Does research evidence supports the efficacy and effectiveness of systematic desensitization?
Efficacy and effectiveness are similar but different concepts. According to Pittler and White (1999), the efficacy of therapies refers to how well the intervention does on the highly selected and controlled experimental groups to see if the effects of the treatment are due to the intervention, not to chance or confounding factors. Whereas, the effectiveness of therapies is based on how well the intervention does on patients in real life situations. Both concepts are illustrating the outcome of the therapies, but in different conditions.
Substantial researches have documented the efficacy and effectiveness of systematic desensitization interventions in the treatment.
Smith and Glass (1977) conducted a mata-anlysis on the efficacy and effectiveness of psychotherapies. They collected examined 400 controlled evaluations of psychotherapy and counseling. Their result revealed that the treated patients are better off than 75% of untreated patients. A few important differences in effectiveness had been established between different types of psychotherapy. The average effect-size of systematic desensitization therapy was .9, the largest average effect size of all therapy types. Whereas the implosive therapy showed a mean effect size of .64, significantly lower than systematic desensitization which was usually for treating phobias. Overall, no difference in effectiveness was observed between behavioral therapies (systematic desensitization, behavior modification) and the nonbehavioral therapies (Rogerian, psychodynamic, rationalemotive, transactional analysis, etc.).
“Use classical conditioning principles to explain the development of phobias, and describe how systematic desensitization can be used to overcome fears and phobias. Illustrate with examples.” This essay explores the practices of classical conditioning and systematic desensitization in relation to phobias and fears. John Watson proposed that the process of classical conditioning was able to ‘’ ...
The efficacy of systematic desensitization was examined by Miller and DiPilato’s (1983) study on night mare individuals. Either relaxation or systematic desensitization techniques were used to treated the participants. 32 self-referred adult nightmares sufferers were randomly assigned to 3 conditions: the relaxation training, the systematic desensitization, or the waiting list control group. The participants had shown 9 nightmares per month and duration of 12 years before the treatment. After the treatment, both relaxation and systematic desensitization groups had significantly resulted of reducing nightmare frequency compare to the control group. After subsequent treatment, the waiting list group. Systematic desensitization did not increase efficacy at 15 weeks beyond benefits associated with relaxation alone. However, desensitized participants showed significantly greater reduction in nightmare intensity at 25 weeks.
The effectiveness of systematic desensitization was tested by Egbochuku and Obodo (2005).
They aimed to replace the feeling of fear and anxiety with the feeling of relaxation in test situation. The three independent variables were entry test anxiety level, sex, and locus of control. Their result revealed that SD was effective in the reduction of test anxiety of the students who were test anxious, F-ratio= 9.26, df (1.74).
Significant reduction in the Entry test anxiety level was found, F= 27.458, df (1.74).
Sex had no significant effect on the reduction of test anxiety.
They claimed that SD is effective in the reduction of test anxiety among adolescents in Nigerian schools. Therefore SD could be effectively used for treating test anxiety.
In conclusion, it is possible to state that researches support the efficacy and effectiveness of systematic desensitization. However, therapists have to carefully choice the psychological disorders or problematic behaviors to treat with systematic desensitization in order to achieve its maximum effectiveness.
The Dissertation on Cohesion And Performance In Groups: A Meta-Analytic Clarification Of Construct Relations
Sep 23, 2013 Avon Products Previous meta-analytic examinations of group cohesion and performance have focused primarily on contextual factors. This study examined issues relevant to applied researchers by providing a more detailed analysis of the criterion domain. In addition, the authors reinvestigated the role of components of cohesion using more modern meta-analytic methods and in light of ...
What psychological problems respond favorably to desensitization therapy?
Many studies revealed the efficacy as well as the effectiveness of behavioral techniques toward many types of psychological disorders.
Systematic desensitization is well-known for treating phobia. Lang and Lazovik’s (1963) conducted an experiment using systematic desensitization on treating snake phobia. 24 snake phobic individuals participated in this study. The participants were randomly assigned to SD intervention or control group. They found that systematic desensitization had significantly reduced the phobic behavior. Phobic behavior was measured by avoidance behavior in the presence of the phobic object, in this case the snake, and self rating. Whereas the participants in control group showed no appreciable change, even with three exposures to the subject, the snake.
The participants in the systematic desensitization group tended to hold or increase therapy gains at a 6-month follow-up evaluation, and gave no evidence of symptom substitution.
