A. The Reason of Choosing the Topic
There are many methods or strategies which can be done to teach poetry such as the audio lingual, grammar translation method, communicative approach, etc. But, the strategy or method chosen by the writer is CBLT which stands for Competency Based Language Teaching. In this method, poetry is assumed to be a complex whole which is systematic and which consists of many components; they are imagery, rhythm, rhyme, sounds of repetition, kind of sounds, poetry form, figures of speech, etc. Therefore, teaching poetry can be done as a whole in the same time because these kinds of teaching will make the students’ get trouble to understand it. In other word, poetry must be thought on the bases of each component which develops in the cremantal that is the teaching of poetry is developed from one component to the other that finally the students’ competent will be developed progressively hierarchal based on the explanation to be able to have poetic competency. There is no better way in the CBLT than to develop the students’ competence by learning each component of poetry.
B. Problem Limitation
Not to make the study go abroad, it is important to limit the problem. The limitation of the problem is as follows: a. The object of the study is imagery, but it is still general because it consists of some types; visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, and kinesthetic. b. The method of teaching is CBLT.
Teaching practice is the practical aspect of teacher training and it is an assortment of factual and dramatic characteristics. During the teaching practice student teachers find an opportunity to use the acquired knowledge, especially in the areas of psychology, teaching methods, teaching principles and teaching techniques. During teaching practice student teachers are like apprentices to acquire ...
c. The teaching process is done in two cycles; each cycle consists of planning, acting, observing, and reflecting.
C. Problem Statements
1. Can CBLT develop students’ competence of imagery mastery in English poetry? 2. How is the students’ attitude towards the implementation of CBLT in the classroom for improving the students’ competence of imagery mastery in English poetry?
D. Objectives of the Research
1. To identify whether CBLT can develop students’ competence of imagery mastery in English poetry. 2. To identify the students’ attitude towards the implementation of CBLT in the classroom for improving the students’ competence of imagery mastery in English poetry?
E. Benefits of the Research
1. Theoretical Benefit
Theoretically, this study will develop the researchers in understanding poetry better than before. It means the understanding of concepts or ideas of poetry will be developed systematically because poetry is systematic. 2. Practical Benefit
Practically, the result of the study can be used as teaching material in introduction to literature.
REVIEW OF RELATED THEORY
A. Review of Theories
1. The Idea of CBLT
In its development, education continually tries to make innovation in order to fulfil the society needs. The development of curriculum as the basis for conducting teaching learning process, has influenced the teaching technique carried out by the teacher in teaching, especially language teaching. In correlation with the improvement of educational quality, curriculum gets more attention in order to gain high quality teaching learning activities. Competency-Based language teaching (CBLT) uses the competency approach particularly emphasizing on the comprehension and certain competence related to the society needs. CBLT is an application of the principles of Competency-Based Education to language teaching (Richard and Rodgers, 2001: 141).
CBE here means that educators should pay more attention on an outcome. This is not to say that the process is not important. The process should be planned and carried out with the outcome of competency in mind. This approach allows us to focus on knowledge application rather than the knowledge gaining. Furthermore, Mc Ashan (1981) defines competency as knowledge, skills, and abilities that a person achieves, which become part of his or her being to the extent he or she can satisfactorily perform particular cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. 2. The Idea of Poetry
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Poetry is a form of literary art which uses the aesthetic qualities of language to build meanings in addition to make emotional response. Poetry is a synthesizing art; its very task is to create a new entity out of things which are normally held apart. (Samuel Johnson: 1759).
Today people tend to think of poetry as personal, expressive, concerned with an individual’s feeling and thoughts about the relationship between the self and the world.
Poetry surpasses all other forms in its capacity to instruct while pleasing, calling it a ‘speaking picture, with this end to teach and delight’. (Sir Philip Sidney).
