Dr. Joseph Gobbles played a crucial role in influencing and controlling the opinions of German people he was Reich Minister for Popular Enlightment and Propeganda. In the words of Niall Ferguson he was the evi genius of the 20th century marketing.
Gobbles understood that in order for his propeganda to be effective he needed to gain contro of media; newspapers, cinema and the radio were his targets. He wanted to put across the idea of a better Germany with Hitler and the new Nazi state. Control of media would allow the Nazis to present events as it suited them and in response it would eliminate critisism of Nazis.
In the 1920’s radio was extremely popular it was Gobbels who called this ‘most modern instrument for infuencing the masses.’ The Reich Radio Chamber was established to give the propeganda ministry complete control of content and hiring/firing of all radio staff. Everyone working in radio must have been a member of this new organistation and all stations were controlled by them and all news bulletins were provided by the propeganda ministry. Dr. Gobbles knew that mass radio broad casting was important to provide the people with the Nazi message. Cheap sets called Volksempfánger (the peoples radio) were built meaning that by 1939, 70% of househods owned a radio the highest in the world. These sets were designed to only be able to recieve local German stations but you could isten to the BBC with some difficulty this was made an offense during the war. Radio wardens would arrange for a speech by Hitler to be broadcast over loudspeakers in schools, factories and offices and they would monitor reactions. However, not all radio stations were made up of Nazi propeganda Gobbels knew they would find this boring so popular music dominated the radio when propeganda was not in play.
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Controlling the literature of people was also very important in Josephs eyes. Nazis were determined to controll the content of what people read so that they complied with Nazi idiology. They were suspicious of modern literature as they saw it to be undermining traditional values and German society, they labelled them Jewis even though many of the authors weren’t. May 1933 uni students throughout Germany with hep of the SA went on a rampage to clense the german librarys. Authors who held left wing views or who were Jewish were burned; Henrich, Hemingway, Sigmund Freud were among those destroyed and after September 1933 Gobbels organised Reich Chamber of Cuture who closely monitored texts and banned certain people from writing.
Gobbels being a former journalist was very interested in newspapers. He believed that the object of the presswas to get people to think uniformly, react uniformly, and place themselves body and soul at the disposal of the government. In 1933 200 SPD and 35 communist newspapers were closed. Journalists Nazis didn’t like were not allowed work by 1935 1300 left winged or Jewish journalists had been fired or eft the country, in the newspapers left alone there were strict guidlines on size of headlines and photos that could or could not be used. The main Nazi newspaper the Volkischer Beobachter (The Peoples Observer) was printed in four regiona editions and was distributed to all cival servants.
At this time Germany ad the biggest fim industry in Europe and was on par with Hollywood. After the Nazi regime many actors and directors left Germany , but the majority stayed. As well as other areas of media the control of the industry was made by a new body, the Reich Film Chamber. Anyone working in film had to be a member while the Reich Cinema Law of 1934 introduced strict censorship of films. Gobbels was very interested in the film industry as he felt it gave the German people an escape from everyday life. He didn’t want to turn them off by too much propeganda content. However, all films were expected to follow general Nazi principles set down by the Reich Film Chamber, as in praising leadership, glorifying was and depicting Jews as villans. Important films used in spreading anti-semitism incuded The Eternal Jew and The Jew Suss. After 1938 all cinemas shows propeganda filled news reels befor emovies were shows. During the war fims were used to boost morae and German cinemas continued to operate until the very end of the war. One of the last films reesed was a coloured film historical drama called Kolberg it was directed by Gobbles and was designed to increse Germans want to fight.
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In conclusion Joseph Gobbels played a major role in spreading propeganda. Without his control of the media most people would not have had known about most of the Nazi ideologies. Gobbels setting up cheap sets meant most families could now hear the Nazi concept. Gobbels with his new propeganda managment encouraged the Arayan race, anti semitism and brain washed many citizens of Germany.