Snyder and Deffenbacher’s (1977) study treated test anxiety and non-specific anxiety with relaxation as self-control and desensitization therapy. Those two interventions were also compared to wait-list control. Desensitization group followed typical group desensitization procedures with minor modifications such as combining counter-conditioning and self-control rationales, group discussion and homework on using relaxation to overcome anxiety, and self-administration of scenes between sessions. Significantly difference was found between the two interventions and the control treatment, but no difference between the relaxation and desensitization therapies. Participants in both treatments reported less debilitating test anxiety, whereas desensitization subjects showed greater facilitating test anxiety. Under stressful conditions, treated subjects were less worried and anxious, found the situation less aversive, and perceived themselves and their abilities more favorably than controls. Significant reductions in nontargeted anxieties also were found, suggesting transfer of anxiety-management skills to areas other than test anxiety.
The Essay on Compare and contrast the main principles in psychoanalysis therapy and behavior therapy
... desensitization. Behavior therapy of personality According to the book ‘Child and Adolescent Psychiatry’ (Lawrance, 2002) demonstrated that a type of techniques: respondent conditioning, operant conditioning ... of people are experienced in any condition of anxiety and depression as part of their life. ... identify the problem behaviour and solve. Furthermore, a group of people who are experienced in long ...
Therefore, non-phobic anxiety disorders could also be treated using desensitization intervention. Borkovec and Mathews (1988) had compared nondirective, cognitive, and coping desensitization therapy in treating generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder. 30 participants out of 141 were selected in this study. 36 claimed having anxiety at least 5.3 years, and 4 stated being anxious for all their lives. All the participants were randomly assigned to 3 treatments, the nondirective, cognitive, or coping desensitization. A 12 sessions of progressive relaxation training was given before the actual treatment. The results of both post measurement, and 6-month and 12 month follow-ups showed significantly and continued reduction of participants’ anxiety. No differences were found between the three conditions.
Posttraumatic stress disorders (PSD) could also be treated with systematic desensitization. A large-scale study of the effectiveness of psyche-therapeutic methods for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorders was conducted by Brom, Kleber and Defares (1989).
112 participants suffering from serious PSD resulted from traumatic events such as bereavement, acts of violence, and traffic accidents which happened within 5 years were included in this study. Participants were randomly assigned to trauma desensitization, hypnotherapy, and psychodynamic therapy and a waiting-list control group. The results revealed that all treatment groups were significantly lower in trauma-related symptoms than the control group. However, trauma desensitization and hypnotherapy have a stronger influence on the symptoms of intrusion, and psychodynamic therapy has more influence on the symptoms of avoidance.
A case study of 22 female with autoerotic asphyxiation showed the effectiveness of systematic desensitization in treating autoerotic asphyxiation and its symptoms such as anxiety and depression (Martz, 2003).
“Sue” with comorbid depression and avoidant personality disorder complaining of the use of autoerotic asphyxiation during masturbation. Atoerotic asphyxiation is a form of sexual masochism that is life-threatening. “Sue” reported that a ligature had always been used since puberty during masturbation and was necessary for her to obtain orgasm. This behavior was conceptualized within an obsessive-compulsive cycle. The research used covert systematic desensitization in treating. She was asked to write sexual fantasy, and then gradually expose to those fantasy in 10 sessions. The treatment was able to neutralize the power of the fantasy to elicit orgasm.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Schizophrenia INTRODUCTION Schizophrenia is a persistent and often unrelenting psychiatric disorder. Twenty-five to fifty percent of patients who are compliant with medication still experience significant symptomatology (Weinberger, 1995). Unfortunately, as many as 50% of patients are not fully compliant with prescribed medications (Hale, 1995). Thus, practitioners ...
According to above studies, systematic desensitization could be used on variety kinds of psychological disorders, specifically phobia, specific anxiety, general anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and autoerotic asphyxiation.
What do you consider the most effective component of desensitization therapy?
Systematic desensitization includes hierarchy, counter-conditioning, exposure, extinction, and habituation, and other facilitative components. What I consider the most important component of desensitization is a counter-conditioning. The definition of counter-conditioning is the replacement of negative consequences with positive consequences Counter-conditioning means learning a behavior which is incompatible with the unacceptable behavior. This is a behavior modification therapy that involves the use of classical conditioning methods in relaxing an individual who is anxious. It is a kind of counter conditioning whereby an established habit can be weakened or off-set by learning something else. The goal is to get the feeling of relaxation to dominate over the feeling of fear and anxiety for certain critical situations in a person’s life.
postulated that desensitization involves counterconditioning
of relaxation to anxiety-arousing
stimuli. If this model were valid, then emotionality
would prove important and should have
shown a significant decrease following desensitization.
