According to Karen A. Matthews, Ph. D (2009), people who are engaged in multiple enjoyable activities are better off physically and psychologically .This statement of Karen A.Matthews is indirectly stating that one must not frustrate himself working too much .There is a need to enjoy and relax in order to become a better person .
Students who are dedicated on their studies spend a lot of time thinking about their studies, doing their assignments and constructing their projects. They focus almost all of their time in doing academic stuff in order for them to step up and achieve their goals as students. These kind of students are the students that are in demand for different scholarship programs. These are the students of International Maritime Employers’ Council (IMEC), an organization which is dedicated to maritime industry ,have .
The International Maritime Employers’ Council (IMEC) aims to promote physically, mentally, emotionally, socially and spiritually developed cadets through the IMEC Cadetship Programme in partnership with the University of Cebu–Maritime Education and Training Center (UC-METC).
The IMEC Cadets are provided with all their needs from board and lodge, food, uniform, tuition and recreational facilities.
The IMEC cadets have their own recreational or leisure room that can be used during free times. They spend their leisure time in different activities .They play board games and ball game or watch television .They have the freedom to choose whether if they are going to play or rest . Different types of activities may produce an impact to the academic performance of the IMEC Cadets .It may be desirable or undesirable effects.
Manage time wisely Student feeling stress when they are no enough time to do their work. Student always like to do the last minute work, because they didn’t plan well for their time. And also student lazy to do their job early, they feel that they can finish at the end, but when the due date was come, they have to rush and finish the job in the limited time. Most of the last minute job was not as ...
The proponents chose to do the study for the reason that in doing so; hopefully, it will help the proponents to leisure activities and academic performance of The International Maritime Employers’Council (IMEC) Cadets. This study of leisure activities and academic performance of The International Maritime
Employers’ Council (IMEC) Cadets will hopefully become a medium to open up new ideas to improve the status of the IMEC Cadets, IMEC Administrators, Instructors and the society. This study will provide answers that cannot be stated through surface analysis, but by providing valid information and data that will show the correlativity of leisure activities and academic performance of IMEC Cadets.
Compensatory Theory of Leisure (Burch, 1994).The main idea of the compensatory theory is that “work is seen as the dominant force in life, and leisure is seen compensating for either the boredom or the excitement of the job.” (Bammel & Bammel, 1992) This theory can explain some of the leisure behavior seen in modern society. For example people exciting jobs often seek relaxation after work. It seems from that mostly people with an extreme level of either boredom or excitement in their job fall under this theory.
This indicates that this approach has some relevance for modern society. On the other hand, this theory cannot explain why the school teacher becomes a sports trainer in his free time or why a dentist is also a passionate watchmaker. ( Haecker, 2002) The compensatory hypothesis suggests that whenever the individual is given the opportunity to avoid his regular routine, he will seek a directly opposite leisure activity such as music, art, community involvement, and physical fitness for relaxation, broadening of knowledge, and spontaneous social participation. (Burch, 1994) Spillover Theory of Leisure (Wilensky, 1996).
CONCLUSION Leisure and recreational activities engaged in by the majority of adults, teenagers and children were generally passive or non-active, and tended to occur in the home. There is, however, a desire for more variety, particularly for activities outside the home. Shortage of time and money limited leisure opportunities for both adults and teenagers, along with the shortage of entertainment ...
Spillover Theory is the antithesis to the compensatory theory. It states leisure somehow parallels or results from work activity. It suggests that work has a strong impact on the worker’s personality and therefore also determines his leisure behavior.
This means that a teacher gets used to teaching so much that he cannot help continuing it after work. ( Haecker, 2002) These last two theories equal Kelly’s approach to leisure as contextual, which sees leisure embedded in habits, relationships and social arrangements like work. (Kelly, 2000)
This theory, too, explains some parts of modern leisure behavior. A lot of people do things similar to their work in their free time, some even regard their work leisure. But like the compensatory theory it can only explain parts of modern leisure behavior. There seem to be more variables involved.
(Haecker, 2002).More positively, the worker may enjoy work so much that its basic themes are repeated in leisure pastimes. For example, a student who enjoys long hours of reading books also has a hobby of collecting books or other reading paraphernalia that may lead to discovery of more knowledge which can improve his rational skills and academic performance.
Moreover, for student populations, participation in leisure activities is also believed to be a benign mechanism for fighting social ills such as drug abuse, juvenile delinquency, and other deviant behaviour (Vicary, Smith, Caldwell, & Swisher, 1998).
Another positive effect of participation in leisure includes the broadening of an individual’s perspective on the world of work (Munson & Savickas, 1998).
