Kinds of Logical Order
logical order is necessary to achieve coherence. It is recognize three of the common kind, there are chronological order, logical division of ideas, and comparison/contrast.
In the Greek “Chronos” is meaning time. Chronological is used for something simple and for complex as a history book. Chronological is not used to historical narrative.
There are two keys to writing a good chronological paragraph:
1. Discuss the events (in a narrative) or the steps (in a process) in the order in which they occur.
2. Use chronological transition signals to indicate the sequence of events or steps.
Topic Sentences for Chronological Order
The topic sentence of a chronological paragraph in some way indicates the time order. The process of paragraph such as the one about cloning technology, the process to be described is named in the topic sentence and tells the reader to expect a chronological paragraph.
Transition Signals for Chronological Order
Transition signals are especially important in a chronological paragraph. Chronological transition signals include the following:
Transition Words and Phrases | Subordinators | Other |
first, First of all, soon,Second, after that, gradually,Next, finally, meanwhile,Now, last,Then | After SinceAs UntilAs soon as WhenBefore While | The first step . . .In the second step . . .On the third day . . .During the night . . . |
... , The ultimate power in the tragic world is a moral order. If order is important to a Kingdom, so is the ability ... authority as King becomes insignificant. This is an indication that order is disrupted because, traditionally the oldest person in the family ... . The first actions of the play show hierarchy broken and order imperilled. Lear abdicates, with evasive stipulations, and divides his kingdom ...
Keep in mind that any time expression can serve as a chronological transition signal. There are some examples:
Later that morning In the next fifteen years,
Twenty-five years ago, From June through August,
In 2001. Before the invention of the fax machine,
Logical Division of Ideas/Order of Importance
Logical division is one of the most common ways to organize ideas in English. Grocery stores separate items into groups: produce milk products. Similarly corporations divide themselves into departments: marketing, research, accounting, etc,. and authors divide books into chapters.
Transition Signals for Logical Division of Ideas
Transition signals used in logical division include many that you already know.
Sentence Connectors | Other |
First, second, third, etc.Next, last, finallyIn addition, moreoverFurthermoreAlso | The first (+ noun)The/a second (+ noun)One (+ noun)Another (+ noun)An additional (+ noun) |
Transition Signals for Order of Importance
You can use this transition signals:
Sentence Connectors | Other |
More importantlyMost significantlyAbove allPrimarily | A more important (+ noun)The most important (+ noun)The second most significant (+ noun)The primary (+ noun) |
Two Topic Sentence Tips
That is two tips to help you write the topic sentence for logical division and order of importance:
1. Use a colon [:] in front of the names of the groups.
2. Use paired (correlative) conjunctions when there are only two groups.
Comparison/Contrast involves analyzing the similarities and differences between two or more items. In the business world, employers compare job applicants, proposals from different advertising agencies, and employee health insurance policies from competing companies. The keys to writing a comparison/contrast paragraph are to put the ideas in some kind of order and to use appropriate transition signals.
The Term Paper on Claim: Government Must Ensure That Their Major Cities Receive the Financial Support They Need in Order to Thrive.
... must ensure that their major cities receive the financial support they need in order to thrive. Reason: It is primarily in cities ... must ensure that their major cities receive the financial support they need in order to thrive on the grounds that in these ... major cities receive the financial support they need in order to thrive on the account that civilian support is considerable as well. Besides ...
Sentence Connectors | Conjunctions | Others |
SimilarlyLikewiseAlsoToo | AndBoth . . . andNot only . . . but alsoAsJust as | LikeJust likeAlikeAs . . . as(be) similarSimilar toThe same (as)Compare to/with |
Contrast Transition Signals
Sentence Connectors | Conjunctions | Others |
HoweverOn the other handOn the contraryIn (by) comparison | ButYetAlthoughThoughEven thoughWhileWhereas | UnlikeDiffer from(be) dissimilarCompare toCompare with |
These are the important points learned from this chapter:
1. There are several kinds of logical order: chronological order, logical division on ideas/order of importance, and comparison/contrast.
2. Each kind of logical order has special words and expressions, or transition signals that will support your logic.
Concrete Support I
Facts versus Opinions
Facts are objective statements of truth. Opinions are subjective statements based on a person’s beliefs or attitudes. There are some example of statements that need unsupported facts and concrete supporting details:
Unsupported “Facts” | Concrete Supporting Details |
Teenage smoking is on the riseSmoking can cause lung cancer | In 1995, the U.S. surgeon general reported that more than three million teenagers smoked cigarettes.The American Cancer Society reports that the number one cause of lung cancer among men and women is smoking. |
Concrete Supporting Details
The several kinds of concrete supporting details that you can use to support or prove are a paragraph. Among the most common are examples, statistics, and quotations.
Example and extended examples, which are anecdotes or short stories, are perhaps the easiest kind of supporting details to use. Finally, since it is easy to remember a striking example or a good story. Two cautions keeps in mind. First, remember that in formal academic writing research papers, theses, and the like personal examples are considered weak support, so use them sparingly. Second, be sure that your examples really prove your point.
