INTEGRATING ULI MOTIFS/SYMBOLS IN CORELDRAW APPLICATION SOFTWARE IN GRAPHIC ART INSTRUCTIONS
Graphic designs in this era have made it imperative that integration of uli motifs into teaching and learning for graphic arts should be given a high priority in Nigeria. This should make for effective and efficient teaching and learning process especially in using uli motifs in graphic arts. This study was designed to explored the use of symbols embedded in CorelDraw for graphic arts instructions in South East colleges of education and the research questions were on the: availability of uli motifs in CorelDraw Application Software for graphic instructions and problems encountered in scanning of uli motifs in computer. Fifteen lecturers and fifty five students were selected for the study. Questionnaire and checklist were used to elicit vital information from the respondents. The findings revealed that majority of the uli motifs are not available in CorelDraw Application Software for designs and graphic art instructions. Lecturers and students experience some technical problems in the use of scanner. The paper recommended that the Igbo motifs uli should be integrated in newer versions of CorelDraw Application Software and other design software like Print Artist, Instant Artist, Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator.
Art is a form of expression that dates back to the beginning of time. Since then it has evolved and changed to adapt to modern times. Whether that be through a shift in style, in medium, or technology. Graphic design, contrary to popular belief, actually began in 1922, to define graphic art across time. Since the introduction of the modern computer and graphic design software, it has evolved into ...
Key Words: CorelDraw, Uli, Symbols, and Motifs
Symbols constitute the basic elements of design in both traditional and modern world graphics. These elements are made up of geometric shapes such as circles, triangles, rectangles and squares. The organizations of these elements or Forms exhibit the graphic designers’ ideas. Examples of these organizations could be seen in both traditional and contemporary designs that are often in use today. The analysis of the design draws claim from the socio-cultural significance of the forms. This is shown by the content and meaning of the elements that make up the symbol. The ideas and images transformed into symbols reflect the most prominent and accepted aspects of the situation that presents such ideas (Dunu, 2005).
These ideas and natural elements combine to frame the design symbols used on works. In Igbo cosmology, sun for instance, which scares evil doing is used as a metaphorical title for honest and straight-forward citizens. The python, with its body marks, is regarded as an epitome of beauty and an assistant to the creator, hence a messenger of fertility. These ideas are extended to man’s activity and participation in the on going events around him.
Themes are developed from the context in which these symbols and motifs are found and their relevance in the rituals and lures of the people (Okeke, 1982).
In Igbo setting, the snail for instance is regarded as a peaceful animal and passes through thorns without damage to its tongue. This feat is expressed by the saying ile oma ka ejune ji aga na ogwu (the snail passes through thorns with its righteous tongue).
In this way snail shells are attached to heads of masqueraders to remind the masqueraders of the need for peace and humility. In some cases, symbols find their ways into figurative speeches and folktales and touches of embellishment determine their usage. The lizard for instance, in a figurative speech, fell down from a considerable height, lands on its belly without damage to its intestines and said to itself, ‘If any one does not praise me, I will praise myself’. The Afo Ngwele (lizard’s belly) symbol motif is derived from this. This symbol is applied on the joints and abdomen of the body during decoration with the belief that this will make somebody powerful and ability to invoke strength and absorb shock. Odu Agwo (snake’s tail) symbol is abstracted from the snake which means that snake is a didactic visual that warns of the sinister of the tail of the snake.
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As well as being aesthetic, the design symbols are also functional and structural. The functional level amplifies traits of the natural forms that inspire the concretization of the formal elements. Under this perspective, dots, stripes and checker boards cease to be mere geometrical forms but abstracted images could be seen in the ‘Nwa obogwu’ (Duckling), ‘Akpi’ (Scorpion) symbols to mention a few. The abstracted images as much as possible re-sound the essential attributes of the natural source.
Structurally, the design symbols are both patterns embossed, incised or linear when seen on planes or surfaces of art forms. These are seen as dots, lines, triangles, circular and four sided patterns. These design symbols are regarded as Uli motifs in Igbos of Nigeria (Willis, 1997).
