This research investigated the affect parenting styles have on a person’s performance in the workplace. Parenting styles play a major role in a child’s future performance. How parents raise their kids affects the kids for the rest of their lives. As with any aspect of psychology there is no right or wrong way about it. However, each parenting style has its pros and cons and this is why I have chosen this topic. To find out how different parenting styles affect the performance of the child in the workplace later on in their lives. I was involved in a project and I was investigating the effect parenting styles have on a person’s choice of a workplace and their performance later on. The topic for the research is “How parenting styles affect a person’s performance in the workplace” From the research made a logical conclusion was drawn where you can clearly see that each parenting style affects the child’s behavior and a later on performance in life in a certain way. There are four major parenting styles such as; * Authoritarian
Authoritarian and uninvolved parenting styles affect the child’s performance in a negative way the most. These types of parenting styles traumatize the child at an early age, by being emotionally and sometimes physically detached from the child. Permissive parenting style allows the child to develop creatively to the full potential because the child has a freedom of choice from an early age. Authoritative parenting style teaches the child discipline and at the same time provides nurture and understanding for the child.
Everyone has had some type of caregiver some point in his or her life. The only difference is the type of method used for parenting. “Parenting styles have been grouped into four different styles: indulgent, authoritarian, authoritative, and uninvolved” (Darling & Eric, 1999. para. 3). With each kind of parenting style, there are pros and cons that help or disrupt a child’s well-being. Parents ...
According to Kendra Cherry (Defining Psychology, 2008) psychology is a mixture of both Philosophy and Biology. It is a field that studies the human mind and behavior. Psychological research usually tries to explain thoughts, emotions and behavior. Research by Brad Bell (Importance of Psychology, 2007) illustrates that psychology is an important subject because it enables a human being to learn more about others improve one-self and solve important problems. Psychology is a very broad subject and it consists of a lot of different theories. One of the main theories of psychology is behavioral theories, cognitive theories, developmental theories etc. Each of the theories describes a different aspect of thoughts, behavior and emotions. I have chosen to do the parenting styles and parenting styles fall under the Developmental Theories. According to Kendra Cherry (Psychology Theories, 2008) those are the theories that describe and explain humans’ growth, development and learning. A lot of famous psychologists were involved in the developmental theories such as; * Freud’s Theory of Psychosexual Development
* Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development
* Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
I decided to go with the Parenting Styles Theory, because nowadays there are a significant number of different parenting styles and all of them result in different outcomes. This research discusses a Developmental Theory and uses a qualitative research approach. Qualitative research is usually used in order to get a deeper understanding of what is being investigated. For qualitative research the most common data collection method is observations. Moreover, it is usually described in a way of a words rather than variables. Aim
The aim for my project is to find out how parenting styles affect the person’s performance in the workplace. Objectives and Justification
1. To investigate different parenting styles
* This enabled me to see how the parenting styles differ from one another. 2. To examine the outcome of each parenting style
* I had to look at the outcome and what, that particular parenting style lead to. How it affected the child’s performance later on in life. 3. To draw conclusions and make a summary on how the theory correlates with the real life example. * This objective enabled me to provide a summary for the whole research and see the outcome of the investigation clearly.
According to psychologist Diana Baumrind there are four parenting styles; Authoritarian, Authoritative, Permissive and Uninvolved parenting. Baumrind studied how these parenting styles impacted a child’s development. •Authoritarian Parenting – this type of parent is demanding but not responsive, children are expected to follow the strict rules and parents fail to explain their reasons behind their ...