However, it was worry, not emotionality,
that showed significant posttreatment reduction,
providing difficulty for a strict counterconditioning
model and pointing to the importance of
cognitive variables in desensitization.
COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY FOR DEPRESSION Cognitive behavioral therapy helps improve people?s moods and behavior by changing their way thinking; also, how they interpret events and talk to themselves. This form of psychotherapy helps guide people into thinking more realistically and teaches them coping strategies to deal with their depression. Cognitive therapy is in most cases a short-term ...
Identify how placebo and non-specific factors influence outcome of desensitization
What behavioral, cognitive, and affective explanations can you provide to why patients improve or fail to respond to desensitization therapies?
Based on the principles of behavioral approach, there are several concepts that explain human behaviors. One of the principles in behavioral approach is the operant conditioning. The concept of the operant conditioning is based upon the consequences of the behaviors resulted from reinforcements as well as punishments. The reinforcement is defined as pleasant factors to increase the probabilities of wanted behaviors, whereas the punishment is defined as unpleasant factors to decrease the probabilities of unwanted behaviors. In addition, there are two more concepts – positive and negative. In the operant conditioning, positive means adding of reinforcement or punishment; in contrast, negative means removal of reinforcement or punishment. Similarly, according to Staats (1966), the classical conditioning can also explain human behaviors as well. As mentioned previously, the classical conditioning consists of UCS, UCR, NS, CS, and CR, and the primary focus of the classical conditioning is the associations between those factors. That is, in order to elicit CR, UCS, NS, and CS need to be pared. Those two types of behavioral concepts are embedded into behavioral therapies. In fact, systematic desensitization, extinction, contingency management, aversion procedure, implosion therapy, token economy, time-out, and so on contain the principles of either the operant conditioning or the classical conditioning (Masters et al., 1987).
However, even though those techniques have empirically supported research evidence mentioned previously, in order to desensitize the clients, each technique must meet the basic principles of the operant and the classical conditioning. For example, systematic desensitization requires clients to associate between hierarchically imagined fear- or anxiety-evoking factors and relaxation. That is, systematic desensitization is based upon the principle of the classical conditioning – making connections. Thus, if those associations are successfully connected, clients can reduce their fears or anxieties. On the other hand, if those associations are not created, clients do not respond to systematic desensitization. Similarly, time-out procedure is based upon the principles of the operant conditioning, specifically positive punishment. In other words, in time-out procedure, after acting badly, clients are added unwanted factors so that they will be less likely to behave badly in the future. Thus, if those bad behaviors are appropriately and correctly punished by adding something unpleasant factors, the clients are less likely to behave those behaviors in the future. However, if those behaviors are not punished and, instead, reinforced, those behaviors are more likely to occur in the future. In addition, one of the components proposed by Bandura in modeling is the motor reproduction processes (Masters et al., 1987).
... to do! Modeling therapy The therapy Bandura is most famous for, however, is modeling therapy. The ... Therapy Self-control therapy The ideas behind self-regulation have been incorporated into a therapy technique called self-control therapy. ... suggested that environment causes behavior, true; but behavior causes environment as well. ... himself calming instructions. After the client has seen all this (no ...
This phase requires individuals to have not only physical capabilities but also abilities of replications of observed behaviors. In other words, if individuals do not have those abilities or have physical disabilities, observed behaviors are less likely to be imitated.
In contrast, cognitive approach focuses on completely different aspect as compared to behavioral approach. According to Masters et al. (1987), the primary focus of cognitive approach is cognition. In fact, both RET and Beck’s cognitive therapy emphasize cognition, and the goal of those two therapeutic approaches is to modify maladaptive or irrational thoughts. In particular, RET focuses on “must” or “should” statement, “awfulizing” statement, and so on. Similarity, Beck’s cognitive therapy also focuses on maladaptive thoughts, called cognitive distortion, such as personalization selective abstraction, and overgeneralization, and so on. Thus, therapists in cognitive approach need to identify those irrational or maladaptive thoughts so that their clients can recognize those thoughts and eventually can change those thoughts into more appropriate ones. In those maladaptive thoughts are identified correctly, both RET and Beck’s cognitive therapy can desensitize problems among clients. However, if those maladaptive thoughts are not correctly identified, clients are less likely to be desensitized. Moreover, one of the components of modeling proposed by Bandura is the retention processes. This phase requires individuals to code or remember what the behaviors are. That is, individuals are required to have cognitive abilities to organize those behaviors. Thus, if individuals have some cognitive disabilities or have difficult time remembering those behaviors, they are less likely to be desensitized by modeling procedures.