Uli is the name given to the traditional designs drawn by the Igbo people of Nigeria. Uli drawings are strongly linear and do not have deep perspective; they do, however, balance positive and negative space. Designs are frequently asymmetrical, and are often painted spontaneously. Uli generally is not sacred, apart from those images painted on the walls of shrines and created in conjunction with some community rituals (Cole & Aniakor, 1985).
The drawing of uli was once practiced throughout most of Igbo land, although by 1970 it had lost much of its popularity, and was being kept alive by a handful of contemporary artists (Ottenberg, 2002).
It was usually practiced by women, who would decorate each other’s bodies with dark dyes to prepare for village events, such as marriage, title taking, and funerals; designs would sometimes be produced for the most important market days as well. Designs would last about a week.
The use of uli was not limited to the human body. Igbo women also paint murals of designs on the walls of compounds and houses. These generally used four colours which could be created from natural bases easily found in the area; black was made from charcoal, reddish brown from the camwood tree, yellow from either soil or tree bark, and white from clay. When the British arrived in the area at the turn of the twentieth century, they brought with them a commercial laundry additive which some painters used to create blue pigment. Uli was not only meant to express a specific message. It was also meant to beautify the female body and buildings to which it was applied, as beauty is equated with morality in Igbo culture.
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The forms attached represent mythical creatures such as the python and lizard that may not be realistically portrayed. They are however, attached in such a way as to make the audience understand the figures with case.
These motifs, whether derived from the people’s myths, lures and figurative speeches are got from various sources such as plant, animal, man-made objects, cosmic elements, numerical units or from the artist’s intuition. These sources are discussed as follows:
Ofu Mkpulu (One Unit)
Mkpulu nabo (Two units)
Mkpulu ato (Three units)
Mkpulu ano (Four units): This motif is a symbol of the four market days in the native week of Igbos, namely: Eke, Oye, Afo and Nkwo.
Mkpulu ise (Five units): The number symbolizes the needs of man-life, wealth, children, love and peace. Ise is verbally used as ‘Amen’ by the Igbo people. These mkpulu ise motifs and others under the numerical units are found on body decoration, mural painting.
Mkpulu isaa (Seven units): It is regarded as a wish-proposing unit which calls for success and maturity. It is found on body decoration.
Motifs from Animal Sources
Ududo (Spider): The spider is considered by the Igbo people as the best maker of design. It is therefore, a biotic representation which stands as the symbol of an artist. It is a body and mural decoration motif.
Odu Agwo (Snake Tail): The odu agwo motif warns of the sinister of snake’s tail. It is a body decoration motif abstracted from the tail of the snake and resembles the small letter ‘y’ with tail curved to the opposite direction.
Eke (Python): The python is considered by the people as a messenger of the god of fertility. It is caved onto masks and found in relief on murals.
Uli Chukwu Delu Eke (Uli painted on the python by God): The motif consists of zig-zag lines enclosed in series of horizontal lines. It is mainly found on murals.
Odu Okike (Elephant Tusk): Odu okike is a mythical name associating the tusk to creation. It is carved on wooden objects in relief and also appliquéd on fabric for masquerades.
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Ije Nwugo (The Eagles Movement): Ugo is a rare and graceful bird which is greatly mentioned in Igbo aesthetic referents. Oji Ugo (The Eagle’s Kolanut) is a name used to express beauty of a young girl, which also regards a maiden as eagle’s kolanut meaning that her beauty is a rare type hence Ije Nwugo (the graceful movement of the eagle).
This is an attribute of this rarity expressed by the beauty of a maiden. The motif is found on body and mural decorations.
Ije Eke (The Python’s Movement): This motif indicates danger. It is a body decorative motif and appliquéd on the costume of Ijele masquerade. The motifs consist of curved lines, dots, triangles and diamond shapes.
Nwa Obogwu (Duckling): The duckling motif is found on body and mural decorations.
Afo Ngwele (Lizard’s Belly): These motifs identify the shock absorbing organ of the lizard. It is applied on the joints of the body and abdomen as a motif of shock. It is also a prominent motif on the chest symbolizing the strength of the soul.
Akpi (Scorpion): The motif is used on body decoration for didactic ends.