Imagery is the term we use to speak of these sensory impressions literature gives us. Poetry is a complex whole which consist of some components. The components of poetry are line, stanza, diction, rhythm, kind of sounds, rhyme, and imagery. Imagery may be defined as the representation through language of sense experience. Poetry indirectly appeals to our senses through imagery. Poetry thrives on imagery. Whether the poet is describing a setting, an object, or a person, imagery brings the poem alive and allows it to linger in the reader’s imagination. Imagery can also highlight the poem’s theme. A carefully chosen image, when analyzed, can unpack the poet’s intent. Those are some kinds of imagery:
1. Visual imagery – something seen in the mind’s eye Example: Magnified apples appear and disappear
2. Auditory imagery – represents a sound
Example: The rumbling sound
3. Olfactory imagery – a smell
Example: Essence of winter sleep is on the night
4. Gustatory imagery – a taste
Example: I craved strong sweets
5. Kinaesthetic imagery – movement or tension
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Example: The black bats tumble and dart
B. Thought Design
In language program class of the high school, students study about English literary. One of the major literary works is poetry. Therefore, there is no English poetry learning in the curriculum. Poetry is a complex whole that consist of many elements. One of the elements that needed to be understood is imagery. Realizing the problem of English poetry learning, the teacher should find a solution. Jones and Lovise in Ardina (2003:24) state that the teachers can facilitate learning by implementing varied instructional approaches that respond to the learning styles of all learners. The purpose of teaching English poetry is to improve the further knowledge about poetry itself as the major literary work. CBLT is suggested as an approach for English teaching for it is arranged by well-structured planning and has purpose.
1. CBLT improves the students’ competence of imagery mastery in poetry. 2. The class more active, communicative, and cooperative when CBLT is applied in teaching imagery.
A. The Subject of The Research
The subject of this research is the eleventh grade students of XI 1 language program in SMA N 1 Surakarta, academic year 2011/1012. The class consists of 20 students.
B. The Object of The Research
The object of this research is English poetry. The method of teaching is by using CBLT.
C. The Setting of The Research
This classroom action research was carried out at SMAN 1 Surakarta. It is located at Jalan Monginsidi 40, call: (0271) 652975, Surakarta. It involved one class consisting 20 students of the eleventh grade. The research data were taken from the observation in the classroom. The observation had been conducted on April 2012 until May 2012 by using CBLT in teaching English Poetry.
D. The Procedures of The Research
This research belongs to classroom action research. Action research is a form of applied research focused on solving local problems that practitioners face (Lewin, 1946; Stringer, 1996).
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Action research is a cyclical process because problems are rarely solved through one research study. The teaching process is done in two cycles; each cycle consists of planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. 1. Planning
Before implementing this action, the researcher prepared everything needed in doing the action in order to enhance the students’ competence of imagery mastery in English poetry. The planning of the action consists of some steps as follows; 1. Making lesson plans and designing the steps in doing action 2. Preparing a notebook to make notes of all activities happen when teaching and learning process be held. 2. Acting
The researcher, as observer and teacher, implemented the plan to teach the students. The teacher used CBLT to improve the students’ competence of imagery mastery in English poetry. 3. Observing
The researcher observed all the activities while CBLT was carried out in the teaching learning process. The researcher made notes all of the activities in the classroom 4. Reflecting
The researcher made an evaluation when teaching and learning activities had been carried out. From the observation and based on the note, the researcher found the strength and the weaknesses of the teaching and learning process.
E. Technique of Collecting Data
In this classroom action research, the researcher collected data using quantitative method. Quantitative research is defined as research relying primarily on the collection of quantitative data (i.e., numerical data).
