-At one time Oldham produced 13% of the world’s cotton -It was dependant on the industry -Couldn’t compete with foreign competition (although it tried to until 1989)
-After WWII migrants from the commonwealth were encouraged to move to Oldham to supplement the workforce
-These were mainly Caribbean and Pakistani, and later Bangladeshi -1960 – Larger numbers of Indians, Pakistanis and Caribbean migrants settled
-Due to poor circumstances, they lived in concentrated communities, often the poorest
-South Asian populations remained very culturally contrasted within Oldham -Asians make up 12% of the population
-Glodwick and Clarksfield are very closed communities of Pakistanis -Westwood and Coldhurst are very closed communities of Bangladeshis -Little Education and working class ethics caused derogatory attitude towards migrants -Urban myths arose causing further tensions
Areas such as Sholver, Abbeyhills, Limeside, Fitton Hill were seen as no go areas for Asians (which was proved when whites only graffiti was found by the Richie Report) oThe council were also holding back the socio-economic development of Asians oWhites believed that more money was spent on Asians on mosque building etc (Majority of investment was actually in white areas, Goldwick and Westwood received £16m and Hathershaw and Fitton Hill received £53m) oAsians believed that the police instigated the Oldham Riots oWhites that the flag of England was being removed from council buildings to celebrate Asian culture. -A review blamed deep rooted segregation which was not addressed -Poverty and lack of opportunity
The Association of Southeast Asia was created in August 1967 by six nations Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia and Brunei for the matter of preventing the spread of communist ideology, promote peace and cooperation in the region. The ASEAN head quarter is based in Jakarta, Indonesia‟s capital city. In 1990s, when the Cold War completely collapsed, there were four other ...
Mid Term Causes -In the year leading to the Oldham Riots, there were 572 reported ethnically motivated crimes -In 62% white people were victims -Nick Griffin of BNP announced he would stand for election in Oldham Wet and Royton -National Front announced its interest in the area too -According to the BBC, conflicts were caused by poverty, social disadvantage and a high percentage of young males -Tony Blair blamed the actions of the National Front and BNP
Short Term Causes -26/5/2001 at 8pm a fight between a single Asian youth and a white youth broke out at Good Taste chip shop on the corner of Salford Street and Roundthorn Road in Goldwick and led to a hasty gang of white youths forming via social networking -Further violence erupted when a gang of white men attacked an Asian business and threw a projectile through a window of a house in Goldwick -The gang rampaged through Goldwick attacking multiple people and places -The (white-owned) Live and Let Live pub was targeted and pelted with bricks, stones, bottles and then petrol bombs. Cars were driven to block the fire exits, in an attempt to stop the patrons from escaping the flames. Cars in the surrounding roads were ignited, and police were called. Police officers were pelted by groups of Asian males. A night of violence began and riot police were quickly drafted in to the Glodwick area, rife with both Pakistani and Bangladeshi rioters.
It is understood that both the Asian and white communities were furious with the recent events in the town. Asians were angry with media coverage and police handling of the various incidents and this may have intensified the riot. In the days and weeks before the riots, several violent and racist disturbances occurred in Oldham, which are attributed to provoking the riots. -Glodwick, an area south-central to Oldham town had become increasingly ethnically polarised. The area which is predominantly home to people of Pakistani origin had been for many years a no-go area for local white people for fear of possible attacks. Although this label was challenged by community leaders as a purely minority view this opinion still stands today 10 years on from the original disturbances. Similarly, areas of predominantly and polarised white inhabited areas had the same perception of no-go to members of the Asian community. This was increasing tensions, and had been reported by the BBC North West Tonight programme, by social-affairs reporter Dave Guest.
This article from the New York Times states that a devastating insect, the Asian long-horned beetle, has reached America. Two workers for the USDA inspect these trees daily for signs of this retched insect, but they aren't allowed to inspect indoors, where over half the trees in New York City are. The beetles work like drills, within the hole they create, they lay their eggs, which eat away the ...
-On 21 April 2001, a mugging and attack upon 76-year-old white World War II veteran Walter Chamberlain by three Asian youths was amongst the first major provocations which led to the riots. Mr. Chamberlain was approached as he walked to his home after watching a local amateur rugby league match. He was mugged and badly beaten, receiving fractured bones in the face amongst other injuries. His battered face appeared on the front of the Manchester Evening News, and the story spread to all the major national newspapers. In the Mail on Sunday, his story was told under the headline ‘Whites beware’. In the Mirror, his face appeared under the headline ‘Beaten for being white: OAP, 76, attacked in Asian no-go area’. Media pundits began to speculate on the apparent transformation of young Asian males – from the stereotype of hard-working boys, who respected their parents, to the new stereotype of angry, violent thugs. An Asian male (a Mr. Fokrul Islam) was ultimately charged for the crime of racially-aggravated grievous bodily harm on 1 October 2001, some time after the riots.
Walter Chamberlain and his family in an attempt to try to calm tensions in the borough stated at the time that the mugging was just that, and not at all racially motivated.”It was a violent assault on an elderly man”, said Mr. Chamberlain’s son Steven. “As a family we don’t think it was a race issue at all.” Since this story was attributed to fuelling further hatred in the local communities race crimes against all sections of society are no longer reported as such for fear of further trouble.
-Following a long period of ethnic-tensions, and the attack upon Walter Chamberlain, the far-right National Front political party applied to the council on 26 April for permission to march and demonstrate in Oldham on 5 May. Permission was denied with a three month ban upon public procession in Oldham put in place with the aim of keeping order and preventing further increase of ethnic-tensions.
Uniforms Versus Creativity AMENDMENT 14: ... nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property... "Yes I know my enemies They " re the teachers who taught me to fight me Compromise, conformity, assimilation, submission, ignorance, hypocrisy, brutality, the elite All of which are American dreams"- Rage Against the Machine The addition of school uniforms is a travesty to the ...
-Several racist skirmishes occurred in the town, including visiting football supporters from Stoke City F.C. hurling racist abuse at local Asian individuals. Attacks followed, initially from Stoke City fans, and then more serious retaliatory attacks and petrol bomb throwing from local male Bangladeshi groups. Following this, on 5 May 2001, there was a day of mounting tension and run-ins between racist and anti-racist groups in the town. Up to fifty National Front supporters, mainly from Birmingham and London arrived in the town, clashing with members of the Anti-Nazi League and local Asian groups.
Five hundred police were deployed, and the events received extensive media coverage. -In the week before the Oldham Riots, a number of racist incidents occurred at Breeze Hill School near Glodwick. Several white youths, some of whom were ex-pupils of the school, approached the school, throwing stones and projectiles at the premises and hurling racist abuse at the majority Asian school pupils. Police were called for five consecutive days from 21 May 2001 to dissipate the disturbances which were reported by the local press.
-Glodwick Infant and Nursery School in the centre of Glodwick was targeted, and a bomb threat was given to the school, which has the overal majority of its pupils, being from Muslim families. Everyone was evacuated, but it was only a scare and no bomb was ever implanted within the school.