CHAPTER-16 “GARBAGE, IN GARBAGE OUT”
WASTES (Based on source)
1. Domestic waste (produced by homes)
2. Industrial waste (produced by factories/ industries)
3. Agricultural waste (produced by farms)
4. Biomedical waste (produced by hospitals, pathology labs etc)
LANDFILL are natural slopes or man made troughs that are filled with garbage and covered with soil.
A landfill is usually converted into a park or a play ground.
COMPOSTING is the process of converting plant and animal waste into manure by decomposing.
VERMICOMPOSTING is the process of converting plant and animal waste into manure by decomposing with the help of redworms.
Method of vermicomposting:
1) Dig a pit about 30cm deep or take a wooden box.
2) Spread a net or 2cm sand at the bottom of the pit or box.
3) Spread some vegetable wastes like peels or green leaves, dried animal dung, newspaper pieces etc.
4) Powdered egg shells and sea shells can be mixed with the waste to help red worms.
5) Sprinkle some water to make this layer wet
6) Now put some red worms in the pit and cover them up with a gunny bag or an old sheet of cloth or grass.
7) After 3-4 weeks compost /manure is ready to be used for plants
The Essay on Animal Cruelty on Factory Farms
We can promote humane treatment of factory farm animals by prevention through education, by enforcing humane laws by being an example of humane animal treatment, and by donating and/or volunteering at local humane law enforcement agencies. Cruelty and abuse of animals on factory farms cause loss to the business. Animals at the farms are injected with growth stimulants so that they can grow ...
Advantages of MANURE over CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS
a) Manure is a natural substance obtained by decomposing wastes in fields while fertilizers are prepared in factories.
b) Buying fertilizers costs money while manure doest not, as it is best out of waste.
c) A fertilizer does not provide any humus to the soil but Manure provides a lot of humus to the soil.
• Red worms are a type of earth worms used for composting
• They survive at moderate temperature with moisture around them.
• They eat food like vegetable peels or green leaves etc but they do not have teeth.
• They have a structure called gizzard which helps them in grinding their food
• They eat food equal to their own weight in a day.
• They double their number in a month’s time.
INCINERATION: means to burn waste in huge incinerators or ovens at a high temperature. Ex: biomedical waste is mostly incinerated.
a) Burning of the waste reduces its volume.
b) The ashes can be disposed off easily.
c) High temperature causes less air pollution.
Minimize use of plastics and deal with garbage in the following ways:
✓ Reuse the plastic carry bags.
✓ Carry a cloth or jute bag.
✓ Use paper bags to reduce plastic bags.
✓ Do not throw plastic bags here and there after use.
✓ Never burn plastic items.
✓ Do not use plastic bags to dispose garbage to safai karamcharis.
✓ Use composting /vermicomposting to deal with kitchen waste.
✓ Recycle paper, plastics and metals by selling it any recycle unit.
✓ Use both sides of paper judiciously to write.
✓ Take Print out of the portal notes or assignments on both sides of the paper.
✓ Adopt 4R’S-RECYCLE, REDUCE, REUSE AND RECOVER
1. What is the difference between biodegradable and non bio degradable substances?
2. Define (a) incineration (b) landfill
3. Why use of manure is better than chemical fertilizers by a farmer?
The Term Paper on Hazards Of Plastic Bags
Plastic Bags hanging from the branches, flying in the air, stuck in corners racing along with the vehicles on the road are – as we all can see – PLASTIC BAGS. This wonder material of the 20th century has invaded every aspect of our lives; it is all over the place messing up the streets and parks, clogging up the drains and gutters. These plastic bags or shoppers as they are commonly called are ...
4. How vermicomposting differs from composting?
5. Write a note on farmer’s friend-red worms.
6. How can you minimize use of plastics and deal with garbage?
7. Why wastes with salt, pickle and oil should not be put as food for red worms?
NON BIODEGRADABLE WASTES
Cannot be broken down to non poisonous substances easily
Ex: iron nails, plastics, aluminium cans, polythene bags etc
Can be broken down to harmless or non poisonous substances by the action of micro organisms
Ex: vegetable matter, newspaper
PLASTICS-BOON OR A CURSE