By comparing those two different therapeutic approaches, there are some commonalities. For example, both behavioral and cognitive approaches emphasize the importance of homework outside therapeutic context (Masters et al., 1987).
That is, the more clients practice what they have learned, the more likely they reduce their problems and improve. Another example is that both approaches require systematic conductions of therapy sessions in certain orders. For example, in systematic desensitization, it is essential to have clients imagine the least to the most fear- or anxiety-evoking factors in graduated as well as hierarchical manners. If those acts are not strictly adhered to graduated manners, clients may not benefit from systematic desensitization procedures. Similarly, according to Sharf (2007), Beck’s cognitive therapy requires extensive interviewing with clients so that therapists can correctly identify what their automatic thought as well as cognitive distortions are. In other words, if therapists do not interview their clients extensively, they may not be able to identify not only automatic thoughts but also cognitive distortions, indicating that clients may not recover or improve symptoms. Thus, being strictly adhered to the rules of each therapeutic technique is a very important, critical, and essential part of therapies in order to obtain full amount of effectiveness of therapies.
By focusing on emotional aspects, it is possible provide the reasons why clients may or may not show improvement to desensitization. According to Staats (1996), one of basic concepts of psychological behaviorism is the biological bases, specifically in terms of genetic influences. That is, some people are prone to feel depressions, sadness, or any kind of emotions with small amounts of stimulus, whereas other people require large amounts of stimulus to feel the same emotions. For example, if clients do not show any response to desensitization procedures by applying certain types of therapeutic approaches, this may or may not mean those therapeutic approaches are useless. In other words, there are individuals differences based on genetic predispositions. Another way to explain the reasons based on emotional aspects, there are not only attentional but also motivational concerns. For example, one of the components in modeling procedures proposed by Bandura is attentional processes, and the rest of the components is motivational processes. Attentional processes require clients to pay attention to behaviors, and motivational processes refer to reinforcements from self or environments. In other words, when individuals do not have those two aspects, they are less likely to be desensitized. In addition, Bandura also mentions about the importance of self-efficacy (Masters et al., 1987).
The self-efficacy is the belief that represents eagerness or senses of being competence and effective. Based on the concept of self-efficacy, high self-efficacy is related to high success in therapeutic outcomes, whereas individuals with low self-efficacy are less likely to be successful in terms of therapeutic improvements. In fact, Masters et al. (1987) mention that individuals high self-efficacy overcame fears toward snakes as compared to individuals with low self-efficacy.
In conclusion, by combining every aspect of behavioral, cognitive, and emotional components, it is possible to state that individuals with high self-efficacy are more likely to be desensitized if therapists follow each procedures carefully by strictly adhered to the rules based on each therapeutic approach along with healthy body conditions. However, because individuals are predisposed to behave or feel in certain ways, they may not express any response to desensitization if therapists offer small amounts of stimulus or may show response to desensitization with small amounts of stimulus.
2. What are cognitive-behavioral techniques that are effective in: (Define each technique, identify its originator)
Cognitive-behavioral techniques are a summary of techniques from behavioral therapy, rational emotive therapy (RET) and Beck’s cognitive therapy. Behavioral therapy emphasis on changing automatic behaviors and both RET and cognitive therapies focus on changing irrational or distorted thoughts. All techniques in those three therapies could used to treat several aspects of the problems such as improving social skill, managing anxiety, and treating depression.
1. Systematic desensitization (Joseph Wolpe): relaxation techniques which presented fear or anxiety-evoking factors hierarchically, and treat from the least to the most.