The quantitative research approach focuses on the deductive component of the scientific method because the focus is generally on hypothesis testing and theory testing. Quantitative research is also sometimes said to be “confirmatory” because researchers test or attempt to “confirm” their hypotheses. This classroom action research use quantitative data. To get the data are as follows;
The researcher observed all happens before, during, and after the CBLT is implemented in the teaching and learning process. 2. Notes
Notes are descriptions and accounts of events in the research context which are written in a relatively factual and objective style. Note is used to make note of what happens when CBLT is implemented in the classroom. 3. Test
The Research paper on The Impact of Alcohol Sponsorship of Sporting Events on Consumption of Alcohol Amongst High School Students: a Research Proposal
Research Problem This research project is designed to determine the effects on the perceptions of alcohol amongst Australian high school students caused by alcohol sponsorship of sporting teams and events. Aims The aims of this research are to determine: •How young Australians perceive alcohol and what effects sport sponsorship has on these perceptions •Attitudes towards alcohol consumption and ...
In this research there are two stage of post-test that employed in the end of each cycle of the research. The result of the tests was analyzed to know the students’ competence of imagery mastery in English poetry. The result could indicate whether or not the use of CBLT in enhancing the students’ competence of imagery mastery in English poetry.
F. Technique of Analyzing Data
The quantitative data came from the two post-tests. The result is analyzed to compare the mean score in order know the progress of the first and the second post-test. The improvement could be seen from the score in the second post-test which was higher than the score in the first post-test. The mean of the post-test can be calculated with the formulas as follows:
X = Mean of the first post-test
Y = Mean of the second post-test
Σn = The sum of the post-test
N = Number of subject
RESEARCH FINDING AND DISCUSSION
This chapter discusses the result of the research. The objectives of the research are to identify the improvement of the students’ competence of imagery mastery in English poetry through CBLT and the classroom situation when CBLT is implemented. This chapter covers research implementation which consists of planning, acting, observing and reflecting activities is described in this chapter.
Based on the research, the researcher found the fact that the eleventh grade in language class of SMAN 1 Surakarta had a problem in imagery mastery because they never had been taught about imagery before. The other problems came from the teacher, the students, and the other factors than the teachers and the students. From the teacher’s side, teacher never taught about imagery to the students because materials are not in the curriculum. The teachers only give the material about reading, writing, listening, grammar, and so on. From the students’ side, the students did not have motivation and interest to learn imagery. They never taught about the materials before. They did not aware that studying imagery in English poetry is one of the important subject’s matters. They thought that studying imagery in English poetry was very difficult to learn, so they were reluctant to read the materials. The next causes came from other factors, such as from the materials, and the atmosphere of the class. The materials were not including in curriculum, so teacher could not teach it to their students. The bad classroom atmosphere was a negative influence to the students’ motivation to learn.
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B. Process of the Research
In this classroom action research, the researcher was an active participant as teacher and observer. Before conducting the research told Mr.I as the English teacher in class XI language program that the researcher would conduct an action research as her thesis. She permitted to conduct CAR in his classroom. She wanted to know his students’ improvement through the research. Mr.I and the researcher worked together implementing the study. Teacher Mr. I was the observer while the researcher was the researcher was the practitioner and the observer too. The researcher conducted the action research in cycles. During the process of the research, the researcher noticed that cycle one was through stages of planning, implementation, observation, reflection and revising plan. Cycle two was through stages of planning, implementation, reflection of observation result and final reflection. The whole process of this study can be seen in Table 4.2 Table 4.2 The Whole Process of the Research
Cycle 1 a. Planning b. Action a) Meeting 1 b) Meeting 2 c) Meeting 3 d) Meeting 4 e) Post-test 1 c. Observation d. Reflection e. Revising Plan| Preparing the materials, lesson plan, teaching aids, camera, texts, worksheet and everything related to the Action. A. The teacher explains about CBLT. B. The teacher used CBLT to solve the problems of students’ competence of imagery mastery in English poetry. C. The students’ practiced and understood the rules with discussing in group through CBLT D. The students’ think the answer individually, and then they worked in pair. The last they worked in group of four to combine their answer.Preparing the test for identifying the students’ comprehension on narrative text after conducting the cycle 1 * Students enjoyed the activity and making the groups. * Students could interact with their friends in studying of CBLT with imagery quiz. * Positive result: improvement of students’ comprehension on imagery test.