Munson (1993) conducted a survey of 251 American youths and found that the stronger the perceived freedom in leisure, the higher the leisure participation, conviction, and value. Moreover, the higher the perceived freedom, the less likely that participation in activities would be restricted by exogenous factors.
More importantly, investigations by Munson and Widmer (1997) and Munson and Savickas (1998) indicate that significant relation-ships exist among thinking and contemplating, ethical leisure behaviour, and occupational identity; that is, the more those students involve themselves in intellectual and creative leisure activities, the better they advance in occupational identity development with clear career goals. In an environment immersed with pragmatism, leisure activities have traditionally been treated as a residual issue in the cultivation of students, while the idea that leisure and career roles reciprocally influence each other (Super, 1984) is generally neglected. Fitzgerald, Joseph, Hayes, and O’Regan (1995) suggest that an understanding of youth and young adults’ leisure activities and interests can help further our knowledge of their individual needs, development, and social world.
Identify different activities that may be regarded as leisure activities Walking – Outdoor activity of moderate exercises around a park or to sight. Swimming – No impact activity, condition friendly exercise in a pool facility Gym – A low intensity activity that allows individuals to improve specific condition and reach personal goals. Sports such as badminton, basketball etc… – Social ...
Self-development Theory (Dumazedier, 1992).This is based on Dumazedier´s tripartite theory of leisure, consisting of three functions of leisure: relaxation, entertainment, and personal development. He supposes that there will be a time when personal growth, not working for a living, will be life’s primary motivator. Here, relaxation is a prerequisite for leisure, as we need to overcome fatigue, entertainment is the diversion aspect of leisure, and finally personal development is the enduring component of leisure (Bammel & Bammel, 1992).
Bammel and Bammel state that this approach has found its way into modern society, as most people regard work less important than personal growth. More and more workers make use of the possibility of sabbaticals for self-development, and for many young students not the money they will earn with their future job, but the satisfaction they hope to find there, seems to be the major influence on the choice of study.
But even though modern people have more free time than ever before, Bammel & Bammel state, “with additional free time, many workers simply increase their television-watching time”. This means that most people will only realize the first two steps of Dumazedier´s tripartite theory: relaxation and entertainment. For many people this is what leisure means: easy entertainment. To achieve self-development some reflection and “work” on oneself is necessary, and this does not fit into a lot of people’s perceiving of leisure.
Similar from conservative- Marxist perspective, Dumazadier (1974 cited in Rojek 1995) defines leisure as time orientated towards self-fulfilment as an ultimate end. However, this leisure time is granted to the individual by society, when they have complied with his occupational, family, socio-spiritual and socio-political obligations, which makes leisure a necessary element of social order as an opportunity for free time activities contribute to well-being of individual and society. Furthermore, Kaplan (1984 cited in Rojek 1995) claims that the leisure is the primary value of mankind in industrial society as it is “a relatively self-determined activity experience that falls into economically free-time roles ; that is psychologically pleasant in anticipation and recollection; that potentially covers the whole range of commitment and intensity; that contains characteristic norms and constraints; and that provides opportunities for recreation, personal growth and service to others” (Kaplan 1975 cited in Rojek 1995).
Leisure time can be well spent in many different ways. One popular option among the young is playing video games and watching television. While other activities like sports,social gathering and reading are available to them,many people feel that they spend too much time on these indoor games and screens and prefer them to be more active. In this essay,I will discuss my view on the issue to get ...
(Zurawik, 2012) Perspectives on Leisure
`Leisure is defined as freedom from paid labour or as a voluntary behavior (Rojek 2005).
Developing this concept, Mannell and Kleiber(1997) state that leisure is commonly characterised as an activity in time free from obligations, which provides meaningful and satisfying experience identified with freedom, choice and life satisfaction. In 1974, John Neulineger created a model classification of the perceived freedom and fundamental motivation dimensions. Neulinger identified a criterion of leisure as a perceived freedom- a state in which a person feels that what they are doing is done by choice and because they want to do it (Neulinger, 1981 cited in Mannell, Kleiber 1997:126).
He also distinguished between intrinsic- rewards coming from engaging in activity itself, which can be explained by self –determination theory; and extrinsic motivation- engagement in activity leads to other rewards (money, grades).
According to Neulinger’s typology when activity is freely chosen for intrinsic reasons it is called a pure leisure. At the opposite extreme there is activity least leisure like – pure job. Neulinger’s pure job also known as Godbey’s anti-leisure is “an activity which is undertaken compulsively, as a means to an end, from a perception of necessity, with high degree of externally imposed constrains, with considerable anxiety, with high degree of time-consciousness, with minimum of personal autonomy, and which avoids self- actualization, authentication and finitude” (Neulinger 1989 cited in Rojek 1995).
