Design Sanford, Townsend-Rocchicciolli, Horigan, & Hall (2011) identified this qualitative study’s research tradition as following the grounded theory method to investigate the caregiver’s of heart failure (HF) patient’s decision making process. This was achieved by identifying the complex cardiovascular issue, HF, as a real world problem. After identifying the primary issue, they studied the basic social process of the caregiver’s decision making skills, otherwise known as the core variable (Polit & Beck, 2012).
The data was collected and analyzed consistently with the grounded theory by using unstructured, open-ended, audio-taped interviews, with notes highlighting key points or questions (Sanford et al. , 2011).
Sanford et al. ’s (2011) data was immediately transcribed word-for-word into the NVivo qualitative software program after each interview allowing researchers to code the data into categories for constant comparison. While analyzing the data, researchers were able to elaborate, refine, and create a decision making theoretical model, the theory of triangulation.
This is important, because as Polit & Beck (2012) note, the ground theory is where data is taken, immediately analyzed as it is obtained, conceptualized to make changes as the researcher sees fit, and the cycle is repeated as needed. Throughout this study, Sanford et al. , (2011) recruited participants over a 12 month period, and it can be assumed that this was sufficient time to build trust and a rapport, since it was not otherwise stated and Sanford et al. followed grounded theory framework. Sanford et al. (2011) conducted in-depth interviews lasting 45 minutes to two hours, listed the eleven questions asked, and labeled them questions/probes, allowing for ample data collection and An Analysis of Standford et al. ’s Study 3|P a ge demographic data collection. However, by including the language probes, it suggests they got more information than just the questions listed, but did not go into any detail concerning this. This is consistent with grounded theory methods of collecting data, as Polit & Beck (2012) do not suggest a given amount of time, they only highlight that the interviews should be in-depth.
The Term Paper on Ended Question Interview Subject Questions
The Aspects of Interview and Interrogation There are many aspects that make up a successful interview or interrogation. An investigator does not become a skilled interviewer or interrogator over night. Training and experience are vital to becoming skilled at interviewing and interrogation. Experience is the best teacher, conducting interviews and interrogations is the only way to become more ...
Sanford et al. (2011) first pointed out the importance of conducting this study due to the increasing incident of HF and the detriment it can cause to caregiver’s trying to make quality decisions regarding care. Additionally, from previous studies that caregiver’s making decision for people with HF have a hard time unless the patient’s wishes were previously discussed, and the hardship worsens as the patient becomes more ill. Furthermore, it was identified that there seems to be a process that emerges when making these life-altering decisions.
In regards to reflexivity, it is not mentioned if any of the researchers conducting this study had previous biases, are affected by HF, or were a caregiver to a family member with HF, but it is apparent that they did their research prior to conducting this study in efforts to identify true human experiences already noted in other studies. By doing their homework, it allows for them to not presume or press judgment on the study, because they know how to direct research and the appropriate questions to ask the participants.
However, it would have been beneficial for the researchers to pointedly note any biases, values, or personal ties to this study. This study was strictly qualitative. Although there was a chart filled with numerical data outlining the demographics of participants, this was not used within the study to demonstrate or compare data. The research design was described fairly well; however, they could have given more information regarding the interviews and described the categorizing rubric. They stated An Analysis of Standford et al. ’s Study 4|P a ge hat the participants were recruited over a period of 12 months, and it was not specified that this was enough time to build trust and rapport. Furthermore, the data was coded and placed into categories, but these categories were not outlined or described. Although, they did not identify the categories, I did find it pleasing they included the theory of triangulation by using interviews, observations, and document analysis to validate their work. Sampling Plan This is a qualitative design and a grounded theory method was used to examine the process of decision making among caregivers of patients with HF (Charmaz, 2006).
The Term Paper on Data-Based Decision Making
The findings have further demonstrated that most states are hesitant to make their data publicly known. "Skepticism about the quality and use of data continues because data previously were commonly used to punish rather than inform" where improvement is needed or revealed (Data for Action, 2011). Most states have also yet to realize that test scores are not the only form of data that needs to be ...
As Polit and Beck (2012) stated, researchers collect data from a sample, which is a subset of the population. Using samples is more practical than collecting data from an entire population, but the risk is that the sample might not reflect the population’s traits. According to Sanford et al. (2011), after an IRB approval, twenty participants were recruited from cardiology offices, patient hospital units, or adult day care facilities over a 12-month period from 2008-2009. This study was limited to only one specific group of caregivers and examined decision making of these family members at different stages of HF.
