building industry to adopt advantages and reassess the disadvantages , developing new pref ab techniques and materials to provide a better
Construction sites are dangerous, and many accidents can occur. Each day on a work site, construction workers are subject to many tasks and pieces of equipment that can put their lives in danger. Workers are asked to work with heavy equipment and powered vehicles, such as forklifts (Powered vehicles), cranes and other heavy duty equipment, (OSHA, 2010). With all of the activities that occur on a ...
Types of information: operational, tactical, strategic and statutory – why do we needinformation systems – management structure – requirements of information at differentlevels of management – functional allocation of management – requirements of information for various functions – qualities of information – small case study. Module 2: Systems Analysis and Design Life Cycle (3) Requirements ...
perf ormed building system. Pref ab System Perf ormance In many countries, such as Japan, Germany, manuf acturers are reinventing the process of home construction by adopting assembly line automation methods to achieve mass production. A number of new construction materials are starting to be used as components in pref ab housing. Such as, structural insulated panels (SIPs) and insulating concrete f orms (ICFs).
T here are systems developed by using pref ab technique, include pref ab f oundation systems, steel f raming, concrete f raming, large-modular systems, and so on. Pref ab Foundation system Due to dif f erent site condition, dif f erent Materials, drainage system and engineered structural support could be applied. Initially, in house designers and engineer teams will exam soil type, contamination hazards of the site, and other critical natural elements of the given location, such as f lood hazard zone, or seismic area, once all data is collected and appropriate system will be f inalized, the chosen system needs to be designed subject to local building regulation requirement and to be reviewed by local authorities over construction period both of f -site and on-site. T he system is designed and manuf actured as pref abricated components with consideration of drainage system used and complete integrated service installation points. Furthermore, according to dif f erent type of f loor chassis system used, connection devise and method maybe vary, such as direct f astening system, direct bolting system, or welding system. Once the site is ready, the f oundation components will be delivered onsite and drop in to the f ooting or trenches while connecting with service point. Panelised Wall & Floor and Roof systems Panels can be produced in an automated f actory environment, using computer program that transf ers panel-cutting instructions directly f rom digital CAD (computer aided design) drawings. T he f inished product will be inspected and then transport on to jobsite. T here are many types of panelised system available, such as light gauge steel, insulating concrete f orms (ICFs), aluminum concrete and f iberglass components. T hey are consist of pre-engineered panels, f actory manuf actured, that will be erected on site to f orm a structural envelop. T he most common, Structural insulated panel (SIPs) which consist of an insulating layer of rigid polymer f oam sandwiched between two layers of structural board, of f ering superior insulation, structural capacity. SIPs are durable, light in weight and dimensionally stable. T he system will signif icantly simplif y on-site f arming and reduce the risk of health and saf ety issues occurred f rom on-site construction. Compare with other modular system, SIPs provide more f lexibility in terms of design, complicated shapes can be produced with considerably low price. Structurally, SIPs wall panel is deceptively strong, which could perf orm as load-bearing wall, roof structure, as well as internal dividing wall. Due to the exceptional load-bearing perf ormance of the wall panel means variety of f loor systems could be utilized. Compare with conventional wood f raming technique, SIPs of f er a dense, unif orm and continuous air barrier with f ew thermal bridges, and little opportunity f or internal convection, theref ore less air leaks and reduce condensation occurred by cold bridging. Eco-joists are one of the best f looring system f or SIPs structure, they are consist of parallel stress grade timber overhangs connected with “V” shaped galvanised steel webs. T hey share the same advantages as SIPs, they are pre engineered, designed and manuf actured according to def erent loads requested by the project. T he systems are lightweight and easy to handle on site, in addition all services such as electrical cables and waste pipes and ventilation dust could easily install between the open webs. Meanwhile, roof construction could achieve maximum useable space by using SIPs, because there will be no requirement of roof trusses going across lof t space, and it of f ers continuous insulation to increase energy perf ormance. As a result, combination of these two systems provides an excellent sample of advantages of using
Each year, there are thousands of injuries and triple-digit numbers of fatal accidents related to machine and equipment operation. A lot of these accidents involve the operator, but over half involve people on the ground – spotters, co-workers, laborers, shovel hands, passers-by and sidewalk superintendents who get too close. And because of the forces and physics involved, these are usually ...