Many people today are looking to reduce stress in their lives. I am a great believer in the concept that each person has a skill or talent to do some diversion, which is right. Sometimes this diversion builds in the skill that every one of us uses on work or job everyday, which is different. So a surgeon might be a mountain climber, a lawyer might build furniture and a writer might fish on stream. ...
Following this socio- psychological perspective, Kaplan (1960 cited in Rojek, 2005 p. 80) identified seven essential elements of pure leisure experience: psychological recognition of activity which is antithesis of work, identification of leisure with pleasure, minimum involuntary role obligation, psychological perception of freedom, inclusion of an entire range of responses from inconsequence and insignificance to weightiness and importance, general psychological recognition of play, identification of activity as being close to the values of culture. (Zurawik, 2012) Review of Related Literature
This part presents the literatures that have bearing on the concerns of the study. A number of pieces of literature, documents, pamphlets, handouts, unpublished theses were perused and analyzed to provide the necessary framework of this study. Ideas, insights, theories, conclusions and recommendations advanced by these papers were cited as authorities of the study. Related Studies
The study of Hickerson, Benjamin D. and Beggs, Brent A. (1992), about Leisure time boredom: issues concerning college students, examined the impact of boredom on leisure of college students in relation to gender, level of education, and activity choice. Subjects at a Midwestern university completed the Leisure Boredom Scale and a modified version of the Leisure Activities Blank. No significant differences were found between overall levels of leisure boredom and the three independent variables.
However, examinations of individual Leisure Boredom Scale items indicated specific differences. Hultsman, 1993).For many young adults, the college years are a period of expanding freedoms and focusing interests (Gitelson & Thomason, 1992).
College is seen as the last stage of formal education for most people and it is also one of the last structured opportunities for individuals to form leisure time behavior patterns before they move into the workforce (Cheng et al., 2004).
The college environment has a unique influence on leisure behavior, including different patterns of free time availability and the acquisition of new activities.
Leisure participation in college students has long-term ramifications as it molds attitudes and behaviors leading to continued recreation participation in later life (Gordon & Catalbiano, 1996).
Students who do not have leisure skills, cannot manage leisure time, or are not aware that leisure can be psychologically rewarding are more likely to be bored during leisure (Hickerson, et al., 2007).
Misra, Ranjitha and McKean, Michelle. “College Students’ Academic Stress and Its Relation to Their Anxiety, Time Management, and Leisure Satisfaction.”American Journal of Health Studies, 01 Jan. 200. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. The article written by Ranjita Misra and Michelle McKean is an investigation that compares stress, anxiety, time management and leisure satisfaction. The ...
The study of American Journal of Health Studies Publisher (2000) investigated the interrelationship among academic stress, anxiety, time management, and leisure satisfaction among 249 university undergraduates by age and gender. Time management behaviors had a greater buffering effect on academic stress than leisure satisfaction activities. Freshmen and sophomore students had higher reactions to stress than juniors and seniors. Anxiety, time management, and leisure satisfaction were all predictors of academic stress in the multivariate analysis. Anxiety reduction and time management in conjunction with leisure activities may be an effective strategy for reducing academic stress in college students.
A disturbing trend in college student health is the reported increase in student stress nationwide (Sax, 1997).
Stressors affecting students can be categorized as academic, financial, time or health related, and self-imposed (Goodman, 1993; LeRoy, 1988).
Academic stressors include the student’s perception of the extensive knowledge base required and the perception of an inadequate time to develop it (Carveth, Gesse, & Moss, 1996).
Students report experiencing academic stress at predictable times each semester with the greatest sources of academic stress resulting from taking and studying for exams, grade competition, and the large amount of content to master in a small amount of time (Abouserie, 1994; Archer &Lamnin, 1985; Britton &Tesser, 1991; Kohn & Frazer, 1986).
When stress is perceived negatively or becomes excessive, students experience physical and psychological impairment (Murphy & Archer, 1996).
Methods to reduce stress by students often include effective time management, social support, positive reappraisal, and engagement in leisure pursuits (Blake &Vandiver, 1988; Mattlin, Wethington, & Kessler, 1990).
Leisure satisfaction is defined as the positive feeling of contentment one perceives as a result of meeting personal needs through leisure activities (Seigenthaler, 1997).