Mbo Agu (Leopard’s Claw): The Mbo Agu motif portrays strength and confidence. It consists of rows of triangle and is used as a body and wall decorative motifs. It is also carved on wooden objects and appliquéd on costumes by masking associations.
Agwaka Agu (Leopard’s Marks): This is a body and mural decorative motif. It is also appliquéd on costumes.
Ejune (Snail): The snail is a peaceful animal and passes through thorns without damage to its tongue. This emphasizes the saying ile oma ka ejune ji aga n’ogwu (The snail passes through thorns with its righteous tongue).
It is a body and mural decorative motif made up of lines, triangles and concentric circles.
Onu Apia (Stork’s Beak): This motif is derived from the beak of the stork. It is a body and mural decorative motif either drawn alone or as in alternated rows of squares.
Uli Ochokomma (Looking for Beauty): This is a facial motif derived from the structure of the human face. Mkpowa Iru (Division of the Face) motif is the vertical line which starts from the fore head to the tip of the nose is combined with the spirals which start from
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A little above the eye brows, down through the sides of the face and terminates behind the ears to form the Ochokomma motif. It is predominantly a facial decorative motif.
Ebilebi Iku (Trimmed Eye Brow): This motif is mainly for the decoration of the eye brows. It has the shape of the eye brow but with divisions.
Okpa Okuko (Hen’s Claws): This is essentially a facial decorative motif drawn under the lower crow’s feet of the eyes which is in form of letter ‘v’ and in some cases it looks like letter ‘n’ with a stroke on top.
Uli Onu (Uli Mouth Pattern): This is a moth decoration. It is motif found on body and murals.
Onu Nwa Okuko (The Hen’s Beak): It is a mural and body decorative motif.
Okpa Obogwu (Duckling’s Feet): This motif is used mainly on body decoration and on murals.
Motif from Plant
Ogbe Nduko (Potato Tuber): This motif signifies one of the agricultural products of the people. It is a body and mural decorative motif.
Ukwu Ji (Yam Tendril): The ukwu ji motif represents which is the king of all crops in Igbo land. It is a body decorative motif.
Okosisi Dachili Ezi (Great Trunk on a Path): The motif allegorically points to the personalities that bear the burden of the community. It is found on body, murals and wooden panels as decorative elements.
Mkpulu Oka (Maize Grain): Maize is an essential food crop used after the moth of plenty. It is a body and mural decorative motif.
Ekpili (Crotal): Crotal is often found on masquerades costume. It is usually stringed and used by diviners. At the top, it has two concentric circles followed by a series of semi-circle all starting from one end and terminating at the other. It is a body and mural decorative motif.
Isi Unele (Banana Bunch): Banana is one of the cash crops of Igbo people. It is being represented by a ‘v’ shape and a small semi-circle enclosed in the v shape. It is found on body decoration and murals.
Omu Nkwu (Palm Frond): Omu Nkwu symbolizes many things in Igbo land. For instance, it is used in partitioning where titled men or women stay during a function. The motif consists of series of triangle, semi-circle and dots. It is body and mural decorative motif.
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Abuba Akpu (Cassava Leaf): The motif is derived from the people’s stable food. It consists of four pod like shapes. It is common on body paintings and murals.
Ogbe Oji (Kolanut Pod) Ogbe Oji motif looks like a diamond but with projections at the four sides. It is got from the cross sectional view of a kolanut pod showing the area between the four rows and position of the nits in the pod. Of all the motifs used in uli painting, kolanut is a very significant seed in Igbo land. It is the first thing to be presented to a visitor on his arrival and this signifies acceptance, welcome and love. It is a symbol of hospitality hence the saying Onye wetalu oji wetalu ndu (He that offers kolanut, offers life).
Ododo (Flower): This motif derives its name from flower. It is made up of combination of concentric circles and curves. The motif resembles a flying bird. They are both used as a mural and body decorative motif.
Motifs from Man-Made Objects
Aka Ngwe Ose (Hand of a Grinding Stone): Before the emergence of blender women used to grind pepper, corn and so on with grinding stone. This motif derives its name from the small handle used in crushing on the bigger stone. It looks like two triangles facing each other but intersected at the diagonal stripes. It is a body and mural decorative motif.