2. Relaxation training (Edmund Jacobson): teaching relaxation to reduce emotional arousing
3. EMG biofeedback, the advanced technology, clients learn their biological responses so that they can make connections between relaxation and their biological responses efficiently
4. Virtual reality simulation, the advanced technology, experiencing three dimensional image. Maltby, Kirsch, Mayers, and Allen (2002) examined the effective usage of virtual reality simulation for the exposure therapy of fear of flying in their study
5. home practice, n/a, one type of the homework that therapists give their clients to practice on their own, such as relaxation technique
6. imaginary, n/a, behavioral therapeutic technique that clients are required to imagine certain factors. In systematic desensitization, clients are required to imagine their fear- or anxiety-evoking factors
7. In vivo, Bandura and Wolpe, behavioral therapeutic technique that clients are required to be the actual fear- or anxiety-evoking situations. That is, this technique is done in real life situations
8. counter-conditioning, Wolpe, the process of systematic desensitization that negative responses are replaced with more positive responses
9. non-specific factor, n/a, clients can benefit from factors that are not directly related to therapies, such as expectations toward the outcome, the relationships between therapists and clients, and so on
10. in vivo desensitization, n/a, clients experience the fear- or anxiety-evoking situations from the least to the most fear- or anxiety-evoking situations in real life situations
11. refusal assertiveness, Chistoff and Kelly, one of the three types of assertive behaviors that are used in assertive trainings. This behavior is the behaviors to hold beliefs or rights even though situations are not easy to do so
12. commendatory assertiveness, Chistoff and Kelly, one of the three types of assertive behaviors that are used in assertive trainings. This behavior is the behavior to express positive feelings or emotions freely
13. request assertiveness, Chistoff and Kelly, one of the three types of assertive behaviors that are used in assertive trainings. This behavior is the behavior to request one’s own favors without violating the social rules
14. conditioned reflex therapy, Andrew Salter, the original work for assertive training
15. Conflict Resolution Inventory, Macfall and Lillesand, the self-report measurement aimed at college students to measure assertiveness levels
16. psychodrama, Moreno, acting and pretending as if clients were the idealized person
17. fixed-role therapy, Kelly, similar to psychodrama
18. shaping, n/a, this technique involves successive approximation, and this is used to form complex behaviors by reinforcing once clients reach each goal
19. role reversal, n/a, this technique is similar to role playing: therapist act as client, and client act as therapist
20. homework assignment, n/a, clients are required to practice on their own outside the therapeutic context
21. minimal effective response, n/a, this is the behavior that can be acted with minimum effort and also less likely to have negative consequence
22. escalation, Macfall and Marston, this is the technique to have clients face more challenging and threatening situations once clients obtained minimal effective response
23. self-efficacy, Bandura, the belief that one can achieve his or her goals
24. co-therapists, n/a, in assertion trainings, in some circumstances, co-therapists can give their clients more benefit than one therapist
25. group therapy, n/a, therapy sessions that have multiple clients who all of the same problems. In group therapy of assertion training, clients are required to greet, exchange compliment, or say positive self-statement
26. modeling, Bandura, this is the notion that humans learn behaviors through observing others, and modeling consists of four basic phases – attentional phase, retention phase, motor reproduction phase, and motivation phase. In addition, affective valence of the behavior, complexity of behavior, and prevalence of exhibited behaviors are important components in modeling procedures
27. imitation, n/a, copying behaviors of others
28. observational learning, Bandura, this is related to modeling, and this theory explains human behaviors as the result of interactions between environments and self
29. symbolic coding, n/a, the ways to describe the behaviors in words
30. graduated modeling, Bandura, one type of modeling procedures that require client to model whose behaviors are threatening for the clients
31. guided modeling, Bandura, one type of modeling procedures that require client to model by practicing or rehearsing the behaviors along with accurate guidance
32. guided modeling with reinforcement, Bandura, the same concept described above plus reinforcement
33. participant modeling, Bandura, this modeling technique involves the participations of clients along with modeled demonstration
34. modeling with guided performance, Bandura, this technique involves modeling a desired behavior and guiding the client’s performance
35. contact desensitization, Bandura, one of the techniques in modeling procedures, and this technique requires therapists to guide with direct body contact
36. covert modeling, Bandura, this is the technique that involves imaginations of modeling of the behaviors