* Weaknesses: some students spoke loudly, some students were passive, some students were still shy when the teacher asked them to report the result of discussion.Focusing on managing the students’ to comprehend the imagery quiz, giving all students chance to share with their friend in understanding the imagery quiz through CBLT. Giving game to increase the students’ enthusiastic to learn.| Cycle 2 a. Planning b. Action a) Meeting 1 b) Meeting 2 c) Meeting 3 d) Post-test 2 c. Observing d. Reflecting e. Final Reflection| Preparing lesson plan, text and everything related action Research.The students practiced aloud comprehending and understanding the imagery in English poetry.Making game to give the students motivation and to understand how far the students comprehend the imagery quiz.
Preparing the test for identifying the students’ comprehension on imagery quiz after conducting cycle 2.Students were active and responsible in the class. * Positive Result: the improvement of class situation, the improvement of the students’ achievement. * Weaknesses: some students not active in discussion * Positive Result: the improvement of students’ comprehension on narrative text and the classroom situation.The students’ mean score from post test one 6.45; post test two 7.0 * Weaknesses: the students get bored without various activities.
1. Research Implementation
The implementation of the teaching imagery using Competency-Based Language Teaching (CBLT) in classroom action research covered two cycles. The researcher divided the first cycle into four meetings and every meeting spent 90 minutes. It was conducted on April 6th, 2012 until April 14th, 2012. In this cycle the researcher used free sentence as the replacement for the line of a poem. The second cycle was conducted on April 27th and 28th, 2012; and May 4th and 5th, 2012. In this second cycle, the researcher used lines of William Wordsworth’s poem entitled Daffodils. Each cycle in this action research consist of six steps: identifying the problems, planning the action, implementing the action, observing the action, reflecting he action, and revising the plan.
2. Cycle 1
a. Identifying the Problems
The researcher found some problems dealing with the students’ competency of imagery mastery in English poetry and classroom situation. To solve problems, the researcher decided to conduct an action research by using CBLT to improve the students’ competency of imagery mastery in English poetry on imagery quiz. The researcher believed that teaching imagery using CBLT improve the students’ competency of imagery mastery in English poetry and changed their assumptions toward English lesson especially in reading comprehension.
b. Planning the Action
Before implementing the action, the researcher planned everything related to the action in the first cycle. They were as follows; 1) Constructing a lesson plan and suggestion the steps in doing action. Each lesson plan consisted of three terms, they are opening, main activity, and closing. The steps took 90 minutes in one meeting. 2) Preparing the material from some exercise books and internet. 3) Preparing a book to note the activities happening in the teaching happening in the teaching learning process and a camera to take photos of the teaching learning process in the class.
c. Implementing the Action Research
1) The First Meeting (April 6th, 2012)
In the beginning of the lesson, the researcher as the teacher, greeted the students and checked the students’ attendance. Beginning the lesson, the students looked very fresh because it was the first lesson of that day. The class was not noisy, but surrounding was very noisy. b) Main activity
The researcher tried to make a good condition in class by telling the students that the day’s activities would be Imagery lesson by using CBLT. The researcher distributed the materials and some question. c) Closing
Having finished conducting the first meeting, the researcher asked the students whether they had difficulty or not, and then she assumed up the topic of today’s lesson together imagery question. 2) The Fourth Meeting (April 14th, 2012)
d) Post-test 1
In the fourth meeting there was a post-test 1. The post-test was aimed to know the improvement of students’ comprehension on imagery. The mean result of the post-test 1 is 6.5.
d. Observing and Monitoring the Action
Observing or monitoring is an important aspect in classroom action research, because it can help the researcher gain a better understanding of her own research while at the same material which also can be used to improve their comprehension. To observe the result of the action done in cycle 1, the researcher used some techniques: test and observation. The researcher conducted the post-test on April 14th, 2012 at the end of cycle 1 in order to measure how far the improvement the students made was. The improvement of the students’ achievement could be seen from the mean score of the test. The next technique was observation. It was carried out during the teaching and learning process and the data was poured in the field notes.