pref abricated components in modern construction. Lif ecycle of the Pref ab system Product orientated design Firstly, building will be marketed as a product rather than a traditional building. To be able produce them in large quantities with relatively low cost, the key is to mass produce, but with inf inite personal taste, the combination of mass production and personal taste is mass customization, to give customer choices but within a manageable range. T his will keep manuf acturing processes sample and economies of scale can be implemented. For example, car manuf acturers allow customer to choose the colour and certain specif ications of a car model. However, customers are unable to specif y the colour of the steering wheel, and design of the seats, even if it is achievable. Future pref ab system will be designed to be more f lexible; while components can be mountable and demountable f or reuse. Proposed building site will be assisted by construction robots with little human intervention on site. T he development of pref abrication in construction sector has demonstrated it is possible to adopt manuf acturing technique into construction process and to achieve automation. Pref ab building process will adopt an automated system in terms of , design, engineering, and construction, which means f uture construction process will proceed in an automated manner. For example, customer could pick dif f erent colours of wall f inish and f looring or kitchen and bathroom pods f rom a product catalogue to f it into a standard f loor plan, just like buying a car with choices of dif f erent body paint and interior accessories. T he main building components will be mass produced such as wall and f loor panels, and accessories such as dif f erent designs of kitchen pods to be produced only when ordered, to allow parts arrive into production just when needed. A new joining, and installation method will be developed with consideration of later on-site installation; building component will operate systemically as well as interchangeable to maximize system perf ormance and lif espan. While on-site, construction robots will perf orm multiple tasks to cope with variety of site conditions, robots will have sequence or digital controlled. Construction robots will interact with each other on-site; identif y issues and automatically response to site personal such as, project manager. In case of technical f ailures, all building activities should be able to handle by works manually. T he house has been designed f lexible and adaptable to allow f uture alteration. To alter existing house, traditionally, clients have to seek prof essional help to carry out the building work or relocated to a dif f erent property. In contrast, due to the way that house been constructed, the internal and structural wall, roof and f loor can be easily disassembly f rom existing structure and proposed components will be “plug-in” to f orm an improved f loor layout or provide an additional accommodation to suit client’s requirement. T he dealer will provide data f rom their database to cover inf ormation f rom the time of construction on the materials used, f loor plans, piping and electrical lines, etc. Client then can use these specif ications to obtain quotations f rom the dealer or other service providers. Site visit and inspection will be carried out by the selected manuf acturer, data collected and design requirements of the project will be incorporated by computer integrated construction (CIC) system, design specif ication and cost will be produced pro manuf acturing. T he f ully automated construction process shall precede pro to the f inal approval f rom the client. Second hand housing market and renovation market will be f ulf illed with a new def inition, second hand house will be put on the market and buyer is no longer necessarily to relocate to where the house is. Second hand house will be dissembled and transported back to the f actory f or inspection and renewal; inspected components are f inished of f with new f ittings and equipments. T he building components will be transported to the new site, by using the same technique, the building will be
reassembled and ready f or the new owner to move in. T he same concept also applied on to those clients who extremely emotionally touched with their beloved home, instead of ditch the old one, alternatively the house could be relocated wherever they go. T he ef f icient, f lexible and mass production concept of f uture pref ab industry enable a niche market to emerge within the construction sector; a pref ab house will be af f ordable to purchase but of f er high degree of design, f lexibility. Customer will engage in the design process which will give the project their personal taste, incorporate with the mythology of mass customization, and of f er customer with more choices. T he lif ecycle of a building could be extended longer by reclaim and disassembly the existing structure. In addition, the f uture pref ab industry has the potential to achieve automation in all construction phases. Strategy & action of Future Pref ab construction Standardization For achieving the requirement of pref ab building mass production, all components need to be standardized f or production. Similar to automobile industries, same parts might be produced and used on f abricate dif f erent model, consequently, materials can be utilized in the most ef f icient manner to produce wide range of standardized components, such as universal wall, f loor and roof system. T hen the usage of same production process, machinery, and skilled workers can be maximized then maximum productivity achieved. Specialization Mass production and standardized product allow a high degree of labor specialization with the production process. It is an opportunity to use single task robots to conduct specif ic rule repetitiously. In such working condition, automated technology could be applied and tested within the pref ab construction sector. Integration In order to obtain an optimal result, a high degree of coordination must exist between various relevant parties such as designer, manuf acturer, owner, and contractor. T his is achieved through an integrated system in which all these f unctions are perf ormed under a unif ied authority (1)