Although relationships among some leisure domains and perceived stress have been studied in a variety of settings involving retirees to school-related settings (Kabanoff& O’Brian, 1986; Kaufman, 1988; Pickens &Kiess, 1988; Ragheb& McKinney, 1993; Tice &Baumeister, 1997), relationships between leisure satisfaction and academic stress of college students have not been addressed directly.
The only scientific research that specifically related leisure satisfaction to academic stress was that of Ragheb and McKinney (1993), who established a negative association between academic stress and leisure satisfaction. A limitation of this study, however, was that it measured academic stress using seven items that were extracted inclusively from occupational stress inventories (Misra, 2000).
The above literature suggests that the tendency to structure one’s time and leisure satisfaction may be an important factor in reducing academic stress.
The purpose of this study was to examine the interrelationship (and predictors) of college students’ academic stress with anxiety, time management, and leisure satisfaction. It was hypothesized that academic stress would show a significant positive correlation with anxiety, and a significant negative correlation with self-reported time management behaviors and leisure satisfaction of college students. A person engaging more frequently in time management behaviors will report fewer physical and psychological symptoms of stress. The greater satisfaction with leisure that students indicate the lower their perceived academic stress will be (Misra, 2000).
The Journal Expanding Opportunities for Young People and Communities explains that young people’s discretionary time is worth a significant amount of attention, partly because it is a potential breeding ground for youth problems, but mainly because it presents endless possibilities for constructive development. It is critical that a positive vision of leisure time activities be put forward and defined, and that time and care be given to specifying how such time should be used and why it should be protected (World Youth Report, 2003).
International plans and commitments such as the Dakar Youth Empowerment Strategy offer such a positive vision, taking a clear stand against severe infringements on young people’s right to free time. Most have their source in the promise of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, amplifying, reiterating and expanding on the following basic provisions of article 31:1. States Parties recognize the right of the child to rest and leisure, toengage in play and recreational activities appropriate to the age ofthe child and to participate freely in cultural life and the arts. 2. States Parties shall respect and promote the right of the child toparticipate fully in cultural and artistic life and shall encourage theprovision of appropriate and equal opportunities for cultural, artistic, recreational and leisure activity (World Youth Report, 2003).
Echoing these international commitments, a developing body of research—and a growing choir of advocates and practitioners—emphasize the importance of play and recreation for younger children. Leaders in child development have long identified play as critical space for children’s cognitive, identity, and social/emotional development (World Youth Report, 2003).
Research indicates that the specific types of thinking and problem solving involved in play provide valuable skills for the future. Researchers, therapists, and childcare practitioners have made play a central element of their work with children, with demonstrated impact. While the nature of “play” may change as (especially Western) young people get older—with increases in peer leisure and time spent talking for some and in structured recreational and sports activities for others—it appears to be no less critical to adolescents than to younger children.
Though the precise effects are not certain, time spent informally with peers and adults in activities such as talking and playing is likely to result in both stronger social networks and stronger social skills for adulthood (World Youth Report, 2003).
The physical exercise and habits associated with sports and recreation, again in concert with the social skills and relationships gained through such activities, constitute an important input to young people’s health. Adolescents’ play and recreation, though defined differently in cultures around the world, has intrinsic value (World Youth Report, 2003).
The shift from a negative view of leisure to a positive vision that emphasizes the value of leisure in its own right is a critical first step towards protecting young people’s right to discretionary time and to quality leisure activities.
This message is important for developing and least developed countries, where economic pressures often propel young people into the labour force at an early age; it is equally important for highly industrialized countries concerned about improving academic performance (World Youth Report, 2003).
Around the world, the amount of time young people spend in work has decreased, replaced by a larger amount of time in school. In the developing countries, school generally occupies a relatively small amount of young people’s time. In much of Asia, however, the combination of a longer school day, an expansive network of non-school academic enrichment programmes (many geared towards test preparation), and more time dedicated to homework means that up to half of young people’s time is spent in academic pursuits.
In developed countries, frustration with educational reform efforts and continued pressure for academic achievement has resulted in an explosion of academic after-school programmes (World Youth Report, 2003).
At the heart of this international phenomenon is an important fact: young people’s learning need not—and does not—stop at the end of the school day. Their leisure time provides a rich opportunity for learning and a particularly rich climate in which to facilitate the development of lifelong learners. Pushing for more “time on task”, many programmes simply replicate the teaching practices used during the school day and extend them into young people’s leisure time, despite growing evidence that “more of the same” is both unproductive and developmentally dangerous (World Youth Report, 2003).
Research supervised by Deborah Vandell(2003) shows that young people in Thailand who were involved in high-yield arts and cultural activities that had reading, writing and mathematics as the “hidden curriculum” rather than the lead curriculum not only performed better on State tests than those enrolled in strict content-drill programmes, but were also emotionally healthier.
