British system of education
The British educational system consists of four basic levels. The first one is called primary education. This level contains pre – schools and junior schools.
Pre – schools are represented mainly by kindergartens and by very similar infant schools. In these institutions children learn some basic counting, painting, songs. They are also getting to know the principles of social behavior there.
At the age of seven children start to attend junior school. This type of school is comparable to the first grade of our primary schools. Children learn writing, reading, counting and some basic facts about their country there.
There is one more type of school, called just first school. It’s something between pre – school and junior school, it’s for children from five to ten.
At the age of eleven children go to the second level of ed. system – secondary education. We distinguish three basic types of schools here. Comprehensive schools – they are large, pupils get general knowledge there. Similar are secondary modern schools. In grammar schools is education more academic. The system in these schools is based more on student’s abilities. At sixteen students are passing the GSCE – general certificate of secondary education zero level, which is the finishing examination of secondary ed. In the next two years they can pass the GCSE A, which allows them to go to university.
Today the American education system is no longer the best in the world. With declining test scores and poor academic achievement, people have questioned whether our current educational system is working for us? On the other side of the Pacific, the situation is totally different. Students of Asian countries achieve higher academic achievements, and they rank at the top on math and science tests. ...
The third level is called further education. Into this level belong tertiary colleges, six-form colleges and the top two classes of grammar and comprehensive schools.
Higher education, the fourth level, contains mainly universities. After studies at universities students get Bachelor’s degree or Master’s degree, and further Ph.D.
United States system of education
The age of school attendance is from 7 to 16 (or from 6 to 18) years. Every child gets minimum 13 years of education. School years in the USA are called grades and the whole attending is divided into ‘groups’ of grades.
Pre-school and elementary education includes nursery and kindergartens which are up to age 5 and 6. Most of them are private and charge any money. In the elementary schools (from 6 to 11 years of age, 1st to 5th grade) pupils learn to read, write, do arithmetic, elementary science, history, geography, music, art and PE.
Secondary education * is provided by Junior High (from 11 to 14 years of age, 6th to 8th grade) and High Schools (from 15 to 18 years of age, 9th to 12th grade).
Most schools offer the same curriculum: English, Maths, Science, Social studies, PE etc. This schools are comprehensive and some of them offer specialised courses such as business, computer science etc.
High schools generally organise much activity outstanding the classroom, many of them have football, basketball and baseball teams, an orchestra, a choir etc. The basic leaving school qualification is usually the high school Diploma or General Education Diploma (GED) which is awarded after passing an examination. There is no national school-leaving examination but national Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT; in mathematics and English) is used to help select students for colleges and university entrance. But finally they haven’t got any other tests to entrance higher education!
... higher education. One crucial issue regarding internationalization of higher education is that there is lack of theoretical studies that could provide guidelines for those universities ... in the field of higher education. The business school is now paying more ... years the senior management of the business school has negotiated a number of collaborative agreements with overseas universities, ...
Marks in most US schools are: Excellent Superior, above average , Satisfactory , Passing grade , Completely unsatisfactory .
About one third of high school graduates go on for some higher education. The system of higher education in the USA consist of following institutions:
I. Universities and colleges – its applicants are usually chosen on the basis of their high school records, recommendation from their high school teacher, some interviews or their scores on the SAT
II. Vo-techs (vocational-technical) institutions – high school graduates may take courses from six month to two years; they learn various technical skills (hair styling, business accounting, computer programming etc.) and after finishing people usually take up employment
III. Community colleges – provide vocational and semi-professional education for people with a High School Diploma for two years; than students may enter many professions
Bachelor’s degree (B.A. or B.S.) is given to students after successful completion of four years study. Bachelors graduates can study further by attending a postgraduate course to get the degree of Master (M.A. or M.S.) after one to three years of another study. The Doctoral Degrees are given after two to five years of another study.
The oldest and most respected universities – Harvard (1636), Yale University (1701), University of Pennsylvania (1740), Princeton University (1746) or College of Columbia (1754) are all private. The cost of university studies varies.
Each American university has its own curriculum. Undergraduate students must select their ‘major’ – the field in which they want their degree, plus a certain number of ‘electives’ or one ‘minor’ subject.