Cohesion and Coherence
An awareness of cohesion and coherence in all texts is a very important skill for students to develop.
Cohesion can be thought of as all the grammatical and lexical links that link one part of a text to another. This includes use of synonyms, lexical sets, pronouns, verb tenses, time references, grammatical reference, etc. For example, ‘it’, ‘neither’ and ‘this’ all refer to an idea previously mentioned. ‘First of all’, ‘then’ and ‘after that’ help to sequence a text. ‘However’, ‘in addition’ and ‘for instance’ link ideas and arguments in a text.
Coherence can be thought of as how meanings and sequences of ideas relate to each other. Typical examples would be general> particular; statement> example; problem> solution; question> answer; claim> counter-claim.
What does cohesion mean?
You might think of cohesion as a means of establishing connections within a text at all sorts of different levels, e.g., section, paragraphs, sentences and even phrases.
How is cohesion different from coherence? It is difficult to separate the two. However, think of coherence as the text making sense as a whole at an ideas level, and cohesion as rather more mechanical links at a language level. You can imagine that it is possible for a piece of writing to contain plenty of cohesion yet little coherence.
... threats of attacks. It is generally felt that the intended level of cryptographic security of several of the standardized cryptographic tools ... and improve the features of encryption programs and increase the level of security while providing ease of use / convenience to ... my opinion that using an encryption is still a good idea for individuals and organizations, provided that it is used responsibly ...
Cohesion is the glue that holds a piece of writing together. In other words, if a paper is cohesive, it sticks together from sentence to sentence and from paragraph to paragraph. Cohesive devices certainly include transitional words and phrases, such as therefore, furthermore, or for instance, that clarify for readers the relationships among ideas in a piece of writing. However, transitions aren’t enough to make writing cohesive. Repetition of key words and use of reference words are also needed for cohesion.
When sentences, ideas, and details fit together clearly, readers can follow along easily, and the writing is coherent. The ideas tie together smoothly and clearly. To establish the links that readers need, you can use the methods listed here.
Repetition of a Key Term or Phrase
This helps to focus your ideas and to keep your reader on track.
Example: The problem with contemporary art is that it is not easily understood by most people. Contemporary art is deliberately abstract, and that means it leaves the viewer wondering what she is looking at.
Synonyms are words that have essentially the same meaning, and they provide some variety in your word choices, helping the reader to stay focused on the idea being discussed.
Example: Myths narrate sacred histories and explain sacred origins. These traditional narratives are, in short, a set of beliefs that are a very real force in the lives of the people who tell them.
This, that, these, those, he, she, it, they, and we are useful pronouns for referring back to something previously mentioned. Be sure, however, that what you are referring to is clear.
Example: When scientific experiments do not work out as expected, they are often considered failures until some other scientist tries them again. Those that work out better the second time around are the ones that promise the most rewards.
There are many words in English that cue our readers to relationships between sentences, joining sentences together. Words such as however, therefore, in addition, also, but, moreover, etc.
Example: I like autumn, and yet autumn is a sad time of the year, too. The leaves turn bright shades of red and the weather is mild, but I can’t help thinking ahead to the winter and the ice storms that will surely blow through here. In addition, that will be the season of chapped faces, too many layers of clothes to put on, and days when I’ll have to shovel heaps of snow from my car’s windshield.
... far more interested in encouraging thinking than error-free sentences and concise, clear writing. Do I agree with Bruce Ballenger? I feel ... issues, but you sometimes may not get your thoughts or ideas back that you were thinking of to be able to ... takes to get there. More than just writing words down and making sure you use the words correctly. It’s about expressing what ...
Sometimes, repeated or parallel sentence patterns can help the reader follow along and keep ideas tied together.
Example: (from a speech by President John F. Kennedy) And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you–ask what you can do for your country.