This study speaks to a tension that is developing, at least in the United States, challenging the belief that academic outcomes are best bolstered by the application of formal school-derived practices during out-of-school hours (Vandell, 2003).
Based on research findings such as these, there is growing recognition that learning during leisure hours cannot appear identical to that inside of schools and, equally important, an increased willingness to describe learning as a primary goal for leisure-time activities. The ideas of “serious leisure” and “leisure education” put forward by World Leisure in its Charter for Leisure and other documents imply a set of principles, professional standards, practices and pedagogical orientations that are distinct from but complementary to what goes on in formal education settings (World Youth Report, 2003).
The model of learning put forward by J. Falk and L. Dierking goes further in specifying the contextual, personal and social factors in place when young people participate in learning that is volitional, recreational, and engaged in as a form of self-fulfillment. Falk’s and Dierking’s framework for freechoice learning, developed through investigation focusing largely on museums, is one of a number of research-and-practice efforts to underscore the unique nature of learning that happens during leisure.
Other efforts push even further in defining the specific features of environments that support young people’s leisure-time learning and development (World Youth Report, 2003).
International documents including “Programming for adolescent health and development: report of the WHO/UNFPA/UNICEF Study Group on Programming for Adolescent Health” and Adolescence: A Time That Matters, published by UNICEF, and country documents such as the New Zealand Ministry of Youth Affairs’ Youth Development Strategy Aeteatoa, published in 2002, present a set of common features of environments that support young people’s development. Research and synthesis by M. McLaughlin, by J.P. Connell, M.A. Gambone and T.J. Smith, by the Forum for Youth Investment, and, most recently, by the National Research Council confirms that there are core principles relevant to learning that goes on during leisure time—principles applicable to schools as well but not consistently present within them (World Youth Report, 2003).
This set of central principles—in reality, conditions for effective learning and engagement— includes, inter alia, the presence of caring relationships, challenge and relevance, choice and voice, high expectations, physical and emotional safety, and experiences of “mattering” and contribution. This research and practice goes far in validating and clarifying the significance of leisure-based learning. Research results indicate that community-based leisure-time settings may actually be more effective than schools in engaging students in learning (World Youth Report, 2003).
A study by R. Larson (2002) indicates that young people are only cognitively and emotionally engaged a small amount of the time, even though such engagement is a critical precondition to learning. Importantly, this combination of cognitive and emotional engagement is far more likely to happen in structured, voluntary leisure-time settings than during school. Apparently, the blend of principles that make leisure-based learning what it is offers a powerful model for engagement and achievement.
Based on these findings, stating that leisure time provides an opportunity for learning represents a richer and more promising claim than the argument that students should spend more time doing what they do in school. As indicated by the research just described, the “how” (pedagogy) of learning during leisure is significantly different. The “what” of learning—the appropriate content for learning that goes on outside school hours—is also different (Larson, 2002).
As both the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Dakar Youth Empowerment Strategy acknowledge, leisure time is critically a space in which young people express themselves creatively, take part in arts and cultural activities, and develop as individuals. Culture, creativity, and identity are central, defining features of the content of learning during leisure time. Research confirms that leisure time is important in helping young people achieve a broad range of positive outcomes, as follows: social/emotional development, engagement, vocational development, engagement, civic development, engagement, physical development, and engagement (World Youth Report, 2003).
Social/emotional development and engagement: the ability to respond to and cope with both positive and adverse situations, reflect on one’s emotions and surroundings, engage in leisure and fun, and sustain caring friendships and relationships with others. Vocational development and engagement: acquiring the functional and organizational skills necessary for employment, including an understanding of careers and options and the pathways to follow to reach these goals.
Physical development and engagement: biological maturation and the evolving ability to act in ways that best ensure current and future physical health for oneself and others. Cognitive development and engagement: the ability to gain basic knowledge, to learn in school and other settings, to use critical thinking, problem-solving, and creative and expressive skills, and to conduct independent study. Civic development and engagement: the growing recognition of one’s impact on one’s surroundings and responsibility to others, as well as the ability and opportunity to work collaboratively towards a common goal. Leisure is a developmental opportunity and an imperative.
Larson argues that adolescence, including leisure time during this period, should be defined and understood as a time of preparation for family life, employment, good citizenship, lifelong learning and personal fulfilment.It also provides an opportunity for the development of communities and societies (World Youth Report, 2003).