Isi Mma (Head of a Knife): this is a body decorative motif derived from the woman’s domestic knife. The shape at the top looks like a triangle that is a bit rounded with an opening at the middle. The shape at the bottom is also a triangle but it is smaller and it supports the shape at the top.
Mkpulu Mgbo (Cannon Balls): Mkpulu Mgbo is named after the metal ball fired by cannon. The basic shapes here are circle, diamond and triangle with small circles embedded in them. They are used on body and murals.
Akpala Uli (Uli Palette Knife): The drawing tool of the uli artist is also drawn as a motif used mainly on body and murals.
Okwa uli (Uli Bowl): These shapes represent the uli artist bowl. Okwa uli is a body and mural decorative motif.
Jigida (Waist Beads): Jgida was the waist beads worn by maidens in the past while the upper parts of their bodies were decorated with uli. The motif is in circle intersecting one another. They are found on body and murals.
Ikwe (Motar): A domestic utensil used in pounding. It consists of one large circle containing two small ones. It features prominently on murals.
Ego Ayolo (Cowries Shell): This was once used as money. It is basically an oblong rounded shape. The cowries are a common feature on masquerade costumes and hairdo. The motif is used on body decoration and at times murals.
Ogene (Metal Gong): The ogene motif has a U shape. Usually it is carved on wooden doors and panels and appliquéd on masquerade costume. When it is seen on an item, it identifies the owner as a good and truthful person.
Ego Igwe (Metal Money) and Mgbudamgbu (Manilla): Both Ego Igwe and Mgbudamgbu represent the two types of metal money used between the transitory periods of shells and coins. Ego Igwe is diamond shape with opening at the middle while Mgbudamgbu is semi-circle in shape. Both are body and mural decorative motifs.
Okwa Nzu (Chalk Bowl): This motif derives its name from the traditional chalk bowl with which kolanut is presented to a guest. It is represented with semi-circle backing each other.
Mma Nkpa (Scissors): This is one of a tailor’s tools. The motif is two sizes of lobe-like shapes, extended below by two spirals. In between the spirals are four dots of varying sizes. It is mainly used on body decoration and sometimes on murals.
Okpa Ite Igwe (Tripod Leg): The tripod is one of the women’s cooking utensils which this motif is named after. It has two sizes of triangle shapes and the smaller one is shaped. It is found on mural and body decoration.
Mkpisi Igwe (Metal Needle): The metal needle is used by women while cooking to test what they are cooking. For instance, women use it to test if the yam she is boiling is well cooked. It consists of a vertical line with a spiral or spirals at the top made up the motif. It is used mainly in the decoration of the female body especially around the breast and naval.
Abuba Ute (Mat): This body and mural decorative motif is derived from the traditional sleeping mat. It has a simple weave structure of the shaded squares running over under the un-shaded squares.
Mma Nwuli (Uli Knife): Uli knife is used in cutting open the pod. The shape is slightly curved and shaded thickly at one end.
Uli Opipia (Striking): Uli Opipia is obtained by striking Uli pallet stick on the body. It resembles a lobe like shape cut into two on extension which looks like a handle on one end.
Motif from Cosmic Elements
All above motifs are derived from the cosmic elements. The moon to the people is the source of light and life. It illuminates the earth during darkness. The concept of the moon on body and mural painting, or carved wooden objects reechoes the peoples saying onwa na-etiri ora (the moon that shines amongst all).
The period of the full moon is a period of joy and beauty of Igbo people. This is because the older people use this moonlight period to teach the young ones the ethics and norms of the society through folklores. The moon motif is represented as it appears in nature. The moon motif can be full moon, half moon and quarter moon. The star motif shows the triangles facing each other. These motifs are mural decoration and specifically carved on the wooden doors and panels of titled men. This shows that they are distinguished members of the society.
Designs from Artists Intuition
Uli Olilo (Concentric Circle): This motif is very popular with girls. The importance is being the heightening of the curves on their bodies. For instance, around the breast, it is drawn in close succession to emphasize roundness. Apart from being popular among the girls, it is also used on other people, on murals and carved door panels.
