What is naturalistic observation? How does a researcher collect data when conducting naturalistic observation research? Naturalistic observation is normally considered fieldwork or field observation. Naturalistic observation can be used within the social sciences as a study of field research tends to investigate and establish data (Bates & Cozby, 2012, pg. 115).
Naturalistic observation has roots grounded in social sciences such as anthropology and the study of animal behavior. This idea of naturalistic observation is used in all types of social and organizational settings. A researcher collects data when conducting naturalistic observation research by keeping detailed notes and the main focus is to provide a complete and accurate picture of what takes place in a setting of events (Bates & Cozby, 2012, pg. 116).
The researcher must focus on all three important concepts. The first concept is to describe the setting and events observed. The second concept is to analyze the setting observed.
The final concept is to interpret what occurred (Bates & Cozby, 2012, pg. 116).
Why are the data in naturalistic observation research primarily qualitative? The data in naturalistic observation studies are qualitative because it is a description of the observation in opposed to quantitative (Bates & Cozby, 2012, pg. 116).
Difference between the structure of database and warehouse transaction Database is designed to make transactional systems that run efficiently. Characteristically, this is type of database that is an online transaction processing database. An electronic strength record system is a big example of a submission that runs on an OLTP database. An OLTP database is typically controlled to a single ...
The qualitative descriptions are richer and closer to what is being studied than the statistical representations used in the research (Bates & Cozby, 2012, pg. 116).
The data in naturalistic observation is used to collect and interpret exploratory measures as statistical summaries are gathered in research (Karlsson, 2013).
The data in naturalistic observation tends to focus on the basic methods used in the research that is congruent to exploratory measures (Karlsson, 2013).
This is done through providing an evaluation of the observations used throughout the qualitative methods of reliability and validity in research (Golafshani, 2003).
Depending on the setting, data might be collected based on the size of the family, income status, educational background, age, or gender of individuals. This type of data can be reported, collected, and analyzed along with the qualitative data used in the research study (Bates & Cozby, 2012, pg. 116).
Qualitative data can be gathered from interviews and direct observations that are presently used throughout the aspects of research (Bates & Cozby, 2012, pg. 116).
Distinguish between participant and nonparticipant observation: between concealed and non-concealed observation? Participant and nonparticipant observations can be used in a variety of social settings. Participant observation allows the researcher to observe the setting from within. This is based upon the assumption that he or she may have experience in the events or settings (Bates & Cozby, 2012, pg. 117).
A nonparticipant observation requires the ability to evaluate from the outside (Golafshani, 2013).
It has been found that a nonparticipant observer is an observer who is seen as an outsider who does not have an active role in the setting (Bates & Cozby, 2012, pg. 116).
The nonparticipant observer takes on a role of coming in and having an effect upon an organization from the outside (Creswell, 2009, pg. 67).
This can be seen in many different levels of social settings. Concealed observation can be less reactive than non-concealed observation because individuals are not aware of their actions and behavior is being recorded and evaluated (Bates & Cozby, 2012, pg. 116).
“Research on police officers and the duties associated with being a law enforcement officer has demonstrated that high levels of stress, continually subjected to dangerous working conditions, and behavioral changes occur as a result of this occupation (Ellison & Genz, 1983 pg.60).” This research data paper will include the following statements, the satisfaction or job hazards. What is the goal ...
This can be seen in all levels of observations within (Choy & Hung, 2013).
Non-concealed observation is a type of observation which can be characterized and viewed from an ethical viewpoint. This is look at as an invasion of privacy has been violated (Bates & Cozby, 2012, pg. 117).
What is systematic observation? Why are the data from systematic observation primarily quantitative? Systematic observation is an observation of one or more settings in a research that is based upon a particular behavior by individuals (Bates & Cozby, 2012, pg. 118).
In systematic observation, the researcher uses an approach that is much less global. This is done through making careful observations in social settings within an organization (Bates & Cozby, 2012, pg. 118).
This is an important factor in systematic observation. The data in systematic observation is primarily quantitative because of the researcher interest is focused on the levels of behaviors of individuals (Karlsson, 2013).
The researcher develops hypothesis about the behavior of individuals in all aspects of the organization (Bates & Cozby, 2012, pg. 118).
What is a coding system? What are some important considerations when developing a coding system? A coding system is a system that is evaluated using numerous behaviors which can be studied using systematic observation (Bates & Cozby, 2012, pg. 119).
The basic assumption to mention about a coding system is that it is used to observe and measure the behavior of individuals within a particular setting (Bates & Cozby, 2012, pg. 119).