It is often difficult to find the link between the child’s later performance and the actions parents took when raising the child. Sometimes children raised in completely different environments may have similar personalities. And on the contrary some children are raised in the same environment turn out to have completely different personalities. According to Kendra Cherry (The Four Styles of Parenting, 2007) during 1960s, psychologist Diana Baumrind carried out a research investigating more than 100 pre-school children. The research was conducted using several methods such as; naturalistic observations, interviews with parents etc. After the research she has identified four major ways parents treat their children such as; * Disciplinary strategies
* Warmth and nurturance
* Communication styles
* Expectations of maturity and control
From these results it was suggested that there are three major parenting styles. However, later research by Maccoby and Martin (1983) suggested that there is another major parenting style. The four major parenting styles are; * Authoritarian Parenting
* Authoritative Parenting
* Permissive Parenting
* Uninvolved Parenting
According Positive Parenting Ally (The four Styles, 2007) these types of parents are most of the time too demanding of their children and they establish rules that have to be followed by the children. In a case if the child disobeys the rule, he gets punished for it without any explanations. Moreover, the parents are usually unable to provide reasons as to why they have set these particular rules. Often, such parents have high demands without being responsive to their children; they give orders without giving any examples or providing some understanding. Authoritative Parenting
Research by Anita Gurian (Different Parenting Styles, 2010) states that this parenting style is similar to the previous one; however the difference is that these types of parents are more democratic concerning their parenting. The children still have to follow a set type of rules, but they receive more understanding from their parents. The parents are usually opened to any questions. If the child is unable to meet parents’ expectations at some point, the parents provide more nurture in those cases rather than punishing the child. These types of parents’ state clear standards and help the children reach them. Their parenting is more supportive rather than punitive. Permissive Parenting
During the past twenty years of my life, I was always regarding my parents as extraordinary and authoritative models of my life. I adored them so much as if everything they had done was not only right but also great. As for my parents, they paid much attention to setting a good example for me since I was a little girl. The situation lasts and I have never thought of any possible changes in the ...
Research by Gwen Dewar (The four Styles, 2010) illustrates that these types of parents often do not have any disciplinary rules or demands of their children. They do not have many expectations of the children, thus they are more commutative with their children and are more responsive. Compared to other parenting styles, this one is more non-traditional and has little control of their children. Uninvolved Parenting
According to Chacha Tumbokon (Parenting Styles, 2007) these types of parents most often have low demands, low expectations and barely any communication with the child. The child learns and matures as he grows by himself. However, parents with this parenting style do provide the basic needs of the child but they are just disconnected from the child’s life. Sometimes, the parents do not even respond to the needs of the children. From everything written you can see the four major parenting styles and the differences between them. It is clear that each of them have drastically different results in child performance later on in the workplace. Impacts of each parenting styles
Child’s performance, social competence, psychological behavior and all other aspects are affected by the earlier parenting styles used on the child. When parents are responsive to their kids it usually results in a better social competence of the child. Moreover, if the parents are more demanding this results in a better instrumental competence. Authoritarian Parenting
Children whose parents have authoritarian parenting styles usually turn out to perform well at school, they are mostly uninvolved in problem behavior such as drugs, alcohol etc. However, those kids usually have problems with social skills; have lower self esteem and higher levels of depression, most of the time the kids turn out to be unhappy. Baumrind D. (1991) stated that children with authoritarian parenting are less mature, have lower moral reasoning and psychologically competent. They have lower self esteems, but they have a higher level of resistance in a way of being influenced by peers etc. According to Carlson, Uppal & Prosser (2000) this type of parenting results in higher obedience from children.
Today’s children face more diversity than their parents were when they were at the same age. The cultural differences in how the parents deal and communicate with their children around the world are a great challenge. Parent’s involvement in their children’s literacy and communication either in school, home or community will be effective through communication strategies and awareness about ...
Additionally, Bayer and Cegala (1992) stated that children with authoritarian parenting style tend to have negative argumentativeness with positive aggressiveness. Children with this parenting style usually end up having a low self-esteem together with low self worth. On the outside the child seems to be well behaved, polite and obedient. However, when you look at what’s going on in the child’s mind, you will notice that those children have a lot of complexes due to psychological consequences. Due to childhood strict conditions the child learns to adopt a simplified way of thinking, where he does whatever he is told to do. Their views have only two sides, right and wrong. They often do not have their own opinions on things; they only think what they have been told to. These kids end up thinking that they are not worthy and mostly unseen by their peers and that they don’t have a say in their life. Authoritative Parenting
Children whose parents were authoritative usually are more instrumentally competent, well behaved and have better school accomplishments compared to the kids with other parenting styles. Additionally, these kids have adapted better to different social environments, more emotionally healthy. It was stated by Hein and Lewko (1994), that children with authoritative parenting have better interpersonal relationships with their parents, friends etc. Durbin (1993) carried out a research investigating over 3,000 kids from the 9th to 12th grade stated that those kids whose parents had authoritative parenting tend to belong to groups such as “brains” and “populars”. Meaning they are more study oriented and tend to strive better at school.