... and the organization’s commitment to the change. Change is supported. A coalition of support among senior leaders and managers creates momentum ... organization, to the employees involved and to the individuals supporting the change. 2. Be able to facilitate a shared understanding ... after employees have made the personal decision to support the change. Resistance is identified and dealt with early in ...
Tips for Using Examples and Extended Examples
1. Make sure that your example really supports your points.
2. Introduce examples with appropriate transition signals.
Transition Signals for Example
Sentence Connectors | Others |
For exampleFirst instance | Such asLikeThe following example (story/accident) illustrates (shows/demonstrates) . . . |
Statistics are often used for support in business, engineering, and the sciences.
These are the important points you should have learned from this chapter:
1. Use concrete supporting details to prove have learned from your points.
2. Do not use opinions for support.
3. Use examples, extended examples, or statistics as support.
Concrete Support II
Quotations, paraphrases, and Summaries
The kinds of quotation are two, direct and indirect. In a direct quotation, another person’s exact words are repeated and are enclosed in quotation marks. In an indirect quotation, the speaker’s words are reported without quotation marks.
* Direct Quotations
* Reporting Verbs and Phrases
Reporting verbs and phrases are used to introduce a quotation or other borrowed information (such as statistics).
There are some rules for their use
1. Reporting verbs can appear before, in the middle of, or after a quotation.
2. Reporting verbs can be used with or without the subordinator as.
3. Reporting verbs may be in any tense.
4. The reporting phrase according to can be used in place of a reporting verb.
5. It is a good idea to include the source of the quotation in your sentence.
* Punctual Direct Quotations
For general purposes, the rules are as follows:
1. Quotation marks are always used in pairs.
2. Capitalized the first word of the quotation as well the first word of the sentence
... lives. The votes that we cast either have a direct or an indirect representation of our beliefs. In cases such as city ... have for our children rather than a direct one. Once the distinction between direct representation and indirect representation has been made, the arguments ... the school board we elected as an indirect representation of our beliefs. All a direct vote on the curriculum would accomplish ...
3. If you break a quotation into two parts, enclose both pairs in quotation marks and separate the parts with commas.
4. If you omit part of a direct quotation use an ellipsis (. . .).
5. If you have a good reason to add words of your own to the original, put brackets  around the words that you have added.
* Indirect Quotation
Indirect quotations are sometimes called reported speech. Indirect quotations are introduced by the same reporting verbs used for direct quotations, often with the added word that.
* Changing Direct Quotations to Indirect Quotations
In the following examples, notice what changes occur when a direct quotation is rewritten as an indirect quotation.
Direct Quotation | Indirect Quotation |
He declared, “I am looking for intellectual women.”My father told me, “I want you to do your best”. | He declared that he was looking for intellectual women.My father told me that he wanted me to do my best. |
To change a direct quotation to an indirect quotation:
1. Omit the quotation marks.
2. Add the subordinator that.
3. Change the verb tense if necessary.
4. Change pronouns as necessary.
Sequence of Tenses Rules
1. If the reporting verb is in a part tense, the verbs ai an indirect quotation may change tense according to the following rules.
| Direct Quotation | Indirect Quotation |
Simple present change to simple past | Susan said, “The exam is at eight o’clock.” | Susan said (that) the exam was at eight o’clock |
Simple past and present perfect change to past perfect | She said, “we didn’t have time to eat breakfast.”He said, “The exam has just started.” | She said (that) they hadn’t had time to eat breakfast.He said (that) the exam had just started. |
Will change to would , can to could, and may to might. | Pedro mentioned, “Today I will eat Chinese food, and tomorrow I’ll eat French food if I can find a good restaurant.” | Pedro mentioned that today he would eat Chinese food and that tomorrow he’d eat French food if he could find a good restaurant. |
The Dissertation on The Mood in This Act Changes from Relaxed to Tense. Explore the Ways Priestley Transforms the Tone Throughout the Act.
... The mood in this act changes from relaxed to tense. Explore the ways Priestley transforms the tone ... light” this could mean that Birling, unknowingly changes the mood by changing the lighting, or it could be that ... would disturb the mood and cause it to change, by doing this Priestly has already given The ... seems that nothing could possibly go wrong and change that, in a way the atmosphere is almost ...
2. When the quoted information is a fact or a general truth, the verb tense in the quotation does not change.
3. When the reporting verb is simple present, present perfect, or future, the verb tense in the quotation does not change.
4. When the reporting phrase is according to, the verb tense does not change.
Paraphrasing is writing skill in which you “rephrase” (rewrite) information from an outside source in your own words without changing its meaning. A paraphrase is unacceptable when it contains the same vocabulary and sentence structure as the original.
A summary is similar to a paraphrase except that a summary is shorter.
Documenting Sources of Information
There are two steps to documenting your sources. First, put a reference to each source within the text. This is called an in text citation. Second, list that fully describes all of your sources to attach to the end of your paper.
* In text Citations
* List of Works Cited.
Name : Purwita Sari.R