Young people are more likely to engage fully in learning if the learning environment incorporates structured leisure time activities .Research shows that leisure time has a number of positive outcomes for individuals involved-including the ability to:react and solve diverse problems –which include emotional and environmental reflection, active relaxation; maintaining friendship or relationship with others;acquire needed functional and employment skills; growth and physically healthy; acquire basic knowledge through education-this includes the development of critical thinking and problem solving skills;be socially raised and involved / participate fully in civil upbringing (World Youth Report, 2003).
Leisure time, therefore, provides an opportunity for personal growth.Larson and Verma (1999) points out that ‘the period of adolescence’ needs to be understood as a preparation stage for employment ,family and civil life , lifelong learning ,personal development , and future achievements . Other studies agree that :young people who regularly take part in community programmes achieve better academic and social endeavors ;young people who do not spend time in extra-corricular activities have 57% more chance of dropping out of school(Eccles et al.,1999,cited in World Youth Report, 2003) (Livazovic, 2011).
The study of how leisure improves health and boost mood which appears in the journal Psychosomatic Medicine: Journal of Biobehavioral Medicine. For the study, 1,400 adults reported how often they participated in a variety of leisure activities, including spending time unwinding, visiting friends or family, going on vacation, going to clubs or religious activities or playing sports. Adults with higher scores — indicating the most time spent in different leisure activities — had lower blood pressure, waist circumference, body mass index and cortisol measurements, all markers of good health. People who spent more time doing diverse leisure activities also reported stronger and more diverse social networks, more feelings of satisfaction and engagement in their lives and lower levels of depression. Those who logged the most leisure time also slept better and exercised more consistently, the authors say.
Other studies have examined the link between specific activities, such as exercise, and improved physical and psychological health, but this is the first to show that the accumulation of multiple sources of enjoyable activity benefits health, Matthews said. The study outcomes add to what we know about the connection between body and mind, said Kathy Richards, Ph.D., a registered nurse and professor of health promotion at the University Of Pennsylvania School Of Nursing in Philadelphia (Sutton, 2009).
Another study of Schooler C, Mulatu MS(1999) of Section on Socio-Environmental Studies, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland USA by using data from a representative longitudinal survey, the authors provide strong evidence that complex leisure time activities increase intellectual functioning for workers and nonworkers.
Although the effects were relatively moderate, both the present article and its predecessor on the effects of paid work (C. Schooler.Mulatu,& Oates. 1999) showed that, even in old age, carrying out complex tasks has a positive effect on intellectual processes. In both cases, initially high levels of intellectual functioning led to high levels of environmental complexity, which in turn raised levels of intellectual functioning, thus providing a pathway contributing to the high correlation of intellectual functioning over a 20-year period in middle and late adulthood.
The present findings indicate that even in old age carrying out substantively complex tasks builds the capacity to deal with the intellectual challenges such complex environments provide. (Mulatu, 1999) Leisure activities feel like rain shower during scorching heat. Leisure is the time to be together with your friends and family and to have fun. Devoting some time for leisure helps in staying healthy and achieving a peace of mind. Leisure activities serve as a way of relaxing and as researches have shown recreation on a daily basis reduces stress, sharpen skills improves mental and physical health and improves the quality of life (Jade, 2012).
Statement of the Problem
This study aims to determine the leisure activities and academic performance of International Maritime Employers’ Council (IMEC) Cadets in University of Cebu-Maritime Education and Training Center during the school year 2012-2013.
Specifically, it seeks to provide answers to the following: 1. What is the profile of the respondents according to:
1.3 year level;
1.4 first semester grades (2012-2013)?
2. What activities do IMEC cadets do during leisure times in terms of the following:
2.1 board games;
2.2 physical related activities;
2.3 watching TV or playing computer games;
2.4 other activities?
3. What is the degree of attachment of the respondents to their chosen leisure activity?
4. What is the academic performance of the respondents according to their first semester (2012-2013) grade point average?
5. Is there a significant relationship between the profile, leisure activities and the degree of attachment of the respondents to their chosen leisure activity?
5.2 leisure activities;
5.3 degree of attachment of the respondents to their leisure activity?
Statement of the Null Hypothesis
Ho: There is no significant relationship between the profile of the respondents and the degree of attachment of the respondents to their chosen leisure activities Ho: There is no significant relationship between the degree of attachment of the respondents to their chosen leisure activities and academic performance of the respondents
Significance of the Study
This study leisure activities and academic performance of International Maritime Employers’ Council (IMEC) Cadets will be a significant endeavor that will help the IMEC Cadets, IMEC Administrators, Instructors and the future researcher, the researcher, the academe and the university in order to efficiently handle each role.