Uli Mbodo (Large Uli): This motif derives its name from the design on the animals of the cat family especially to those which the people attached the prefix Agu. It is made up of large circle containing a diamond shape which divides into four. Each space than contains small circles or dots. At the middle of the diamond shape is also a division which also contains small dots. They are used on body and mural decoration and also carved on wooden objects.
Akalete (Outline and fill in): In this motif, the artist first of all outlines the shapes, and then fills in some of the forms. It can be used for both mural, decorative motifs and carved wooden panels. Akalete when used as body and mural decorative motif is simply outlined and filled in to form the solid areas.
Onwakalibata (Accidental): This motif must have been achieved accidentally by an artist. It contains two triangles at both sides facing each other. Inside the large triangles are smaller ones embedded in them. In between these triangles are series of semi-circles terminating on a parallel line on both sides. The two sections of semi-circles are facing each other. The motif is mainly carved on wooden panels.
Uche Akutaonu (Divided Attention): Vertical and diagonal lines, resulting in what looks like a diamond shape have been combined to form this motif. It is carved on wooden objects and also serves as body and mural decorative motif.
Etiwelu (Broken): Etiwelu is body and mural decorative motif. A vertical line, joining two semi-circles with two small circles on each side of the line at the top and three sizes of parallel lines at the bottom of the line forms the motif.
Ntupo (Dots) and Asulesu: Both motifs are used on murals and body decorations. Asulesu is pod-like in shape. Ntupo is round-basically, they seem to have the same visual effect.
One wonders whether the majority of these Igbo design motifs uli are embedded in design software like CorelDraw which is often used universally in school of arts for graphic designs. This is the concern of this study.
CorelDraw application software is a vector graphic manipulation tool. It allows artists to manipulate vector graphics. It is also used for layout and design manipulation (Ibenegbu, 2011).
CorelDraw is one of the most graphic design software that is widely used by designers in Nigeria. It is used because of its versatility and user friendly (Ibenegbu, 2011).
CorelDraw is a vector graphics editor developed and marketed by Corel Corporation of Ottawa, Canada.
It has been observed that most of these motifs are very important in graphic designs especially when it comes to the area of producing designs that have cultural orientation. For effective and efficient utilization of application tools in CorelDraw there are very essential tools that can be manipulated by graphic designer and these are Fill Tool (Pattern Fill Dialog, Texture Fill Dialog, and PostScript Fill Dialog), Interactive Fill Tool (Interactive Fill Tool (g) and Interactive Mesh Fill M), and character like Webdings (Symbol), Wingdings (Symbol), Wingdings 2 (Symbol) and Wingdings 3 (Symbol) (Chastain, 2011).
With these various symbols and fills, a designer can create desired designs such as cards, posters, flyers, book covers, brochure and magazines. However, the problem of using CorelDraw software in designing in Nigeria is that some of these fills and symbols embedded in it are not designed to suite the cultural background of the people. This is because it has western orientation since they are the people that developed the software. They did not put other people’s culture into consideration in developing the design software especially the Igbo people of Nigeria who have a very rich symbols and motifs of various kinds. These posses a lot of problems in designing things that are made to represent the cultural heritage of Igbo people. This is because the symbols/motifs uli that will be used to depict these designs may not be found in CorelDraw Application Software. Therefore, the students of graphic arts resort freehand drawing in depicting these symbols after which they scan in computer. This type of drawing mostly lacks precision which would not have been possible if the symbols have been embedded in the software. Scanned designs often reduce the original quality of the work. And another important deficit is in the area of erasing the white background which normally appears in scanned documents. This is always very difficult to handle especially for students of graphics who have not mastered the use of CorelDraw.
The theoretical base for this study is associated with Salomon’s symbol systems. Symbol systems are comprised of representational codes such as pictures, words, or graphs which are used to provide information to the receiver in the acquisition of knowledge (Salomon, 1985).