Hein and Lewko (1994) stated that this type of parenting results in a child’s higher motivation and higher levels of achievement. However, Fletcher and Jefferies (1999) found that authoritative parenting caused anger and alienation in children from 7th to 8th grade. Children whose parents continue with the authoritative parenting maintain the levels of high adjustment. Overall, it is stated by many psychologists that authoritative parenting is more beneficial for the child. According to Baumrind (1991) kids who had authoritative parenting styles turn out to be more psychosocially competent, mature and more morally reasonable. They tend to have higher levels of independence at all ages. Permissive Parenting
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According to Hickman (2000) permissive parenting style allows the child to be completely free to make life decisions without asking parents advice. These children usually have higher self-esteem and lower levels of anxiety and depressions. The parents provide higher responsiveness to their children with a lower demand. Children with permissive parenting style often have better social skills compared to other children with other parenting styles. However, these children are more prone to problem behavior, such as taking drugs etc. meaning they have lower peer resistance. Additionally, such children usually do not do so well in school. Additionally, permissive parenting often results in lower cognitive ability results from the children.
Hein & Lewko (1994) stated that children with permissive parenting styles had lower interpersonal relationships with their parents, peers etc. These children end up having problems with controlling their behavior later on in lives. Moreover, they have little gratitude towards others. The child usually ends up with lower maturity level as opposed to kids with other parenting styles. It is said that all children want to have boundaries and rules to lead them. However, when parents do not provide those rules it results in a child leading himself which is unhelpful for the child and may lead to undesirable outcomes. Also, when those children grow up they often feel resentment towards their parents for not leading them in the right direction and not teaching them discipline. As an adult, the child of permissive parents cannot impose discipline upon himself.
According to Kendra Cherry (What is Uninvolved Parenting, 2007) children of uninvolved parents turn out to be the most affected compared to all the other parenting styles. Parents of this type have low responsiveness together with demand. The parents are emotionally detached from their child. Those children have the least peer resistance and are prone to drugs, alcohol etc. As adults, kids of uninvolved parents usually go through a lot of stress, fear, anxiety due to the lack of family support. At an early age those kids have to learn to provide for themselves, they have no one to lead them and teach them the dos and don’ts. These children are often afraid of becoming dependent on others since they were emotionally deprived earlier. This then leads to the opposite, which is dependency on other people without them acknowledging it. The child is often less achievement-oriented, much more anti-social and possess social disturbances. These children later on have problems with emotional attachments and generally perform really low in any aspects of life.
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Idiographic approach is being used for this research. The reason why an idiographic approach was chosen is because it enables the researcher to investigate an individual in detail and allows you to achieve a more unique understanding of that particular individual. According to First Year Psychology (Idiographic vs. Nomothetic Approaches, 2009) generally idiographic approaches assume that each human is unique in their own ways. A lot of famous psychologists used an idiographic approach because they believed each individual was unique and they wanted to investigate individuals more accurately. However, idiographic approaches don’t only depend on what the psychologist was investigating but also on the methods used.