Automation in f uture pref ab construction industry
Robotic industrial applications are very well established in the manuf acturing industry, while there is a very limited inf luence on the construction sector. A number of benef its are anticipated f rom these automated systems, including improved construction productivity, to eliminate the dependence on labor, and improved saf ety and quality. T he impact of this integrated automation approach is expected to be signif icant due to its high level of management between resources and processes, and well def ined environment f or inf ormation transf er. As a f ollow-up to this ef f ort, several research issues need to be considered, including the design of materials handling systems which will maintain the ef f iciency of the automated building construction approach. In Japan, the success of the automobile industry’s automated assembly plants, combined with the construction industry’s worker shortage, has helped encourage the development of Japan’s automated and robotic construction operations. Although the trend toward automation itself has produced some gains in productivity, the primary goal is to do a specif ic task with f ewer people in a saf er environment. (2) T he need f or automation in construction is clear; as most construction activities are repetitious, labor-intensive, and dangerous so that it is perf ectly suitable f or robot automation. T. Bock (2007) illustrated a robotic precast concrete panel f actory that uses a multipurpose unit which allows f lexible production of the concrete f loor, wall and roof panels. Here, according to certain CAD data, a multi f unctional gantry type robotic unit with two vertical arms places magnetos on the steel production table. T he unit also attaches shutters on top of the magneto and then places horizontal, vertical and triangular
reinf orcement bars, as per design. A CAD-CAM controlled concrete distributor spreads the right amount of concrete while controlled by a CAD layout plan, which takes into account installation, window or door opening. (3) Swedish company Randek has developed a number of high-perf ormance position controlled systems f or pref ab house manuf acturing. T hose systems were developed similar to the manuf acturing industry and were intended to perf orm routine task in on location. For instance, their latest wall, f loor and roof production line system SF021 is developed to be a f lexible system f or ef f ective production of insulated wall elements. Firstly, a f ramework is built with studs and top and bottom plates installed by using a CAD-CAM controlled nailing gun, and then wall sheet will be nailed in while the whole wall component is f lipped over and ready f or the next work station. Second step, the wall component will be insulated. T he f inal stage, the insulated wall will be f lipped upside down and another wall sheet to be nailed on to seal up the component. T he wall component is completed and ready f or site delivery. T he whole process is computer controlled, and it is only require 3-4 operators to over see the operation. In Japan, there are more than 85 present of the houses are pref abricated, several leading construction f irms have developed f ully automated system f or manuf acturing building components, such as Sekisui chemical, robots has played active roles at the production line. Robotic manipulators were used as assistants to human. T his approach allows the robot to be less autonomous and technically simpler, needing only limited sensing abilities. According to this approach, the human perf orms the vital parts of the task, and the robot is used to expand the human physical limits. Such systems, of less autonomous perf ormance, can be more easily adapted f or assistance in a variety of building tasks. (4) Of f -site production sequence may have successf ully adopted automation concept, robots are capable of conduct many f actory based roles such as handing heavy materials, and it has benef ited construction industry greatly. On the other hand, robots still f ace many dif f iculties due to the dynamic nature of construction site and economical challenge. Construction industry has a variety combination of sectors and it has to cope with variety of circumstances on each project and site. In construction automation, the building also serves simultaneously as the work environment. Construction robots will f ace great challenges when cope with complexity of on-site tasks. To tackle this, single-task robots need to be designed not only to assist human but also interact with human and enhance the over all perf ormance; robots with specif ic f unction will be programmed to work independently, such as on-site single-task robots will perf orm most of the assembling and heavy lif ting roles, as well as problem solving and data collection roles. Single-task robots been designed f or a f actory systematic environment f ree-standing robots will be moving along a production line on wheels to complete production roles. While suspended robots usually have lif ting mechanisms to help it move up and down. Mobile Robotic system also developed f or material handing onsite. Personal interior f inishing robot is developed to reduce human interaction. Engelbert westkämper et al (2000) developed a robotic system f or the automatic laying of tiles within certain tolerances on pref abricated modules. T he pilot work consisted of a tile laying system that consists of tile positioning equipment, a centering and measuring system and transport unit; a tile supply system consisting of a store and a measuring unit; system f or generating process parameters; and handing and positioning system having industrial robot and process control. (5) Moreover, Neelamkavil,J (2009) have illustrated that single-task robots technology will progresses quickly through the development of human-robot cooperative (HRC) system, key technologies development such as motion generation, remote control ,operation control, and mobility, there will be more interaction between humans and robots in workplace, human and robot will assist each other and exchange f orces on site.
