cold war Research Paper: Cuba
World War Two left the world devastation, or a “power vacuum”, into which emerged two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union, in what became known as the Cold War. World War Two’s end came with celebration in both these countries at home, where family’s were again united and bloodshed finally came to a halt, but this celebration was short-lived due to these countries inability to cooperate in peacemaking. The question lay unanswered on what would be done with Eastern Europe. With two different political and economic structures, these world powers became immediate enemies, which created a dividing line where the Eastern world would be communist and the Western world a capitalist democracy. The United States and Soviet Union would quarrel over Eastern Europe domination, which turned into a global confrontation. This confrontation over Eastern Europe would become institutionalized and form the bedrock for the long cold war of the second half of the 20th century.
Eastern Europe was very unstable after World War Two both politically and economically. Therefore, Eastern communism led by Stalin, and the Western institutions of democracy and capitalism, battled to gain support in these vulnerable countries. Two major blocs were formed, and an “iron curtain” was believed to divide these two blocs. The United States believed it their obligation to stop communism from spreading and believed in a theory called the “domino effect”, where when one nation turned to communism, neighboring countries would turn to communism, and thus create a worldwide communism. The United States wanted free trade in a capitalist world with low tariffs and a Common Market. With these two government systems racing for support, an arms race resulted. Therefore, the US found it important to gain third world support. One of the imperative third world countries, located very close to the United States, was Cuba, which had actually fallen under Communist rule during its own revolution. Fidel Castro led this nation’s communist government and this country became a communist battleground. Conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union was inflamed by the Cuban missile crisis in 1962. Documents given by the event are President John F. Kennedy’s Letter to Soviet Chairman Nikita Khrushchev (1962), President Kennedy’s speech announcing the quarantine against Cuba (1962), and Chairman Khrushchev’s response to President Kennedy (1962).
During the post-war years of 1945-1949, the USSR adopted a policy of "sovietization" and set about its expansion into Eastern Europe, by creating Moscow-friendly satellite states. The USSR saw this as a purely defensive action, while the West saw this as evidence of Russia's expansionist nature. Hence, Soviet Union's move into Eastern Europe was much cause of the conflict between the West and ...
United States President John F. Kennedy’s first priority was to maintain security for the nation. The Cuban Missile Crisis was the closest the nation came to war in the 40+ cold war years. The CIA detected Russian installation of missiles in Cuba, which is in very close proximity to the United States. This posed a serious threat to the safety of the United States citizenry. Kennedy therefore acts diplomatically to end the threat through negotiations with Khrushchev. President Kennedy’s aspirations to reach peace without warfare are seen in his letter to Khrushchev on October 22, 1962.
In the letter, Kennedy epitomizes his efforts to allow both ideological governments to exist. He informs Khrushchev how grave a decision it would be to ever launch the missiles, as it would be a “catastrophic consequence to the whole world, including the aggressor.” He then announces his commitment to having peace with these two competing government forms, as he will ensure that a balance of power should remain. President Kennedy tells of his actions in the Berlin Crisis, and how he is not attacking communism, but instead instilling a “balance of power” for the entire world.
In November 1960, at the age of 43, John F. Kennedy became the youngest man ever elected president of the United States. Theodore Roosevelt had become president at 42 when President William McKinley was assassinated, but he was not elected at that age. On Nov. 22, 1963, Kennedy was shot to death in Dallas, Tex. , the fourth United States president to die by an assassin's bullet. Kennedy was the ...
On the same date of sending Chairman Khrushchev this informative letter, President Kennedy also gave sight of the situation to the public of the United States. Kennedy’s speech incorporated his assurance of protection, yet placid fear of the missiles in Cuba. At this point, the Soviet threat to the United States could severely jeopardize the country as a whole, obligating its leader to fairly notify its people. President Kennedy’s speech announcing the quarantine against Cuba was broadcasted to the entire United States on the evening of October 22nd 1962.
In his speech, President Kennedy provides as much knowledge possible of the scenario while still maintaining comfort to the American public. The speech announces the quarantine against Cuba and the United States plans to mend the conflicts. Kennedy states that the missiles location gives the Soviet Union “nuclear strike capability against the Western Hemisphere”. With this speech, Kennedy granted fair knowledge amongst America about the possible destruction of their country.
Having received President Kennedy’s informative letter, Soviet Chairman Khrushchev responded with two letters; one on October 24th 1962 and another on October 26th 1962. In his first letter, Chairman Khrushchev took a derogatory tone towards President Kennedy. He implies that the letter Kennedy had sent was absurd and that the requests it incorporated were inconsiderable. The following letter proposed somewhat of a compromise: to dismantle the missiles under the circumstances of which the United States promising not to invade Cuba. President Kennedy and the American administration decided to accept Khrushchev’s offer, therefore agreed to ensure the Soviet Union that Cuba would never be violated by American forces.
Chairman Nikita Khrushchev addresses President Kennedy in order to take as much beneficial advantage possible over the uprising circumstances. His letters come off quite personal and considerably manipulative. Khrushchev seemingly patronizes Kennedy in his first response; “You, Mr. President, are not declaring quarantine, but rather are setting forth an ultimatum and threatening that if we do not give in to your demands you will use force. Consider what you are saying! And you want to persuade me to agree to this! What would it mean to agree to these demands? It would mean guiding oneself in one’s relations with other countries not by reason, but by submitting to arbitrariness. You are no longer appealing to reason, but wish to intimidate us.” Though President Kennedy compromises with him after receiving his second letter, Chairman Khrushchev’s first response conveys an impulsive reaction to the issue.
Earl Warren, chief justice of the U. S. Supreme Court web 'What moved some misguided wretch to do this horrible deed may never be known to us.' (September 27, 1964) On September 27, 1964, the Warren Commission report on the assassination of President John F. Kennedy was released after a 10-month investigation, concluding that there was no conspiracy in the assassination, either domestic or ...
The Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 nearly brought the superpowers of the Cold War to nuclear war. Kennedy and Khrushchev approached the situation sensibly enough to resolve the chaos within seven days. Yet, if these two men had not compromised, nuclear war would have broken out over the United States, Cuba, and the Soviet Union at the least. Shortly after this event, in 1963 both superpower leaders signed the Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. This event very nearly erupted in extreme disaster, fortunately President John F. Kennedy and Chairman Nikita Khrushchev managed to ironically rescue both countries from nuclear war and destruction.