In the first cycle, the researcher conducted four meeting. The result of observation can be explained as follows; 1) The first meeting
The researcher and Mr.I came to the class. In the first meeting, the researcher was giving explanation about the material and some students were noisy and did not pay attention to the researcher’s explanation. 2) The second meeting
In the second meeting, all of the students were involved in teaching and learning process. The researcher gave more explanation about imagery. She found the students paid more attention to her explanation. The students gave the positive response and they more interested in teaching and learning process. 3) The third meeting
In the third meeting, the students’ response was good than before. The researcher could control the class; some students begin more active and could answer the entire question, although they still made mistakes in doing exercises. 4) The fourth meeting
In the fourth meeting the students did the post-test 1. The aimed of post-test 1 to measure how far the students improvement of comprehending imagery. The result of post-test 1 was 6.5.
e. Reflecting and Evaluating the Result of the Observation From the observation above, the researcher got the result from the first cycle. The researcher found several positive results and some weaknesses from the cycle. They were as follows: 1. Positive result
a) There was an improvement of the students’ competency of imagery mastery in English poetry. b) There were changes in the students’ behaviour toward teaching and learning process. It could be seen from the students’ interest and motivation during the lesson. They paid attention to the teacher’s explanation. They also more active and communicative. 2. Weakness
a) There were some objectives which had not been achieved yet. The students’ skill of guessing the meaning of unfamiliar words. Some students still got confuse to catch the meaning of the words. They still got difficulties in finding the meaning of a words because they never taught before and still had weakness in vocabulary mastery. b) Although the students were active, but there were some still passive student, the class could be controlled although sometimes they were noisy. From the result of the reflection above, it can be concluded that the action in the cycle one resulted in the positive result and weakness. It was not satisfactory, because the result of the learning was not optimal. Consideration of those results, the researcher thought it was important to make the next planning in order to overcome those weaknesses.
C. Research Finding and Discussion
a. Research Findings
After observing and analyzing the research result from cycle one and cycle two which was gathered from the score of the two post-test and notes, the researcher concluded several findings which answered the research question as stated in chapter 1. The research finding could be seen in increasing students’ attention and participation in learning English poetry and the mean score obtained from the tests that showed a good achievement. The findings are presented in the following table.
1. Students’ comprehension improvement. a. The students’ test score. b. The students’ comprehension of imagery.| Students’ comprehension was low.a. The achievement of the students’ test score was low.b. The mean score of post-test is 6.5.c. The students got difficulties to catch the idea of imagery.d. The students got difficulties to determine kinds of imagery.e. The students got difficulties to analyze the imagery appeared from a line of a poem.| Students’ comprehension improved.a. The achievement of the students’ test score improved.b. The mean score of post-test is 7.3.c. The students could catch the idea of imagery.d. The students could determine kinds of imagery.e. The students could analyze the imagery appeared from a line of a poem.
2. The class situation| a. Some students seem paid attention, but actually, they daydream.b. Almost all the students in the class tended to be passive.c. Some students were noisy during the teaching and learning process.| a. The students paid more attention to the lesson.b. The students tended to be active learners.c. The students were not so noisy during the teaching and learning process.| 3.| The improvement of the students’ learning activity.| a. The students were confused.b. Only certain students who were active.| a. The students enjoyed and interested in the classroom.b. All the students involved in teaching and learning activities.
b. Research Discussion
The last step of action research was discussing the result of the research. The researcher decided to stop the cycle since the result of the second cycle had shown a good improvement of the students’ competency of imagery mastery in English poetry. Teacher and the researcher concluded that Competency-Based Language Teaching (CBLT) in teaching imagery is an effective way to improve the students’ competency of imagery mastery in English poetry.
