The term Indian independence movement encompasses a wide spectrum of political organizations, philosophies, and movements which had the common aim of ending British colonial authority in South Asia. The term incorporates various national and regional campaigns, agitations and efforts of both nonviolent and militant philosophy.
The first organized militant movements were in Bengal, but it later took political stage in the form of a mainstream movement in the then newly formed Indian National Congress (INC), with prominent moderate leaders seeking only their basic rights to appear for civil services examinations and more rights, economic in nature, for the people of the soil. The beginning of the early 1900s saw a more radical approach towards political independence proposed by leaders such as the Lal Bal Pal and Sri Aurobindo. Militant nationalism also emerged in the first decades, culminating in the failed Indo-German Pact and Ghadar Conspiracy during World War I.
The last stages of the freedom struggle from the 1920s saw the Congress adopt the policies of nonviolence led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. Some leaders, such as Subhash Chandra Bose, later came to adopt a military approach to the movement, and others like Swami Sahajanand Saraswati who along with economic freedom Is the Gateway to Political Freedom">political freedom wanted economic freedom of peasants and toiling masses of the country. The World War II period saw the peak of the movements like the Indian National Army (INA) movement led by Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose and the Quit India movement led by Gandhi.
The Essay on Political Leaders On Telangana
Political leaders, academics, experts and other stakeholders from across the spectrum came together today at a consultation organised by The Hindu Centre for Politics and Public Policy to discuss differing viewpoints pertaining to issues thrown up by the proposed bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh and the impending creation of the new state of Telangana. The dialogue focused on ways to find workable ...
The movement culminated in the formation of the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan in 1947. India remained a dominion of The Crown until 26 January 1950, when it adopted its Constitution to proclaim itself a republic. Pakistan proclaimed itself a Republic in 1956 but faced a number of internal power struggles that has seen suspensions of democracy. In 1971, the Pakistani Civil War culminating in the 1971 War saw the splintering-off of East Pakistan into the nation of Bangladesh.
The Indian independence movement was a mass-based movement that encompassed various sections of society at the time. It also underwent a process of constant ideological evolution. While the basic ideology of the movement was anti-colonial, it was supported by a vision of independent capitalist economic development coupled with a secular, democratic, republican and civil-libertarian political structure. After the 1930s, the movement took on a strong socialist orientation, due to the increasing influence of left wing elements in the INC as well as the rise and growth of the Communist Party of India.