According to Sanford et al. (2011), after review of literature and examination of possible theories that could explain how caregivers of family members with HF make decisions, the researcher determined that none is sufficient to explain how the group makes a decision. The group or population of interest does not have enough description which allows the study validate whether there is enough samples for the study. An Analysis of Standford et al. ’s Study 5|P a ge The setting, while appropriate for the research questions, was limited in being able to recruit enough participants.
In order to qualify as a participant, the caregiver had to be related to a patient with HF, must provide one activity of daily living, and /or assist the care recipient with two instrumental activities of daily living and not be paid for their services. The demographics data that were collected included caregiver gender, marital status, ethnicity, employment, income, living arrangement, and relationship to patient with HF, but it did not include the ability of the caregiver to make decision (e. g. educational background).
The Essay on Business Strategy and the Importance of Data-Driven Decision Making
Good decision making is arguably the most important skill a successful manager can possess, but the ability to make intelligent decisions on an on-going basis requires not only intuition and experience, but also the right data. In fact, Garrison, Noreen, and Brewer (2012) identify intelligent, data-driven decision making as a business leader’s most basic managerial skill. That basic skill plays a ...
The type of sampling strategy used in this study is theoretical sampling of pertinent data. It was used to elaborate and refine categories in the emerging theory until saturation was obtained (Charmaz, 2006).
According to Polit & Beck, theoretical sampling as a strategy involves the selection of “incidents, slices of life, time periods, or people on the basis of their potential manifestations or representation of important theoretical constructs”. In this study, there was a vague description of the researcher’s sampling strategy.
In the end, there were not enough samples to draw conclusions from. Data Collection The data was collected in an interview format, which is appropriate for a qualitative research study, at private mutual locations agreed upon between the interviewer and participant, such as home, place of employment, or the library. The setting for data collection was appropriate because they were private mutual agreed places. However, interference could have occurred due to the caregivers not wanting to expose certain information in a public arena.
An Analysis of Standford et al. ’s Study 6|P a ge The authors did not provide sufficient information regarding how the data was collected, in regards to, who collected the data and whether or not the collectors were trained staff. The authors did not provide information regarding who collected the data nor if they received any training. To ensure the variation of the study and minimize the observer bias, five caregivers of patient with HF were interviewed from each of the four stages of HF classifications and triangulation method was used in collecting data.
After the data was collected, the authors then applied the theoretical model of decision making process to access the links in participants’ decision making between this study, Hall’s study on decision making by wives of patients with HF at end of life in 1994, and current literature to achieve triangulation. The approach were unstructured open-ended interview were conducted by interviewers (to which it is un-established if they were trained) in a private places that agreed upon the interview. The interviewers kept memos about the experience and took notes on key points that needed further clarification and the interviews were audio-taped.
The Research paper on Case Study: Decision Making Based on Mission & Vision of Organization
In this case study, Community Medical Center has a strong reputation for quality of medical care. The president of CMC has the difficult position of making a crucial decision that will impact his licensed and unlicensed staff, patients and the community at large. This short essay will address the possible vision and mission of CMC that will guide the president in his decision about the case study ...
However, the interview questions and probes, which were gathered in 45 minutes to 2 hours meeting including answering the demographic data, (listed on table 1 page 59) were consistent with the research question, “how do caregivers of family members with HF make decision? ” The data recording procedure appeared to be appropriate since the interviewers memo writing during meeting then data were transcribed verbatim, being checked for accuracy, and then entered into the NVvio system (qualitative software program).
Researchers then independently code the interview to develop main classifications of the data. An Analysis of Standford et al. ’s Study 7|P a ge Data Quality The trustworthiness of the data for this study can be validated and supported by findings from four previous researchers studies (Crist et al. , 2006; Hall et al. , 2008; Limerick, 2007; Shun-Fan et al. , 2007) (Sanford, Towsend-Rocchicciolli, Horigan, & Hall, 2011).
Nonetheless, these findings were similar to the current study that examined the challenges faced by caregivers of family members with heart failure(HF) and the decision making process.
This process can be best evaluated by a theoretical framework involving a nonlinear process that goes through several phases of decision making. The phases includes seeking information, input, support; reflecting; decision choice; evaluating decision choice; actualization of issue, problem, diagnosis or challenge, but the most dominant phase of all is seeking validation. According to Sanford, et al (2011), the most important variable affecting decision making is the relationship between caregivers and family members.