IMEC Cadets. The proposed study serves to IMEC Cadets as their reference in distinguishing whether the leisure activities they are attached are contributing for their better academic performance or not. It will help the cadets to identify the best activities they must choose and prioritize during leisure time. This study will also determine the length of time the cadets must occupy in doing their leisure activities. Lastly, this study will provide solutions to their common problems in relationship with the leisure activities and their academic performance.
IMEC Administrators. The proposed study can help the IMEC Administrators to formulate and establish new rules and regulations in relation with the leisure activities.By this study they will come up with more suitable rules that will enhance the students’ academic performance with regards to the cadets leisure activities. And lastly, the Administrators will become aware of what facilities for leisure activities suit for enhancing the academic performance of the cadets.
Instructors .The proposed study will help instructors to have a deeper understanding to the relationship of leisure activities to their student academic performance and become aware of its effects. This will also serve as a guideline for the teachers on what activities to promote for their students better academic performance. The Academe.The proposed study can be a great help in the academic society to illuminate the significant relationship of leisure and academics. This will become hopefully an important basis for setting standards in the academic world.
The University. The proposed study will provide some insights and information on how the university is going to develop new teaching approach and to improve the university’s standards in academic in relation with the leisure activities. This study will also encourage them to choose the proper equipment and facilities to improve the IMEC Cadets and the students’ academic performance.
The Researchers. The proposed study will help the researcher to know the present status of the IMEC Cadets in relation with the leisure activities and academic performance. Future Researchers. The proposed study will benefit and help the future researcher as their guide. The study can also open in development and improvement of this study.
This section contaiins the well-organized account of the research design, research dependents, research instruments, research procedure s and treatment of data. Research Design
This study will use the descriptive-correlation survey method of investigation to achieve the results that the researchers required. Descriptive-correlation survey method because this study aims to provide information and data about the relationship between two or more variables .
The choice of this research design ensures that the study will not result to anything insignificant. Preparations and efforts will come up to a quality and a reliable research output. Research design refers to the plan of action in meeting the objectives of the study. It will involve collecting of data in order to test a hypothesis or find out answers concerning the present status of the subject under study. It is also concerned with conditions of relationship that exist. Research Environment
The researchers will conduct the study in University of Cebu- Maritime Education and Training Center (UC-METC) and on the International Maritime Employers’ Council (IMEC) institution. University of Cebu has improved from its opening in 1964 which was formerly known as Cebu College of Commerce (CCC) to Cebu Central Colleges in 1972 through the hard work and effort of Atty. Augusto W. Go. The UC-METC is a University of Cebu campus that specializes in training and educating world classseafarers.
It is one of the outstanding maritime universities in the Philippines and is accredited by the Det Norske Veritas (DNV).It is positioned near the sea with an 8-hectare area accommodating multiple facilities necessary for the seafarers of the future. The exact address of this well-resourced and well-equipped institution is Alumnos, Mambaling Cebu City Philippines. International Maritime Employers’ Council was formerly known as International Maritime Employers’ Committee (IMEC).
IMEC commenced activities at the University of Cebu-Maritime Education Center (METC) in the University of Cebu in 2008, by sponsoring an initial 50 cadets .The programme has steadily grown from strength to strength and now has more more than 300 cadets.
The IMEC office is located at I-Building, 2nd Floor, Alumnus, Mambaling, Cebu City and the cadets are boarding at UC-METC Dorm 2, Alumnus, Mambaling, Cebu City . Research Respondents
The respondents of this research study are the International Maritime Employers’ Council (IMEC) Cadets of University of Cebu-Maritime Education and Training Center (UC-METC) in the school year 2012-2013 who are scholars with full free grant from their respective companies. They are taking Bachelor ofScience Marine Transportation and Bachelor Science in MarineEngineeringcourses. Research Instruments
The instruments used in this study are questionnaires that are given to the respondents who are spending their leisure time on different leisure activities and varying first semester (2012-2013) point grade average. The questionnaire contains different questions that will allow the researchers to obtain their required data for the research. The questionnaire also contains the profile of the respondent. The nature of research instrument was researcher made. Research Procedure
The researcher–made instrument will be used in order to gather data about the respondents. The researchers will also ask the full cooperation of the respondents in filling up and answering the researcher-made questionnaires based on their self-assessment. By tabulating and interpreting the data of the respondents show, the researchers will be able to correlate their leisure activity and academic performance.