Freud was one of the famous psychologists that used an idiographic approach in his researches. One of which was a clinical case study where a patient was interviewed over a long period of time. This approach was chosen because it allowed me to collect more complete understanding of each individual. However, this type of approach has its cons as well. For example, with an idiographic approach it is hard to generalize the findings e.g. Freud’s universal theory that was based on a limited number of individuals. Usually this type of research is more unreliable in comparison to nomothetic approach. Qualitative Research
Moreover, since I was using an idiographic approach I had to use qualitative type of research because it correlates the best with this type of approach. Carrying out a case study would provide a deeper understanding of an individual. The research will be long term and more flexible in its nature. Some famous psychologists such as Carl Rogers did not think quantitative research was enough to describe individuals, which is how the qualitative research was introduced. According to Saul Mcleod (Qualitative vs. Quantitative, 2008) qualitative data is harder to analyze because it is not presented in a numerical way. However, it is more descriptive, thus more appropriate for this type of research. By collecting only quantitative data it isolates other sides of behavior, which makes it less accurate and ethical. Descriptive Collection Method
Additionally, I was using a descriptive collection method for the research. This type of method involves both qualitative research and quantitative, it does not have a specific niche where it fits. It is also used to describe different categories of qualitative data. According to Kendra Cherry (Descriptive Research Method, 2009) it enables you to gather the data, describe that particular event or individual then organize, tabulate and describe the data. This type of method uses a description as a tool to sort the data out and put it into patterns. Moreover, this method often uses graphs and charts to illustrate the findings. The data collection methods that are often used with this approach are naturalistic observations, case studies, interviews, surveys etc. For this research the best form of data collection method would most likely be case study.
The reason why is because it would enable me to collect a more in depth details, as well as observation of the behavior. It allows the researcher to have visual cues. Freud was one of the psychologists who based his psychoanalytic theory partly on the case studies carried out. According to Saul Mcleod (Case Study in Psychology, 2008) case studies allow you to simply observe the events or behaviors, as well as look at the case history to gain a broader picture. As with all the things there are pros and cons to everything. Case studies allow you to obtain good hypotheses and it enables the researcher to observe an individual in much more detail. The most significant problem with case studies would be the reliability of it. The reason why is because a small amount of participants is examined and sometimes it is not enough to base a global theory on. Additionally, case studies may turn out to be subjective because the researcher is only looking at the situation from their point of view.
However, a lot of great psychologists were using these approaches such as Sigmund, Freud, Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson etc. which makes case studies a valid form of research. While using a qualitative method of data collection you have to follow certain principles. Usually when collecting this type of data the researcher often turns out to have bias information because they often look at the situation from one perspective. Additionally, the study groups sometimes may not be enough to represent the whole population. The analysis of the findings usually ends up being altered in some way by the researcher because of their subjective point of view. In my research I will try to reduce the amount of bias by trying to look at the situation from different perspectives. I have to look at the situation from a general point rather than try to see or get the results that I want to see. Additionally, case studies, surveys or any types of observations have to be agreed with the person being investigated in advance.
For this research the sampling that will be used is probability sampling. The reason why this sampling is chosen is depending on the topic. The topic in this research is how do different parenting styles affect a child’s performance later on in life. Everyone is affected by a certain parenting style at any point, whether it’s positive or negative. That is why probability sampling is used; there is an equal chance for everyone to be selected. However, there is a number of different probability samplings and the sampling that will be used in this research is stratified random sampling. The reason why it had to be used is because I need to find out the information for each type of parenting style. In this case the population has to be subdivided into groups of individuals with different parenting styles. Then an individual will randomly be picked from each group to be investigated. Since the research has to be related to the performance in the workplace, a company will be chosen. In that company individuals participating in the research will be subdivided into groups of four different parenting styles.
Then one individual will be picked from each group to be investigated. There are no restrictions on age, sex or any other demographics, which enables me to pick any individual at random from each group. Additionally, longitudinal sampling will be used. This means that the individuals that are chosen for the research will be studied over a long period of time possibly even up to 30 years. According to Kendra Cherry (What is Longitudinal Research, 2007) the basic data is firstly collected in the beginning and the collection of data stretches out throughout the whole period of the study. Talking about the reliability and validity of this kind of research, it has its pros and cons. For example, this sort of method allows the researcher to examine an individual in a detailed manner. The researcher gets to see all the changes that occur throughout the length of the study. Longitudinal researches are particularly good to investigate development issues. However, this type of studies requires a lot of time and resources. They are often very expensive to carry out.