His work covers a range of topics: the cognitive effects of media’s symbol systems, the expenditure of mental effort, mindfulness and mindlessness, organizational change, the design of intelligent computer tools, the design and systemic study of technology-afforded learning environments, and – more recently – research on peace education. Salomon (1978) describes symbol systems as the means used in a media to select, highlight, structure, and present information. In other words, symbol systems are the “languages” used in media to convey a message. Symbol systems have rules as to their relationships and syntax directed towards their use in a certain field of reference (Salomon, 1978).
For example, Mendeleev’s periodic table of elements displays a symbol for each element. The arrangement and relationships of the elements communicates information of chemical properties greater than the individual symbol alone. Measurements of the effect on learning under a symbol systems approach would examine the user’s increased encoding of symbolic representations for use in understanding new concepts or increased application of symbols in understanding a particular field. Therefore, these uli motifs can also be used in instructional purposes for students to understand new concepts and integrate it to their desired designs. Based on the outcomes, the instruction would be adapted in terms of the use of the symbol systems not the media alone to further measure the effectiveness on the subjects learning.
However, an increasing sophistication in modern design calls for integration of indigenous symbols and motifs in designing so as to portray the cultural heritage of the people. The essential purpose is to employ indigenous design technology to help solve problems in the area of design arising from the population boom, complexity of design information to be taught and learned, the need for computer aided designs and shortage of computer literate lecturers in area of Graphic Arts (Okeke, 1982).
In educational institutions therefore, it is pertinent to provide lecturers with up-to-date information on the variety of Igbo symbols and motifs uli and instruction on the proper use of them in teaching Graphic Arts in Colleges of Education and other tertiary institutions of learning. The world is now changing technologically. Most of the modern designs are no longer being produced manually. It is highly important that most of these traditional symbols be embedded in design software like CorelDraw by computer programmers for effective and efficient manipulation of graphic designs.
1. What are the available uli motifs in CorelDraw Application Software?
2. What are the problems encountered in the scanning uli motifs in computer?
This is an exploratory survey study. A survey research is a study in which the interrelationships of sociological or psychological variables are determined and summarized (William, 1991).
Area of the Study
The area of this study is South East geo-political zone of Nigeria
Sample and Sampling Technique
All the 7 colleges of education in the South East Geo-Political Zone were used for the study. However, 55 out of 122 students were randomly selected and 15 out of 31lecturers were also randomly selected through simple random sampling technique and used for the study.
Instrument for Data Collection
The instruments for data collection were checklist and questionnaire. The checklist consists of 65 different symbols and motifs which the respondents were expected to tick the items that are available in CorelDraw Software, while the questionnaire consists of items in which the respondents were expected to indicate the problems they encounter in scanning uli motifs in computer and the extent of use of uli motifs in instructions. Two experts in Education Fine and Applied Arts and Computer Education validated the instrument.
Administration of the Instrument
The researcher with help of research assistants administered the questionnaire and checklist to respondents which comprised of 15 lecturers and 55 students and collected on the spot. Seventy copies of questionnaire and checklist were completed by students and lecturers and they were used for data analysis.
Method of Data Analysis
Data was analyzed descriptively using mean, frequency and percentages. Means were used to answer research questions two. Items that have Mean score from 2.50 to 3.49 were considered High Extent, 1.50 to 2.49 Less Extent and 0.50 to 1.49 No Extent respectively. Percentage was used to answer question one. Items that have percentages of 40 to 100 were considered Available while those that are less than 40 were considered Not Available.