37. modeling with response-induction aids and self-directed mastery, Bandura, this technique requires other factors, such as gloves, to reduce anxiety so that clients can model the behaviors easily
38. coping model, Bandura, this is the techniques that clients learn how to cope with fear- or anxiety-evoking situations
39. mastery model, Bandura, this is techniques used in modeling that indicates the flawless performance by acting perfect
40. symbolic modeling, Bandura, this is the technique that models are in the video or not in live situation
41. live modeling, Bandura, this is modeling procedure type that models are actual humans at the situations where clients observe the behaviors
42. self-directed mastery, Bandura, without any help or guide from therapists or others, clients can approach feared stimuli and practice on their own
43. self-modeling, n/a, by watching one’s own behaviors that are videotaped, clients can learn new behavioral patterns
44. guided behavior rehearsal, Bandura, when therapists guide their clients what is the most accurate modeled behaviors and have them rehearse those behaviors, clients maximize the impact of modeling
45. modeling for skill facilitation, n/a, modeling procedures can be applied to learn new skills, such as social skill, problem solving skills, and so on
46. multiple models, n/a, since every individual behave differently, clients can choose the most suitable behaviors for them from multiple modelers
47. vicarious punishment procedures, n/a, modeling procedures that clients watch behaviors of others based on negative consequence
48. exaggerated-role training, Kelly, this is very similar to role play, but the targeted behaviors are very limited and very specific
49. self-regulated role playing, n/a, the combinations of role play with descriptions as well as behaviors
50. discrimination training, n/a, clients learn what behaviors are appropriate and what behaviors are not based on certain types of circumstances
51. contingency management, n/a, this concept is based upon reinforcement as well as punishment
52. specificity and thoroughness, n/a, in contingency management, therapists must consider about specificity and thoroughness toward what kinds of reinforcements to use, when to apply those reinforcements, and so on
53. reinforcement, Skinner, the concept of contingency management which is to increase the probabilities of wanted behaviors, and this term is used interchangeably with reward
54. positive reinforcement, Skinner, this is the techniques that increase the probabilities of wanted behaviors by adding something pleasant
55. negative reinforcement, Skinner, this is the techniques that increase the probabilities of wanted behaviors by removing something unpleasant
56. punishment, Skinner, the concept of contingency management which is to decrease the probabilities of unwanted behaviors
57. positive punishment, Skinner, this is the techniques that decrease the probabilities of unwanted behaviors by adding something unpleasant
58. negative punishment, Skinner, this is the technique that decrease the probabilities of unwanted behaviors by removing something pleasant
59. contingency, n/a, this is the concept that punishment or reinforcement always follows the behaviors
60. baseline measurement, n/a, to obtain the data prior to therapy sessions in order to compare how much improvements clients have made afterwards
61. direct observational report, n/a, in this procedures, whoever can record the frequency and the magnitude of the behaviors
62. operational definition, n/a, very specific and clarified definition
63. parents or other than therapists becoming “therapists,” trained by professionals, observe or record the frequencies or intensities of targeted behaviors. In particular, this approach is useful in case of children being clients. Moreover, this approach is also applied to train contingency manager
64. self-monitoring, n/a, individuals monitor their own behaviors
65. Mediation-Reinforcer Incomplete Blank, Tharp and Wetzel, the way to indicate the best reinforcer for individuals
66. Reinforcing Event Menu, Homme, the another way to indicate favorable reinforcers
67. self-control, Bandura and Perloff, this is the technique to increase the effectiveness of contingency management, and there are four components in self-control – self-assessment, self-recording, self-control, and self-administration
68. time-out, n/a, this is one of the techniques in contingency management. In particular, this technique is related to positive punishment, and individuals are isolated from social interactions because of inappropriate behaviors (punishment)
69. response cost, n/a, removal or withdrawal of reinfocers that follow unwanted behaviors
70. differential reinforcement, n/a, implementation of non-reinforcer as well as reinforcer, and often this is referred as differential reinforcement of other behavior
71. differential reinforcement for high frequency responding, n/a, receiving or giving reinforcements only when behaviors are in high frequency situations
72. differential reinforcement for low frequency responding, n/a, receiving or giving reinforcements only when behaviors are in low frequency situations
73. covert positive reinforcement, Homme, imagining positive consequences
74. covert negative reinforcement, Homme, imagining the termination of negative consequences
75. contingency contracting, Homme, this is one of the techniques used in contingency management, which deals with making contract between therapists and clients about what is in contingency management for that particular client