Therefore, making the right decision is important to caregivers and having validation to support their decision serves as confirmation that they made the right choice. The researcher’s qualifications did add credit to the study since all the researchers were of nursing background. In that instance, the researchers would have some in-depth knowledge or experience of caring for patient with HF. In this study, however, peer debriefing and members check were not identified. Data quality was appraised using a grounded theoretical model that describes the process of decision making by caregivers who care for family members with HF.
The Research paper on Case Study Fact Decision University
Case Review In Assuming the Role of Jerri Friedman, I Have Assembled to Key Members of My Editorial Staff. Bradley Stevens, the Assistant Director, and Jessica Long the Editor in Chief. Overall, Our Mission Is to Choose Whether or Not to Publish McCullough's Manuscript. Mr. Stevens Presents a Strong Case Opposing Manuscript, and Ms. Long Presents the Viewpoint That Is Indifference and Would ...
The study investigated 20 participants with HF, from three different health care settings, over a 12 month An Analysis of Standford et al. ’s Study 8|P a ge period. Theoretical triangulation was used to validate the findings in this study. This process was used to determine if decision making among participants in this study could be linked with a theory from a previous study or current literature. The researchers documented their procedures using unstructured open-ended questions interviews, audio tape, and memos.
The interview took place in a mutually agree upon private location such as the caregivers’ homes, places of employment, or the library. The interview lasted 45 minutes to 2 hours and was recorded verbatim for verbatim, checked for accuracy and entered into an NVivo qualitative software program (Sanford, et al 2011).
After the interview process, researchers met and independently coded the data line by line to determine the most relevant categories for the data. As the data was theoretically categorized for best results, sampling of the data were used to refine the categories until saturation was achieved.
Memo writing of impressions during data collection, thoughts during analysis, and progression to theoretical development was also completed to ensure trustworthiness of the study (Sanford, et al 2011).
The results of this study was substantial as it reflects the true nature of a serious problem faced by caregivers in general who have to care for family members with acute or chronic debilitating illnesses. However, this study was limited to only one specific group of caregivers and examined decision making retrospectively after the family member had died (Sanford, et al 2011).
The researchers were also unable to determine the true effect of how decision is made between family members and caregivers, but was able to conclude that caregivers who had the knowledge, willingness, and ability to make care decisions was evident An Analysis of Standford et al. ’s Study 9|P a ge in the outcome of care they provided their family members (Sanford, et al. 2011).
The Research paper on Decision tree analysis
Decision tree analysis known as an analytical tool applied to decision-making under condition of uncertainty, also clarifying where there are many possible outcomes for various alternatives and some outcomes are dependent on previous outcomes. However, decision tree will present as a diagram by showing the relationship among possible courses of action, possible events and the potential outcomes ...
The researchers also failed to identify if the caregivers had any medical training, medical background, or specialized training. To add credibility to the study, caregivers should have been randomly chosen and not be limited to only family members.
data analysis The methods of data analysis are explained thoroughly in the study. A detailed account of the transcription of data and categories developed are described. It is identified that theoretical sampling was used to create categories. Additionally, methods to ensure validity of the study are identified, such as triangulation, and notes taken during data collection and analysis. Furthermore, figure 1 describes the model that was developed to describe the process of decision making by caregivers of family members with HF (Sanford, p. 58).
The theoretical model that was created using data analysis is the main theme that developed.
Six categories or phases were created. •Phase 1: Actualization of Issue, Problem, or Challenge—the reality of the situation occurs to the caregiver •Phase 2: Seeking Information, Input, or Support—search for HF information, attend support groups •Phase 3: Reflecting—review of new information, self-reflection, objective view of situation •Phase 4: Decision Choice—decision about diagnosis, new information, and healthcare is made; weigh the information •Phase 5: Evaluating Decision Choice—reflection of the decision made in Phase 4; doubt or confidence, or both •Phase 6: Seeking Validation—second-guess the ecision made in Phase 4; looks for approval from others An Analysis of Standford et al. ’s Study 10 | P a g e In data analysis of the study, data was transcribed verbatim and checked for accuracy. “Researchers independently coded the data line by line after each interview and then met for focused coding to develop the most salient categories of the data” (Sanford, p. 59).
The use of theory triangulation compared the findings of this study with current research finding. Triangulation was also used to determine if the findings of this study were related to findings from a similar study.