Witten Analysis Three
English Over Irish (pp-28—30)
Behind the Emigration “John Bull must have the Beef” (pp.132—137)
Irish “Maids” and “Factory Girls” (pp.145—151)
“Green Power”: The Irish “Ethics” Strategy (pp. 151—154)
This paper is submitted in partially fulfillment of Comm 1131 – Intercultural Communication
Normandale Community College
Fall Term, 2010
Professor Willie Johnson
1. What was the English’s attitude toward the Irish?
The English’ attitude towards the Irish was generally an arrogant. They considered the Irish as being less than human and not having a right to their own land. Religion was used to justify a large part of the colonization. The English considered the Irish to be pagans and as “most wicked” people who live “like beasts” outside the civilization. This justified the belief that they were civilizing the lands. The Irish were excluded and made them feel alienated in their home country by the Englishmen. This attitude created that the Irish were prohibited to wear “English apparel and have weapon”. The Irish citizens were terrorized, killing their brothers, fathers, and children then cut off their heads to take as to display as an example for others to be loyal to the invaders otherwise the will be tested as their kinsmen.
2. Discuss the specific hardships faced by Irish workers and discuss specifically how other ethnic groups were used to work against each other. The Irish faced generally many hardships in their country in their immigrated country. But some of the hardships are specifically mentionable to show that how much they did suffer from the English tyranny. These hardships were caused by the English invasion over the Ireland who led “the confiscation and transfer of lands to English colonizers”. After this confiscation, the Irish who were subsisting family owned farms were “forced to rent or lease land from the English landlords” then the landlords started to look a different way of making more profit than renting the land to these peasants. They diverted the economy into “cattle civilization”, shifting from “tillage agriculture to ranching” causing the peasants families into eviction. These evictions after being confiscated their lands have reduced them into “extremely poor” living “most sordid wretchedness”. Great famine was the worst hardship that the Irish ever faced. This famine was caused by a deadly disease which attacked the potato field and continued persistently. These gave an opportunity to the landlords to transform more lands into fields of grazing. During these years, many people died from “hunger and sickness’ where those who survived the “choice became clear: emigrate or face destitution and death”.
... the English and the Irish. The English put down Irish resistance to this invasion with stern measures, repeatedly taking land away ... from the native Irish. ... During this colonizing effort, the English developed a harsh attitude ...
3. Discuss specific ways in which Irish women workers were negatively exploited.
The Irish women were negatively exploited specifically as factory workers and maid servants. The notion of being servant in those days was dehumanizing and inflicting psychological problems to the human person who is a domestic servant. The Irish maid servants were in context of what sociology Stephan Steinberg termed “the exploitation of the whole person”. This means that they lacked the privacy as they worked and lived in the house of their employer. Personal freedom was great deal to the maid servant Irish women who feels ‘loneliness in a house full of people’. As Takaki mentioned in the text, one maid servant tried to make the distinction between house and home and she said “ one remember that there is a difference between a house, a place of shelter and a home, a place where all you affections are centered”.
... wanted complete independence from Britain and an Irish Republic with equal rights for people of all religions. In 1798 a rebellion led ... insoluble conflict in NI. Republic: Exports are booming, prices of houses are rising but in spite of this unemployment is continuing ... tools. The Beginning of Christianity: Saint Patrick was born in Great Britain. In 432 he came to Ireland to teach Christianity ...
4. Irish people made great progress as citizens of the U.S. Discuss why this did not happen for other ethnic groups such as the Chinese and African Americans.
Irish people made great progress as citizens of the U.S because not only through assimilation but their color “white”. President Lowell Lawrence emphasized that the Irish can be assimilated into the American society. He argued that the “theory of political equality should Not be applied to tribal Indians, Chinese or negroes under all conditions,[but] only to our own race, and to those people whom we can assimilate rapidly”. The other ethnic groups were excluded from the American mainstream society and barred from naturalized citizenship due to their color.
5. Using a minimum of one paragraph, write about your overall reaction(s) to the readings in this section. After finishing the readings of this section, I was deduced to consider that the English were relentlessly invading and colonizing any one they feared to be a potential thread to them. They started with their neighbors and ended up invading all the way to Africa. The reason behind these invasions and colonization was to inflict peasant Irish into eviction from their land in order to serve for the interest of other rich and more respected humans to their notion.