DALTON AND THOMSON
John Dalton FRS (6 September 1766 – 27 July 1844) was an English chemist, meteorologist and physicist. He is best known for his pioneering work in the development of modern atomic theory.
When Dalton proceeded to print his first published table of relative atomic weights. Six elements appear in this table, namely hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus, with the atom of hydrogen conventionally assumed to weigh 1. Dalton provided no indication in this first paper how he had arrived at these numbers. However, in his laboratory notebook under the date 6 September 1803 there appears a list in which he sets out the relative weights of the atoms of a number of elements, derived from analysis of water, ammonia, carbon dioxide, etc. by chemists of the time.
It appears, then, that confronted with the problem of calculating the relative diameter of the atoms of which, he was convinced, all gases were made, he used the results of chemical analysis. Assisted by the assumption that combination always takes place in the simplest possible way, he thus arrived at the idea that chemical combination takes place between particles of different weights, and it was this which differentiated his theory from the historic speculations of the Greeks, such as Democritus and Lucretius
... A given compound always has the same relative numbers and types of atoms." Fourth, "chemical reactions involve reorganization of the ... based on those laws. After [... ] Dalton had developed the idea of atomic weights, chemists sought arithmetic connections between them, partly ... masses, also known as atomic weights. Despite the fact that many of the masses on Dalton's table were proved incorrect ...
Dalton used his own symbols to visually represent the atomic structure of compounds. These have made it in New System of Chemical Philosophy where Dalton listed a number of elements, and common compounds
There are five main points of Dalton’s atomic theory
Elements are made of tiny particles called atoms.
The atoms of a given element are different from those of any other element; the atoms of different elements can be distinguished from one another by their respective relative atomic weights.
All atoms of a given element are identical.
Atoms of one element can combine with atoms of other elements to form chemical compounds; a given compound always has the same relative numbers of types of atoms.
Atoms cannot be created, divided into smaller particles, nor destroyed in the chemical process; a chemical reaction simply changes the way atoms are grouped together.
As an investigator, Dalton was often content with rough and inaccurate instruments, though better ones were obtainable. Sir Humphry Davy described him as “a very coarse experimenter”, who almost always found the results he required, trusting to his head rather than his hands. On the other hand, historians who have replicated some of his crucial experiments have confirmed Dalton’s skill and precision.
The limitation of Dalton is that his atomic theory was that it claimed that all matter is composed of tiny indivisible atoms and He also stated that atoms of an element are identical in mass. But we know that all elements have isotopes (atoms with this same proton number but different numbers of neutrons) so that atoms of an element do not have the same mass.
Sir Joseph John “J. J.” Thomson, OM, FRS (18 December 1856 – 30 August 1940) was a British physicist and Nobel laureate. He is credited for the discovery of the electron and of isotopes, and the invention of the mass spectrometer.
In 1897,he was the first to propose that the fundamental unit was over 1000 times smaller than an atom, suggesting the sub-atomic particles now known as electrons.He discovered this through his explorations on the properties of cathode rays. Thomson made his suggestion on 30 April 1897 following his discovery that Lenard rays could travel much further through air than expected for an atomic-sized particle. He estimated the mass of cathode rays by measuring the heat generated when the rays hit a thermal junction and comparing this with the magnetic deflection of the rays. His experiments suggested not only that cathode rays were over 1000 times lighter than the hydrogen atom, but also that their mass was the same whatever type of atom they came from. He concluded that the rays were composed of very light, negatively charged particles which were a universal building block of atoms.
Joseph John Thomson was born on December 18, 1856 near Manchester, England. His father died when "J. J. .' was only sixteen. The young Thomson attended Owens College in Manchester, where his professor of mathematics encouraged him to apply for a scholarship at Trinity College, one of the most prestigious of the colleges at Cambridge University. Thomson won the scholarship, and in 1880 finished ...
In his classic experiment, Thomson measured the mass-to-charge ratio of the cathode rays by measuring how much they were deflected by a magnetic field and comparing this with the electric deflection. He used the same apparatus as in his previous experiment, but placed the discharge tube between the poles of a large electromagnet. He found that the mass to charge ratio was over a thousand times lower than that of a hydrogen ion (H+), suggesting either that the particles were very light and/or very highly charged.
The limitation of Thomson is that he believed that the corpuscles emerged from the atoms of the trace gas inside his cathode ray tubes. He thus concluded that atoms were divisible, and that the corpuscles were their building blocks. To explain the overall neutral charge of the atom, he proposed that the corpuscles were distributed in a uniform sea of positive charge; this was the plum pudding model as the electrons were embedded in the positive charge like plums in a plum pudding (although in Thomson’s model they were not stationary but were orbiting rapidly).