Because the studies are expensive and take long to carry out they are usually done with a small number of participants. This in return creates another uncertainty on behalf of reliability of the study. Sometimes, a small number of participants are not enough to base a theory on. Additionally, because the study is long term sometimes participants may drop out in the middle of the study, which affects the accuracy of it since the sample size is being reduced so as the collection of data. However, Sigmund Freud was one of the famous psychologists who used such approach in his studies, thus the research can be counted as valid.
This section contains a discussion on the theory researched. It is not actual facts but rather logical conclusions drawn from all the information collected. From the literature review and all the information presented you can clearly see that each parenting style affects the child’s performance in a drastically different way. Parenting styles change through the child’s life. However, the most influential period is the childhood; the parenting style at that point will determine how the child’s personality will form which in return affects the performance. Type of Parenting| Parents| Outcome| Performance| Job| Authoritarian| High Demand| Well behaved| Low decision making skill| Accontants| | Low Response| Perform well in school| Low leadership skill| Assistants| | Punishment| High peer resistance| Low creativity| | | No Reasoning| Low self-esteem| Perform tasks they are told to do| | | | Emotionally traumatized| Organized| |
Authoritative| High Demand| Well behaved| Good decision making skills| Managers| | High Response| Perform well in school| Good leaderships skills| Team Leaders| | Do not punish| Psychosocially competent| Good social skills| | | Provide reasons| Responsible| | |
Permissive| Low Demand| High self-esteem| high decision making skill| Artists| | High Response| Emotionally healthy| High creativity| Designers| | Do not punish| Creative and imaginative| Want to have a freedom of choice| | | Let child decide for himself| Not very organizaed| Poor orgnization skills
Uninvolved| Low Demand| Low self-esteem| High decision making skill| Low paid jobs| | Low Response| Emotionally unstable| Low creativity| Often end up| | Do not punish| Low peer resistance| Low social skills| as deliquents| | Emotionally detached| High dependance| Not achievent-oriented| | Table 1.0: Shows different types of parenting styles and its outcomes As you can see, the authoritarian parenting style is really traumatizing for the child. Parents with that type of style have high demands of the child but do not respond in to the child in accordance with their demands. If a child disobeys or does not accomplish what the parents set him out to, he gets punished. This parenting style results in well behaved children, children who perform well in school do not have any problem behavior such as doing drugs, alcohol etc. They have a high peer resistance, meaning they are not easily influential. However; behind all these external factors if you look on the inside of the child, the child is significantly traumatized.
Those children end up not being able to stand up for themselves. They often do not know exactly what they want; they barely ever have any opinion on things. All of this is due to the fact that parents never gave the children any freedom as they were young. All the choices were made for them and all the actions were controlled by parents. As adults those children end up having jobs where they are being told what to do. Their creativity level is very low and they are mostly not responsible. They are unable to perform tasks where their own ideas are required. Moreover, those individuals cannot make their own decisions on the spot, because they were never taught how to. They cannot lead teams because those people usually lack social skills. The jobs that those children usually choose as adults are for example accounting, all kinds of assistants etc. They choose such professions because they know exactly what to do there and they are told what to do as well. To sum it up, the children end up being mentally traumatized as they grow up.
Even if parents change their parenting style when the child becomes an adult it already has caused its damage. Authoritative Parenting is somewhat similar to the authoritarian parenting style. However, the significant difference between the two is the fact that authoritarian parenting provides more nurture towards the children. Parents of that type provide more understanding to their children and if the child does not accomplish what the parents wanted him to they do not punish the child for it. On the contrary, they try to explain what the child has done wrong and help him achieve it next time. Children whose parents had authoritative parenting style grow up to be more independent. They are more emotionally stable; they are well behaved and have good communication skills. This type of parenting is more beneficial for the child overall. Those children end up having jobs where you are required to have good decision making skills. As adults those children have good leadership skills as well.
The reason is because they were more independent as children and they were allowed to make certain decisions by themselves. These children usually end up having jobs as managers, team leaders etc., jobs that require decision making and leadership styles and other social skills. Permissive parenting style lets children be looser and enables them to have more decision making. Those types of parents do not punish their kids; instead they nurture them and support all their decisions. As adults, these children have great communication skills and higher self esteem as opposed to children with other parenting styles. It is said that usually these children end up not doing so well in school and are prone to problem behavior. However, these factors really depend on the child. Since the child has a right to make life decisions by himself it is as well up to the child to decide whether they want to do good or bad in school. As adults, these children result having higher creativity levels and better imagination. They have good decision making skills and are more liberal in their choices. These children end up having jobs such as artists, designers etc.