Table 1: Descriptive Availability of Uli Motifs in CorelDraw software for Graphics Instructions and Designs (n = 70)
S/No | Uli Motifs/Symbols | F | % | RESPONSE |
1. | Ofu Mkpulu (One Unit) | 0 | 0 | NA |
2. | Mkpulu nabo (Two units) | 0 | 0 | NA |
3. | Mkpulu ato (Three units) | 0 | 0 | NA |
4. | Mkpulu ano (Four units) | 0 | 0 | NA |
5. | Mkpulu ise (Five units) | 0 | 0 | NA |
6. | Mkpulu isaa (Seven units) | 0 | 0 | NA |
7. | Ududo (Spider) | 0 | 0 | NA |
8. | Odu Agwo (Snake Tail) | 0 | 0 | NA |
9. | Odu Agwo (Snake Tail) | 0 | 0 | NA |
10. | Eke (Python) | 0 | 0 | NA |
11. | Uli Chukwu Delu Eke (Uli painted on the python by God) | 0 | 0 | NA |
12. | Odu Okike (Elephant Tusk) | 0 | 0 | NA |
13. | Ije Nwugo (The Eagles Movement) | 0 | 0 | NA |
14. | Oji Ugo (The Eagle’s Kolanut) | 0 | 0 | NA |
15. | Ije Eke (The Python’s Movement) | 0 | 0 | NA |
16. | Nwa Obogwu (Duckling) | 0 | 0 | NA |
17. | Afo Ngwele (Lizard’s Belly) | 0 | 0 | NA |
18. | Akpi (Scorpion) | 0 | 0 | NA |
19. | Mbo Agu (Leopard’s Claw) | 0 | 0 | NA |
20. | Agwaka Agu (Leopard’s Marks) | 0 | 0 | NA |
21. | Ejune (Snail) | 0 | 0 | NA |
22. | Onu Apia (Stork’s Beak) | 0 | 0 | NA |
23. | Uli Ochokomma (Looking for Beauty) | 0 | 0 | NA |
24. | Ebilebi Iku (Trimmed Eye Brow) | 0 | 0 | NA |
25. | Okpa Okuko (Hen’s Claws) | 0 | 0 | NA |
26. | Uli Onu (Uli Mouth Pattern) | 0 | 0 | NA |
27. | Onu Nwa Okuko (The Hen’s Beak) | 0 | 0 | NA |
28. | Okpa Obogwu (Duckling’s Feet) | 0 | 0 | NA |
29. | Ogbe Nduko (Potato Tuber) | 0 | 0 | NA |
30. | Ukwu Ji (Yam Tendril) | 0 | 0 | NA |
31. | Okosisi Dachili Ezi (Great Trunk on a Path) | 0 | 0 | NA |
32. | Mkpulu Oka (Maize Grain) | 0 | 0 | NA |
33. | Ekpili (Crotal) | 0 | 0 | NA |
34. | Isi Unele (Banana Bunch) | 0 | 0 | NA |
35. | Omu Nkwu (Palm Frond) | 0 | 0 | NA |
36 | Abuba Akpu (Cassava Leaf) | 0 | 0 | NA |
37. | Ogbe Oji (Kolanut Pod) | 0 | 0 | NA |
38. | Ododo (Flower) | 0 | 0 | NA |
39. | Aka Ngwe Ose (Hand of a Grinding Stone) | 0 | 0 | NA |
40. | Mkpulu Mgbo (Cannon Balls) | 0 | 0 | NA |
41. | Akpala Uli (Uli Palette Knife) | 0 | 0 | NA |
42. | Okwa uli (Uli Bowl) | 0 | 0 | NA |
43. | Jigida (Waist Beads) | 0 | 0 | NA |
44. | Ikwe (Mortar) | 0 | 0 | NA |
45. | Ego Ayolo (Cowries Shell) | 0 | 0 | NA |
46. | Ogene (Metal Gong) | 0 | 0 | NA |
47. | Ego Igwe (Metal Money) | 0 | 0 | NA |
48. | Mgbudamgbu (Manilla) | 0 | 0 | NA |
49. | Okwa Nzu (Chalk Bowl) | 0 | 0 | NA |
50. | Mma Nkpa (Scissors) | 0 | 0 | NA |
51. | Okpa Ite Igwe (Tripod Leg) | 0 | 0 | NA |
52. | Mkpisi Igwe (Metal Needle) | 0 | 0 | NA |
53. | Abuba Ute (Mat) | 0 | 0 | NA |
54. | Mma Nwuli (Uli Knife) | 0 | 0 | NA |
55. | Uli Opipia (Striking) | 0 | 0 | NA |
56. | Onwa (Moon) | 65 | 92.86 | AV |
57. | Kpakpando (Star) | 67 | 95.71 | AV |
58. | Uli Olilo (Concentric Circle) | 58 | 82.86 | AV |
59. | Uli Mbodo (Large Uli) | 0 | 0 | NA |
60. | Akalete (Outline and fill in) | 66 | 94.29 | AV |
61. | Onwakalibata (Accidental) | 0 | 0 | NA |
62. | Uche Akutaonu (Divided Attention) | 0 | 0 | NA |
63. | Etiwelu (Broken) | 0 | 0 | NA |
64. | Ntupo (Dots) | 68 | 97.14 | AV |
65. | Asulesu(Pod-like) | 0 | 0 | NA |
AV = Available; NA = Not Available
Result in table 1 indicates that out of 65 Uli motifs listed only 5 uli motifs were available in CorelDraw Software for Fine and Applied Arts instructions and Designs. These are: Ntupo (Dots), Kpakpando (Star); Akalete (Outline & fill in); Onwa (Moon) and Uli olilo (Concentric circle).