76. deposit contingency, n/a, this is one type of contingency contrast. This is the agreement to commit money in contingency management
77. token economy and token system, n/a, this is one of the techniques in contingency management. Clients receive tokens for the targeted behaviors and exchange those tokens with pleasant factors depending upon the numbers of tokens. Moreover, therapists carefully have to plan the token economy by considering what the targeted behaviors are, what the currencies are, and what to exchange with tokens, along with extensive trainings of staff
78. enforced sampling of activities, Ayllon and Azrin, this is the effective way to increase reinforcing properties
79. fading procedures, n/a, this is a part of token system. This technique is to remove the contingency once targeted behaviors are learned
80. reversal design, n/a, the most commonly used research design, which contains baseline data, initial data for contingency implementation, and baseline data by removing contingency
81. multiple baseline design, n/a, another type of research design used in contingency management, which is applied when behaviors are change-worthy
82. rater reliability, n/a, the average reliabilities of two raters toward targeted behaviors, and the higher rater reliabilities, the better
83. verbal report, n/a, clients explain their symptoms verbally, which is another way of obtaining the data
84. teaching-family group home treatment program, n/a, this program offers short and intensive interventions for family as well as children (http://www.teaching-family.org/programs.html)
85. multiple contingency manager, n/a, this is techniques is used to enhance generalization of contingency management
86. spillover effect, n/a, this concept is similar to modeling as well as generalization
87. extinction, n/a, unlearning of the behaviors
88. differential reinforcement, n/a, this technique is based on contingency management and used to extinct the behaviors. The techniques involve providing reinforcement for certain types of behaviors at certain times and places
89. neutralization, n/a, this is the techniques used in extinction procedures, and the main purpose of this technique is to neutralize the reinforcement, whereas reinforcements do not occur at other times and other places
90. graduating extinction, n/a, this is the techniques used in extinction procedures which involves re-experiencing of fear- or anxiety-evoking situations in graduated manners
91. covert extinction, n/a, this techniques involve imaginations of behaving problematic behaviors without any reinforcement in order to extinct
92. negative practice, n/a, this technique involves extinguish the behaviors rather than suppress the behaviors, and this is one of the techniques used in extinction procedures
93. massing practice, Hull, one of the techniques used in extinction procedures which involves extinguishing of behaviors as well as constructing of reactive inhibition
94. stimulus satiation, n/a, one of the extinction technique by reducing the attractiveness of stimulus
95. implosive therapy, Thomas Stampfl, this is the techniques used in anxiety induction therapy, and this technique involves not to avoid from fear- or anxiety-evoking situations until clients no longer have fears or anxieties
96. flooding, Malleson, this is one of the extinction techniques which involves exposures toward anxiety-evoking situations by imaginations. In addition, this technique is used as response prevention
97. in vivo flooding, n/a, the same technique as flooding, yet clients experience fear- or anxiety evoking situations in real life situations
98. graduated extinction, n/a, this is the technique designed to eliminate avoidance and fearful behaviors by the gradual re-exposure to fear- or anxiety-evoking stimuli
99. sensitization/aversive counter-conditioning, n/a, one of the techniques used in aversion procedures, which involves the associations between unpleasant stimulus and unwanted behaviors
100. aversion procedures with mild aversive stimulus, n/a, this is one of the techniques used in aversion procedures that involves mild version of aversive stimulus. This procedures is most commonly used because of the ethical issues, indicating that if the stimulus are too aversive, it is more likely to be problematic
101. overcorrection, n/a, the techniques that involves enforced actions that undoes
102. aversive behavior rehearsal, n/a, the clients are required to behave certain types of behaviors repeatedly until they feel aversion
103. covert punishment, n/a, clients are required to imagine aversive stimulus with problematic behaviors so that they can make connections between those two factors
104. emetics, n/a, this is the drug that is most commonly used in aversion procedures
105. escape training, n/a, this is the technique that aversive stimulus are always on clients until clients stop behaving badly
106. counteranxiety relief procedure, n/a, technique used in aversion procedure, and in this technique, neutral stimulus helps to decrease anxiety-provoking stimulus
107. covert sensitization, n/a, this techniques requires clients to imagine aversive stimulus and problematic behaviors
108. rational emotive therapy, Ellis, this is the therapeutic approach that focuses on changing the irrational thoughts, such as awfulized thoughts, must and should, blaming, and so on, by applying ABCDE analysis.