CONCLUSION, IMPLICATION, AND SUGGESTION
This chapter presents the conclusion, implication, and suggestion for English teacher, students, school, and other researchers. Below are the
conclusion, implication, and suggestion of the study.
Based on the finding of research and discussion in the previous chapter, the writer concluded that CBLT which stands for Competency based language teaching can use to develop the students’ competence in imagery mastery in English poetry. The findings research in line with the problem statements in the previous chapter. The problem statements are; can CBLT develop students’ competence in imagery mastery in English poetry? And what happens to the class when CBLT is implemented in the classroom? The findings of the research can answer the problem statements above. The first is about CBLT develops the students’ competence in imagery mastery in English poetry at the XI grade language program students of SMAN 1 Surakarta in the academic 2011/2012.
The development of the students’ competence covers identifying kinds of imagery in English poetry in a whole and step by step. The development of students’ competence can be seen from the result of mean scores in two post-tests. The mean score of the first post-test was 6.5 and it improved to 7.3 in the second post-test. It proved that the use of CBLT can develop the students’ competence in imagery. The second is about the students’ attitude towards imagery class in learning English poetry. During teaching and learning process using CBLT, the students showed the development such as the students paid more attention to the lesson, they tended to be active learners, they were not noisy during teaching and learning process, and they did all of the tests enthusiastically without cheating each other. From the conclusion above, it can be formulated the theories dealing with CBLT in teaching imagery in English poetry. The theories can be written as follows: 1. CBLT develops students’ competence in imagery in English poetry. 2. The students’ attitude was in good situation when CBLT implemented in literature class.
Based on the conclusion above, CBLT can be applied in teaching English poetry to improve the students’ competence of imagery mastery. CBLT is an effective way to teach imagery in English poetry. Hopefully, by applying Competency-Based Language Teaching, the students can achieve the maximum competence of imagery mastery in English poetry.
After doing a classroom action research and seeing the research findings, the researchers propose some suggestions for the teacher, students, school, and other researchers. CBLT can at least become an input in determining the appropriate teaching method, which can improve students’ competence of imagery mastery in English poetry as follows: 1. For the teacher
The teacher can understand more about the students’ need in learning English poetry, especially in imagery mastery. 2. For the students
The students will be able to improve their ability in English poetry. Moreover, they can more imaginative in understanding English poetry by using imagery. They can master imagery effectively by using CBLT.
3. For the school
This research can be used as the reference of literary study curriculum formation in senior high school. 4. For other researchers
The other researchers can use the finding of the research as a foothold to conduct the next research on similar problems of imagery mastery in English poetry through other teaching method. The result of the research can encourage other researchers to conduct research dealing with CBLT in other skills, such as rhyme, rhythm, or other elements of English poetry. This research may help the other researcher in finding references for further research.
Askensi, Pauling Dwi, 2008. Competency-Based Language Teaching: Its Implementation on Language Learning of Second Year Students of SMAN 1 Surakarta in Academic Year 2007/2008 (A Descriptive Study).
Surakarta: Sebelas Maret University. Elizabeth McMahan, Susan X Day, Robert Funk USA. 1996. Literature and the Writing Process. USA: Prentice Hall Graham Atkin, Chris Walsh, Susan Watkins. 1995. Studying Literature: A Practical Introduction. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf http://www.google/CBLT.htm taken on October 24th, 2012
http://www.google/The Poetics of Robert Frost-Examples/Imagery.htm taken on September 27th, 2012 http://www.wikipedia/imagery111111/Imagery.htm taken on October 10th, 2012 Lusiana Afriyanti, Astika. 2011. A Thesis Improving Students’ Reading Comprehension through Think-Pair-Square. Surakarta: Sebelas Maret University.