Often, such individuals cannot be always told what to do; they want to have a sense of freedom in their choices. Uninvolved Parenting is the most traumatizing kind of parenting style. This is when parents are completely detached from the child both mentally and physically. They are not interested in the child’s life, what decisions he makes, what he ends up doing. The kids have to learn to provide for their basic needs by themselves from an early age. Thus, there is barely any time to work on their personality and qualities. These children mostly end up bad; they usually work low paid jobs to provide for themselves. They do not do well in school; they are highly prone to problem behavior, taking drugs, alcohol etc. They have problems with emotional attachment, after the childhood trauma these children find it hard to rely on anyone. Since the kid has to provide for his basic needs at an early age, he does not have enough time to develop his personality; this affects the performance in school as well.
Not studying at school, in return affects the choice of career. It is hard to find a legit job without a high school diploma. As a result these kids usually end up as delinquents, stealing, committing crimes etc. to provide for themselves. In cases when they have a job they can hardly maintain it due to their poor performance, lack of discipline and responsibility. They end up switching jobs more than average person does and the jobs they get are extremely low paid because they are not qualified enough to get a better job. Their performance at work is really low; they are constantly under stress as a result of the childhood traumas. They are often unable to perform the tasks accurately and on time and in a professional manner, because they were taught how to.
According to David B. Resnik, J.D., Ph.D. (Importance of Ethics in Research, 2010) ethics is a set of standards that distinguishes between the right behavior and the wrong behavior. Ethics are learnt and applied everywhere, at school, at home; at the job etc. they are important to follow because these are the standards that promote the actual aims of research. Moreover, when working in a team people tend to have different opinions, disciplines, behaviors and ethical guidelines help them to promote the values that are necessary to the work together. Additionally, ethical guidelines provide moral and social values for the public, such as responsibility, human rights etc. Ethical guidelines in psychology are an important factor.
Prior to conducting a research, the psychologist has to weigh all the options and see how the research benefits the society as well as what consequences it might bring with it. There is a specific set of principles and a code of conduct also knows as an ethics code created for psychologists, in order to carry out the research they have to follow that code of conduct. It is created to protect human rights, protect animal welfare, and bring responsibility upon people and so on. There are several ethical guidelines when it comes to conducting research with human participants. They have to be followed in order to not violate human rights, privacy etc. Socially Sensitive Research
According to Buffalo State, The Research Foundation (Socially Sensitive Research, 2011) Socially Sensitive Research is a study with potential consequences for the participants of the research and other individuals. The topics examined in such research are usually risky or threatening in some way. The risks that exist in such researches are usually loss of confidentiality about the identity of the participants or the information; also sometimes not only the actual participants are involved in the research but third parties too. All of those factors put individuals being investigated at risk. Additionally, the research may trigger some negative emotional reactions from the participants’ side. Such researches may also be socially risky. For example if the topic is related to some illegal behavior then prior to conducting the research it has to be approved by the authorities.
Cost Benefit Analysis
Potential BenefitsCarrying out this research would bring a general awareness to the society on the parenting matters. Other people would be able to benefit from the research by gaining the knowledge. Additionally, participants will have a deeper understanding concerning their behavior and will be able to use the knowledge regarding their kids.The research could be improved by increasing the number of participants in the case study. Also, it could be improved by increasing the diversity. For example, including participants from different geographical locations and looking at the differences in parenting styles and later on performances. | Potential CostsThere are high potential costs regarding this research. Firstly, the researcher is using case studies and this data collection method is already expensive and takes more time than any other data collection methods. Apart from that, the research is going to be longitudinal, which means it will take a lot of time and effort.