These showed that it is only these 5 uli motifs that are used for designs in CorelDraw Software by students and lecturers in Fine and Applied Arts in Colleges of Education.
A Descriptive Mean Analysis of Problems encountered in the scanning uli motifs in computer (n= 70)
S/No. | PROBLEMS | MEAN | DECISION |
1. | Using inappropriate settings in scanning the motif | 3.91 | HE |
2. | Power Supply (inadequate) | 3.88 | HE |
3. | Inefficient manipulation of the scanner | 3.72 | HE |
4. | Retouching of the scanned motif | 3.65 | HE |
5. | Poor editing of the scanned motif | 3.52 | HE |
6. | Erasing of the background of the scanned motif | 3.44 | HE |
7. | Technical problems (Poor handling of the Scanner) | 3.41 | HE |
Key: HE =High Extent
Result in table 2 indicates that in the scanning of uli motifs students encounter major problems such as technical, power, manipulation, editing, erasing, retouching and use of appropriate settings in scanning motif in computer.
Discussion of the Results
The findings of the study revealed that most of the uli motifs are not available in CorelDraw Application Software. Of all the 65 items (uli motifs) needed for effective teaching of culturally oriented graphic designs, 5 was available. This is highly worrisome if the designs from the students advocated by the stakeholders can be achieved.
Implication of the Findings
The non-availability of the Igbo motifs in CorelDraw Application Software makes it difficult for lecturers and students to produce a design that can reflect their cultural background. The educational goal especially at this global age requires curriculum reformers that will integrate cultural symbols in design software technology in Fine and Applied Arts instructions that can encourage cultural exchange and diversity. The findings also revealed that the lecturers and students experience some technical problems in the use of scanner. Some of these technical problems emanate from handling, power, manipulation, editing, erasing, retouching and use of appropriate settings in scanning motifs in computer. Some scanners may not be sharp like others therefore, may not be able to provide quality output. And the image may be distorted by the individual artists while scanning.
Mastering basic skills in CorelDraw design software should be integrated in curriculum to reflect the contemporary visual Africa arts and its cultural undertones. If these motifs can be integrated in the CorelDraw Software, this will help other countries of the world to understand and appreciate the rich cultural motifs of Igbos and this can also influence their own graphic designs.
Igbo motifs should be integrated in newer versions of CorelDraw Application Software and other design software like Print Artist, Instant Artist, Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator. This should be made available for teaching graphic arts in colleges of education. Also Graphic art instructions should contain activities that has cultural orientations and be integrated as core curriculum content in the teacher training programmes at all levels of education.
The contemporary design practices today needs that cultural undertones of the people be integrated in modern design software. And this can be attributed to advancement in world technology. There is need for cultural exchange since the world is now a global village. People should produce designs that should reflect their culture for the benefit of other people living in other countries of the world. This calls for serious awareness and education in integrating motifs and symbols of different cultures by programmers in design software like CorelDraw in graphic arts in all levels of education in Nigeria. Nigeria educational system has not done much in this area. This may hamper their survival in technological competitive world today. To ensure that lecturers and students have the knowledge of these motifs and skills required to integrate technology in graphic arts instruction, there is need to emphasize practical skills in training them in computer operations and CorelDraw Design Software that will contain Igbo uli motifs. This will expose the lecturers and students to the broad spectrum of uli motifs in teaching and learning of graphic arts in Nigeria colleges of education.
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