Construction Automation Construction automation system consists of f our f undamental components; An on-site f actory protected by an all-weather enclosure. an automated jacking system an automated material conveying system a centralized inf ormation control system T hese systems have f ollowed manuf acturing principle as well as using “just-in-time” principles f or delivery of materials and bar coding f or tracking and placing materials once delivered on-site. T he numbers of single-task robots used depends upon the job. (6) SMART (Shimizu Manuf acturing system by Advanced Robotics Technology) has demonstrated a computer integrated construction (CIC) approach, which realized the objectives on; automated production of f -site, with robotic assembly on site, handing heavy components and interact with one another. It has also utilized automatic planning and construction site management technology, with using a computerized controlled system to monitoring building process on-site. T he system has f ully integrated industrial production methods with construction, where the theory of “Just-in-time” (JIT ) and “constancy” could be realized throughout the construction process. (7) Economically, due to the high cost of developing such automation system has af f ect on the speed of putting robotic systems in to practice. T he most development has been done by some leading construction practice supported by large numbers of research organization. For example, in Japan most of major construction companies has large amount of research budgets and in-house research department working closely with universities and other institutes. Without strong f inancial capability an automated construction site will be impossible to implement.
Sof tware and IT integration
Automated construction processes are not only relying on sof tware and IT technology, but also associated with other related technologies, such as data processing, and Virtual Reality technology. T hese technologies control of construction machines and improve the construction ef f iciency. But more importantly, sof tware integration is crucial f or implementing the concept of computer integrated construction (CIC), which will enable to integrate pref abrication design process, advanced planning and management methods through a sof tware system to programming on site robots and simulate the construction process. Neelamkavil,J (2009) reported T he EU Future Home projects, the projects have developed the AUT OMOD3 system- an automatic modular construction sof tware environment, the system successf ully integrated all stages of house-building construction process and automated construction methods in to a CAD program. T hrough using this program, each stage is simulated; f rom transf er 2D plan into 3D model to onsite robotic assembly each task can be carried out automatically. T he introduction of Computer aided design (CAD) has changed attitudes towards accuracy and ef f iciency within construction industry. T he developments of newest sof tware such as AutoDesk’s Revit Architecture, SolidWorks are an upgrade of traditional CAD-based sof tware, which enables designer, engineers, constrictors to analysis each stage of the building’s lif ecycle, f rom its concept stage to demolition and recycling, it will monitoring the whole building process. T hrough sharing inf ormation sources between key players within the company such as design data, f inancial data, legal data, and service layout, this will improve team communication and increase ef f iciency, constructability and ultimately predictability of all projects.
Construction industry f acing challenges to responds to change technical, economic and social conditions, there is an increasing need of changing construction technique, communication and management strategy within the sector. T his paper has explored the opportunities and challenges that advanced technology and modern manuf acturing process of f er to the construction sector, and illustrated f ew examples of how did the development of robotic technology is increasingly af f ecting the process of construction automation. T he need f or improved automation and productivity of the construction industry is clear. T here are numbers of f actors are needed to be stressed, and will af f ect on f uture implement; Change of construction methods, result in organizational revolution. Design practice, client communication, product development, on-site assembly, use of construction robots, project management, and sof tware development issues are highlighted and due f or improvement. T he construction industry has shown a notable resistance to adopt new technologies, partly because the f ragmentation of the industry makes it dif f icult f or a single organization to invest in the system and to expecting a higher return f rom the investments. It is necessary to change attitudes in the construction companies, government authorities, and research and development sectors to working together to develop a system or product which could attract investments f rom other manuf acturing industry. T he introduction of computer integrated construction and adoption of IT technology has changed the way construction industries operate, and specialized sof tware and telecommunication tools will emerge. Competition will drive construction industry to acting f ast and take on changelings, which f orce construction companies to speed up automation and technology integration. Fully automated construction systems are technologically sophisticated. A step-by-step strategy is needed enable to achieve automation; From design to reality, the design of a building will take into consideration of each stages of construction process, such as pref abrication, assembly and transportation and recycle. Standard part will be used f or variety of designs to increase production. System integration and sof tware standardization to improve communication between architects, civil engineers, electrical engineers. Pre-f abrication technology will be enhanced and expanded. New materials and building system will be developed to assist mass production. Building will be erected like a giant jigsaw. Computer Integrated Manuf acturing (CIM) system to be introduced to redef ine building as a customer oriented product, and can be purchased f rom dealer’s catalogues. T he use of robots and automated machines is crucial to achieve automated construction. Construction robots will be easy to control and with artif icial intelligent programming. Specif ic types of robots are designed f or specialized task to maximize productivity. Real-time planning will commonly employed in tasks that require the robot to compete with undef ined environments. Research work should also f ocus on various types of existing systems and machineries to identif y opportunities f or robotic alteration and also the development of multitasking robots with minimal human supervision. Full automation is not economical right now but it will continue to improve work environment, reduce construction time waste, creating new jobs in construction industry. Future success of construction industry is to obtain f ull automation; it is achievable, together with support of advanced technologies, appreciate system integration as well as a f orward planning.
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