machine learning deals with computational methods for acquiring new knowledge , new skills, and new ways to organize existing knowledge.
Machine learning, a branch of artificial intelligence, is a scientific discipline concerned with the design and development of algorithms that allow computers to evolve behaviors based on empirical data, such as from sensor data or databases. Machine learning is concerned with the development of algorithms allowing the machine to learn via inductive inference based on observing data that represents incomplete information about statistical phenomenon and generalize it to rules and make predictions on missing attributes or future data. An important task of machine learning is classification, which is also referred to as pattern recognition, in which machines “learn” to automatically recognize complex patterns, to distinguish between exemplars based on their different patterns, and to make intelligent predictions on their class.
In machine learning, pattern recognition is the assignment of some sort of output value (or label) to a given input value (or instance), according to some specific algorithm. An example of pattern recognition is classification, which attempts to assign each input value to one of a given set of classes (for example, determine whether a given email is “spam” or “non-spam”)
I have chosen my fiance as the person to analize in this discussion. My fiance and I don’t always understand things the same way. He tends to learn better hands on where I learn better by reading and following directions. He usually jumps into a project without all the information needed to complette it. I’m usually still reading the directions while he’s almost finished putting ...
Definition: A computer program is said to learn from experience E with respect to some class of tasks T and performance measure P, if its performance at tasks in T, as measured by P, improves with experience E.
The Biological Neuron
The brain is a collection of about 10 billion interconnected neurons. Each neuron is a cell [right] that uses biochemical reactions to receive process and transmit information.
A neuron’s dendritic tree is connected to a thousand neighbouring neurons. When one of those neurons fire, a positive or negative charge is received by one of the dendrites. The strengths of all the received charges are added together through the processes of spatial and temporal summation. Spatial summation occurs when several weak signals are converted into a single large one, while temporal summation converts a rapid series of weak pulses from one source into one large signal. The aggregate input is then passed to the soma (cell body).
The soma and the enclosed nucleus don’t play a significant role in the processing of incoming and outgoing data. Their primary function is to perform the continuous maintenance required to keep the neuron functional. The part of the soma that does concern itself with the signal is the axon hillock. If the aggregate input is greater than the axon hillock’s threshold value, then the neuron fires, and an output signal is transmitted down the axon. The strength of the output is constant, regardless of whether the input was just above the threshold, or a hundred times as great. The output strength is unaffected by the many divisions in the axon; it reaches each terminal button with the same intensity it had at the axon hillock. This uniformity is critical in an analogue device such as a brain where small errors can snowball, and where error correction is more difficult than in a digital system.
Human cognition, emotion, motivation and ultimately life is made possible by neurons in the central nervous system (CNS). This essay will briefly describe the processes involved in neuronal communication and discuss how this knowledge has helped improve our understanding of human behaviour, specifically with regards to neurological and psychological disorders. Neurons connected to motor neurons in ...
Each terminal button is connected to other neurons across a small gap called a synapse [left]. The physical and neurochemical characteristics of each synapse determine the strength and polarity of the new input signal. This is where the brain is the most flexible, and the most vulnerable. Changing the constitution of various neuro- transmitter chemicals can increase or decrease the amount of stimulation that the firing axon imparts on the neighbouring dendrite. Altering the neurotransmitters can also change whether the stimulation is excitatory or inhibitory. Many drugs such as alcohol and LSD have dramatic effects on the production or destruction of these critical chemicals. The infamous nerve gas sarin can kill because it neutralizes a chemical (acetylcholinesterase) that is normally responsible for the destruction of a neurotransmitter (acetylcholine).
This means that once a neuron fires, it keeps on triggering all the neurons in the vicinity. One no longer has control over muscles, and suffocation ensues.