This is a major factor on determining the right motive to use within the observation of research. Some important considerations when developing a coding system the researcher must decide what interest him or her. The researcher must focus on the behaviors that have an important interest to him or her using certain types of measures in a research setting (Bates & Cozby, 2012, pg. 119).
Another important aspect to note when developing a coding system is to choose a setting in which the behaviors can be evaluated and observed. These are all some important factors when developing a coding system in a setting. What is a case study? When are case studies used? What is a psychobiography? A case study is an observation that provides a method of using a description of an individual (Bates & Cozby, 2012, pg. 121).
Fry and her colleagues undertook a qualitative research to develop a moral distress model in military nursing. Using the same problem statement, literature analysis and background information, this paper aims at converting the qualitative study carried out by Fry and her colleagues into a quantitative study. The study entails setting different research questions and collecting data that aims at ...
A case study is used within an investigation to determine a problem or cause of action of action that has took place. This is important using scientific data in research (Trochim & Donnelly, 2008).
A naturalistic observation study is another word for case study for it is used to investigate (Bates & Cozby, 2012, pg. 121).
Case studies sometimes normally give facts about the individual’s history, symptoms, characteristics behaviors, reactions to situations, and also responses to treatment in case of illnesses (Bates & Cozby, 2012, pg. 121).
Case studies are important and it can be used in many techniques such as library research to make direct observation.
A psychobiography is a type of case study in which a researcher uses psychological theory and benefit by explaining the life of an individual, usually an important historical figure or person (Bates & Cozby, 2012, pg. 121).
A psychobiography is used in all segments of a case study in research. This can be normally seen in case studies that remain focus and be in content with many psychological aspects. This becomes important concept of all levels of observation during the event of finding investigations (Bates & Cozby, 2012, pg. 121).
What is archival research? What are the major sources of archival data? Archival research is a type of primary research which involves seeking out and extracting evidence from archival records (Karlsson, 2013).
It the archival research involves the study of existing data that is used to investigate all segments of a particular problem. The existing data is gathered to answer the intended research questions.
The data can be statistical records or written records (Choy & Hung, 2013).
The major sources of archival data are public records from governmental agencies, research organizations, health and human service organizations, schools and education departments, and also business and industry. The sources of archival data are found in written and public documents (Bates & Cozby, 2012, pg. 123).
Running Head: COMMUNICATION IN CONFLICT Communication in Conflict Resolution: A Research Analysis Alexandra Becker RN, BSN University of Texas Arlington College of Nursing In partial fulfillment of the requirements of NUR5311 Nursing Management in Healthcare Sharon Judkins PhD, RN, NEA-BC October 25, 2012 Communication in Conflict Resolution: A Research Analysis Introduction In the nursing ...
Archival data can be used in research and is a valuable supplement to collection methods. What is content analysis? Content analysis is the systematic analysis that consists of existing documents. Content analysis requires researchers to devise coding systems that can be used to raters to quantify the information in the documents (Bates & Cozby, 2012, pg. 123).
Content analysis is based on the concept of understanding all of the elements of documents that is used in all segments of research (Golafshani, 2003).
This content analysis is a methodology that is used within the major areas of qualitative research (Choy & Hung, 2013).
In a research or observation, content analysis is designed to implement a particular type of structure to materialize all aspects of qualitative research.
This is a quite increasing measurement of reducing all major aspects of producing an important substance of allowing different measurements to be used in every aspect of qualitative research methods (Choy & Hung, 2013).
Content analysis can be used in all segments of observation. This is seen using increasing measures that allows the researcher to investigate and have a clear view on the primary research methodology. Some of these are important factors of observing the primary aspects of content analysis within observation and research. Content analysis is based on the concept of understanding all of the elements of documents that is used in all segments of research (Bates & Cozby, 2012, pg. 121).
This content analysis is a methodology that is used within the major areas of qualitative research (Choy & Hung, 2013).
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Creswell, J.W. (2009).
Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Washington, D. C., Sage Inc.
Qualitative Article:A Women’s Place is in the Home: Females and Residential BurglaryThis article uses a qualitative research method. Qualitative research involves analyzing and interpreting texts and interviews in order to discover meaningful patterns descriptive of a particular phenomenon (Adler & Clarke, 2008, p.13.). The method has been adopted to investigate the research question. ...
Donnelly, J. P. & Trochim, W. (2008).
The Research Methods Knowledge Base. Macon, OH. Cengage Learning.
Golafshani, N. (2003).
Understanding Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research. The Qualitative Report, vol. 8(4), pg. 597-607. Karlsson, F. (2013).
Longitudinal use of method rationale in method configuration: An exploratory study. European Journal of Information Systems, vol. 22(6), pg. 690- 710.