Since leisure activity is one of the major factors that affect the students’ academic performance, the researchers have decided to conduct a study on leisure activities and academic performance of the students to identify the significant correlation of the respondents’ leisure activities and academic performance. Gathering of Data
The researchers will start gathering the data by initiating a unique intellectual forum wherein researchers have to argue and agree to whom and where will the study be conducted. The researchers have decided to conduct the study in University of Cebu-Maritime Education and Training Center wherein the respondents are the students from the International Maritime Employers’ Council taking up Bachelor of Science in Marine Transportation and Bachelor of Science in Marine Engineering.
The researchers will seek a written approval from the Maritime Superintendent, Capt. Arnel N. Malaga and from the selected respondents to conduct a study about Leisure Activities and Academic Performance of the Bachelor of Science in Marine Transportation cadets of International Maritime Employers’ Council. of University of Cebu-Maritime Education and Training Center.
Before the distribution of questionnaires to the respondents, the researchers consulted Mr. Elven B. Lorca to validate the research instrument. After taking up comments and suggestions from the expert validator, the researchers completely revised the research instrument ready for pilot testing. The respondents have been allowed to answer the research questionnaire provided that the researcher is present during the period. The information and data were collected and was able to classify and treated accordingly. Treatment of Data
The data will be gathered and treated accordingly. The profile and kinds of leisure activities will be treated with simple percentage. The level of engagement will be dealt by calculating the weighted mean. The significant relationship between variables will be dealt using Chi-square test. After the tabulation, analysis and interpretation of the gathered data , the researchers will summarize the findings, conclusion and recommendation of the study .
Definition of Terms
The following are the definitions of key terms based on how they are used in this study.
Academic Performance.In this study, this is the respondents’ school academic performance based on their average point grades in the first semester (2012-2013).
Degree of Attachment. It is the level of frequency of performing the activity of the respondents. Board Games.This is a kind of activity which the respondents perform on their leisure activity which involves the mental aspects. IMEC CADETS/International Maritime Employers’ Council Cadets.In this study they are the scholars which are selected as the respondents of the study. Leisure Activity. This is where the respondents perform their free time in different ways. Physical Related Activities. This is an activity the respondents perform which involves the physical aspects. Profile. This is the respondents’ personal background.
LIST OF REFERENCES
Haecker, Sabine, (2002), The Meanings of Leisure
Mulatu,Schooler C, MS (1999)Section on Socio-Environmental Studies, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland USA. Parker, S.,.and Lawrence, L., 2002. Leisure studies: trends in theory and research. Eastbourne: Leisure Studies Association. Rojek, C., 2005. Leisure theory: principles and practice. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Rojek, C., 1995. Decentring leisure: rethinking leisure theory. London: Sage.
World Youth Report (2003) The Global Situation of Young People,Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations,NY,ISBN Sutton, Amy (2009) Psychosomatic Medicine: Journal of BiobehavioralMedicine, Health Behavior News Service. Livazovic,Goran( 2011)University of J.J., occasional papers in education and lifelong learning: an international journal volume 4. Strosmayer in Osijec, Republic of Croatia
Babcock, P., & Marks, M. (2010).
Leisure college, USA.
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Chan, J. B., & May, D. T. (1999).
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Basic concepts of play, leisure, and recreation. Retrieved from http:// www.courseweb.uottawa.ca/lsr3515/PDF/lecture5.pdf Moksnes, U. K., Moljord, I. E. O., Espnes, G. A., & Byrne, D. G. (2009).
Leisure time physical activity does not moderate the relationship between stress and psychological functioning in Norwegian adolescents. Retrieved from http://ntnu.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:408593/FULLTEXT02
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students: Influence of time spent studying and working.
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Urban youth leisure, time use research and quality of life: The comparison of leisure preferences of university students in athens and larissa, Greece. Retrieved from http://www-sre.wu- wien.ac.at/ersa/ersaconfs/ersa06/papers/916.pdf
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Letter to the Respondents
February 14, 2013
We, a group of students of University of Cebu – Maritime Education and Training Center, will be conducting a study entitled, Leisure Activities and Academic Performance of International Maritime Employers’ Council Cadets of University of Cebu-Maritime Education and Training Center. In this regard, we would like to request for your cooperation in answering this questionnaire, rest assured that we will treat all responses provided with utmost confidentiality.
A. PERSONAL DATA
Name: Caleb L. Geverola
Civil Status: Single
Home Address: Cansuje, Argao, Cebu
City Address: Dorm 2 UC-METC AlumnosMambaling Cebu city
Date of Birth: January 13, 1995
Place of Birth: Cansuje, Argao, Cebu
B. EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT YEAR ATTENDED
Primary : Nug-as Elementary School 2001-2007
Secondary: Calagasan Nat’l High School 2007-2011 Tertiary : University of Cebu-METC 2011-2015