It could possibly stretch out up to 30 years of time, which would require a large amount of money and resources. Moreover, with such researches sometimes ethical boundaries are crossed by intruding someone’s privacy over a long period of time. Also, other family members may be involved at some point of the research for additional background information which violates the ethics conduct. | Institutional Review BoardPrior to conducting the research a legal approval has to be received from the IRB. According to NHRMC (Purpose of IRB, 2011) this organization is responsible for ethics conduct and stands for human rights when the research involves humans. Their main focus is respect for people, beneficence of the research and justice. To avoid violation of that conduct an informed consent has to be created. Moreover, a risk/benefit assessment has to be carried out. Nevertheless, when selecting the participants, the selection has to be fair towards the participants.
From this research you can see that parenting styles play a major role in a child’s life. It affects all aspects of the child’s life, performance, personality, choice of workplace. In this research I was investigating how different parenting styles affect the child’s performance later on in life. Psychology is a very broad topic; it consists of various different theories. Even though the theories have often different perspectives, they still tend to rather complement each other. Looking at different perspectives and theories will give you a more complete picture rather than just sticking to one point of view. I decided to look at the Parenting Styles Theory because in my opinion it has a unique point of view which often people tend to look over. This theory complements all the other theories and creates a more accurate understanding of why people develop in the ways that they do. Parenting styles theory belongs to Developmental theories which generally talk about human’s growth and development. Freud’s Theory of Psychosexual Development falls under the developmental theories.
The parenting styles theory correlates with Freud’s Theory at some point because both theories talk about the parents’ behavior towards the child at an early age. As you can see from the research some parenting styles are definitely more beneficial than the other ones. There is no right or wrong choices because it is life and people behave the way they want to behave, parents choose parenting styles from what they have been taught or had to go through. However, there are consequences to certain parenting styles. From the four major parenting styles presented in this research you can clearly see that there are two parenting styles that traumatize the child and there are two that do not cause much pressure. Authoritarian parenting style is one of the types that traumatizes the child mentally. The parents are too strict on the child from an early age; they have high expectations and demands but do not give as much back. They are not very responsive to the child’s needs and wants. If the child fails to perform the set out tasks for him, they punish the child without any reasoning.
The rules that are created by the parents are also often not justified; the child just has to obey them. As a result, the child grows up without any freedom of choice and any sense of irresponsibleness. As an adult, that child cannot make choices for himself and always relies on what others say. The self-esteem is low due to the constant unreasoning and putting down. However, because the parents are so strict the child has to perform well in school. The kid grows up intelligent but with low decision making skills. Due to those consequences the jobs are usually the ones that do not require any decision making, where you just have to follow what you are told. A more beneficial style of parenting would be an authoritative style. It is more liberal, but with a set of rules at the same time. Parents usually have discipline but are nurturing. They set the rules and provide reasons to why they have set those particular rules.
If there are goals a child needs to accomplish and doesn’t, the parents do not punish the child but rather support and help him achieve it next time. The child grows up emotionally developed, with a healthy self-esteem. Such individual usually has good decision making skills because he experienced a freedom of choice as a child. These people usually end up working as managers, leading other people etc. A more non-traditional parenting style would be a permissive style. The child is free to make any life decisions by himself. However, parents provide for the child and are there emotionally. The child grows up with a high self-esteem and high decision making skills. Those individuals are more creative in their work, show more irresponsibleness and more mature. These people tend to work as artists, designers and choose jobs that provide a sort of freedom of choice and creativity. The most traumatizing kind of parenting as you can see from the findings is the uninvolved parenting. This is when the child basically gets abandoned both physically and emotionally.
Those children usually end up as delinquents because as children they have neither time nor examples how to form the right qualities and personality. From all the points discussed it is clear that a parenting style does affect a child’s performance later on in life. It affects the performance in the workplace because it affects the child’s personality and personality affects the choice of career. Those factors are all interrelated and once one factor is affected other choices get influenced by that too. Concerning the ethical point of the research a cost benefit analysis was carried out in order to see the benefits and risks of carrying out this particular research. Additionally, socially sensitive research was discussed together with the explanation of the ethical guidelines and identification of concerns in conducting research with human participants.
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