109. systematic rational restructuring, Goldfried, this is the type of therapeutic approach that is more structured form of rational emotive therapy
110. cognitive restructuring, n/a, this is the technique used to modify cognitions or the ways of thinking
111. cognitive therapy, Beck, this is the therapeutic approach that focuses on modifying maladaptive thoughts or automatic thoughts along with ABC paradigm
112. collaborative empiricism, Beck, this is one of the therapeutic technique used in Beck’s cognitive therapy, and this is the concept that therapy is empirically conducted with both clients and therapists
113. cognitive triad, Beck, this is the technique used in Beck’s cognitive therapy that describes depression based on the concept of the self, the world, and the future
114. self-monitoring, n/a, this is the assignment that clients work on which records the changes in cognitions
115. activity schedule making, n/a, this is the daily activities that clients and therapists make together
116. mastery and pleasure therapy, n/a, this technique teach clients how to enjoy their lives
117. disattribution/ decatestrophizing, n/a, these are the special techniques used to modify maladaptive cognitions
118. self-instructional training, Meichenbaum, individuals learn how to control themselves by trying to figure things out
119. thought stopping, Wolpe, trying to stop thinking about troublesome thoughts by saying “stop” verbally
120. personal science, Mahoney, the techniques to obtain coping skills based on the acronym of SCIENCE
121. positive cognition, n/a, this is the technique used to alter their beliefs
122. false physiological feedback, Valins and Ray, clients are lied about their physiological status, which eventually helps to modify their cognitions
123. self-control, n/a, clients learn how to modify their problematic behaviors along with the concept of operant conditioning, specifically in terms of reinforcement. If clients are motivated or have higher self-efficacy levels, the learned behaviors will be maintained for a long period of time. In addition, this technique is embedded into any kind of behavioral therapy easily
124. stimulus control, n/a, clients can strength desirable stimulus and decrease undesirable stimulus by changing environments
125. cue strengthening, n/a, the technique used in self-control that requires clients to use certain types of stimulus only for certain types of behaviors
126. alternative behavior patterns, n/a, by learning about alternative behaviors, clients can avoid doing problematic behaviors at certain types of situations
127. relapse prevention program, Marlatt, by teaching clients about abstinence violation effect, clients can be prevent from relapsing the problematic behaviors. In addition, there are two concepts – moral and medical reason to relapse
128. teaching, n/a, by teaching clients about basic knowledge toward their problems, clients can keep doing self-control. For example, if one is in self-control for dieting, he or she can be taught about exercise, calories, and so on
129. medication, n/a, medication can be helpful in certain types of self-control program
130. social support, n/a, social support from others can be helpful in certain types of self-control program
131. rapid smoking, n/a, this technique is carried out in smoking self-control program, and this is to keep smoking until clients cannot smoke anymore, which is related to aversion procedures
132. SQ3R method, n/a, this is the specialized techniques to improve efficacy of studying
133. stress inoculation, n/a, this technique is related to self-control skills, and this is to teach how to cope with stress based on varieties of behavioral techniques, such as ABC paradigm, coping self-statements, reinforcements, and so on. This approach is used in anger management and pain control
134. EEG, n/a, this tells therapists about brain wave activity
135. PVC, n/a, clients can learn how to control their hear rate in order to relax based on biofeedback
136. behavioral medicine, n/a, this is the technique applied to enhance health as well as to protect from illness among individuals. This technique is based on varieties of behavioral techniques along with biopsychosocial model – relaxation techniques, systematic desensitization, biofeedback, self-monitoring, contingency management, stimulus control, punishment, aversive procedures, modeling, cognitive-behavioral, and inventories
137. multimodal behavior therapy, Lazarus, this therapeutic approach is based on the acronym of BASIC-ID, which includes biological, psychological, physiological, and social aspects
138. material reinforcer, Skinner, reinforcers that are material, such as candy
139. social reinforcers, Skinner, reinforcers that are related to social events, such as smiles
140. activity reinforcers, Premack, reinforcers that are related to activities, and also called Premack principle
141. token reinforcers, Skinner, reinforcers that are used in token economy or system
142. covert reinforcers, Skinner, this is self-reinforcements
143. extrinsic reinforcement, Skinner, externally administered reinforcement
144. intrinsic reinforcement, Skinner, reinforcements that are interesting or valuable
145. continuous reinforcement, Skinner, reinforced every behaviors
146. intermittent reinforcement, Skinner, reinforced randomly
147. fixed ratio schedule, Skinner, after the certain numbers, reinforced
148. variable ratio schedule, Skinner, randomly reinforced
149. temporal gradient of reinforcement, Skinner, the concept that immediate reinforcement is more powerful than delayed reinforcement
150. interval schedule, Skinner, this can be fixed interval or variable interval schedule, and the basic concept of interval schedule is based on the amount of time between reinforcement
151. paradigmatic behaviorism model, Staats, Eifert, and Heiby, the integrated model based on the critical concepts of many other approaches as well as principles to describe the etiology of depressions
152. basic behavioral repertories, Staates and Heiby, the concept toward emotional-motivational, language-cognitive, and sensory motor response
153. affective reinforcing directive, Staats, the first emotion
3. Compare Operant Conditioning with Psychological Behaviorism in terms of:
Focus Altern Complement Ther 1999; 4: 109–10 Efficacy and effectiveness
Max H Pittler, Adrian R White
American Psychological Association Task Force on Psychological Intervention Guidelines. (1995).
Templates for developing guidelines: Interventions for mental disorders and psychological aspects of physical disorders. Washington, DC: Author.