It is believed that the history of sports had begun from the primitive society. The primitive man used to play knowingly or unknowingly. They used to perform various physical activities for their own distinct purposes: Later on their physical activities developed as the sports and games. Sports and physical education are correlated each other. Without one existence we even cannot imagine about other existence. Physical education and sports activities help individual of any age group or profession to keep their health in good condition. It also helps to control high blood pressure, heart diseases, lung diseases, neurological problems, skeleton problem, etc.
International sports had entered to our nation through the students, military, teachers, etc who have been to foreign land for their distinct purpose. Like football and cricket entered to Nepal in 1920’s AD. In 1935, in Lalitpur, the first football competition was held for the first time. Development of sports during the Rana period was not satisfactory. The game like volleyball and athletic entered to Nepal in 1932 but these games were only limited to certain groups of family, Rana and their relatives. (as cited by Khadka:2009).
After 2007 BS, Association of Badminton, Tennis, Hockey and Football were established. Likewise, in 2015 BS, the Health and Sports Council was established in Nepal. In the context of physical education, in 2013 there was only one college, College of Education, where physical education was taught as compulsory formal subject.
1. Briefly explain the relationship between physical education and sport. Physical education is focused on the child’s holistic development, stressing personal and social development, physical fitness, strength, flexibility, motor development and basic sport skills. Supports the child physically, mentally and socially. It’s happening during school set up. Its referred to as movement in ...
After 2028 BS, the government had tried to adopt the uniform curriculum in all over the country. In that curriculum, physical education was included in faculty of education for teachers. After that the physical education program was started in proficiency certificate level and bachelor level as major and minor subject. According to the curriculum 2049, the health and physical education was kept as compulsory subject for class 1 to 8 and it was optional subject for class 9 and 10 which was adopted as compulsory subject from class 1 to 10 by 2028’s plan. Similarly, health and physical was included as an optional subject in higher secondary schools. The physical education has been included in the course of M.Ed. since 2052 BS as specialization subject.
Physical education is an integral part of the general education process. Nowadays, physical education has a good role in the wholesome development of an individual; it is always directed toward producing desirable change in the total behaviour of an individual. Although physical education is concerned with all round development, its main concerned is with the physical development. So, there are many objectives of physical education but one of the most important objectives of this education is physical development. In this sense, physical education refers to the process of education that is development of the individuals. Physical activities and sports are only the media, which play a vital role to achieve the objectives of physical education. In Nepal, the sports have been developed as social recreation. The activities which are related to the earning of bread and self defense was also developed as sports, the activities which were concerned with the certain caste of groups turned into traditional sports.
There are many types of human movement elements, which are most necessary to perform physical activities. Force, power, strength, agility, flexibility, are some of the examples which are directly related to the physical education and sports activities. To teach physical education or involving in physical activities, these elements must teach and conduct test to improve student’s performance. To develop, measure and evaluate the students’ sports performance many types of equipments and facilities must be needed. Without required equipments and facilities nobody can perform and develop the skill properly. Hence, we can defined the sports facilities as those equipments needed for track and fields, courts of different games, and those things which are needed to play the games, conduct tournament and to test students achievement in the same field. It means a school must have sufficient open space to play as well as the facilities and equipments related to sports and games.
Performed not only as a requirement for the Caribbean Secondary Education Certificate,(CSEC) I can only reemphasize along with the colleagues that this has quite easily been the most noisy, tiring yet exciting sports activity that I have taken part in. And even though the sun was shining and the spectators were cheering I have learnt a lot and have immensely enjoyed this once in a lifetime ...
These facilities are really important to develop students’ skills and performance as well as to run the physical education in the school. So, we can say that each and every physical activity demand for various types of sports facilities as their nature of play. Physical education is the education system based on practical activities. It means physical education gives education or makes the person genius and skillful by using physical activities. To give education through physical activities is an old and famous system in the filed of physical education. Physical education is only the subject in which experimental research can be conduct on human being. The pupil is to be educated by physical education must be able to do many types of activities. To perform in each and every physical activites, many types of human movement elements and abilities are needed. And to develop those types of abilities, students must practice and use physical parts which directly affect the students’ performance, ability, and capacity of sports and games. There are many types of human movement elements and skills, which cannot be developed properly without sports facilities. Therefore, sports facilities are most important in teaching physical education and sports.
Strong foundation is absolutely necessary to build a strong and capable nation. And that foundation of the nation is none other than the children/youth of that particular nation. They should be provided proper guidance and counseling as well as the good education from the school. As discussed above physical education is only the proper means to enhance the students’ power in each sector. As a separate discipline, physical education demands the unique and its own distinct equipments and facilities. Those facilities help the discipline to catch its objectives. Not only in physical education but also in sports facilities play the great role, without the facilities no outcome can be expected. As a pillar for the tomorrow’s nation, the school students should be treated accordingly. Sports facilities will provide the base to improve the playing standard for not only the professional athlete but also for the students and beginners as well.
Education of Sex in Schools Sex is something that almost everyone will experience before they die. It is a subject that has been debated about for years. From the debate over birth control to the outbreak of aids. With all this history behind us, sex is becoming even more of an issue. With the new outbreaks of sexually transmitted diseases and the fact that sexually active persons are becoming ...
1.2Statement of the Problem
In the context of our nation, physical education is not getting proper emphasis as a high demanded study realm but we are practicing many types of physical activities in education even by knowingly or unknowingly. Not only the uneducated person but also the well educated persons in Nepal are not giving the proper value for physical education. Even Physical education is an integral part of general educational process; our national educational system is not taking it seriously. School education is the foundation for the development of good citizens of any country. And without physical education and sports activities, we cannot even imagine for the development of good citizens. But in our nation, it is only an elective subject in high schools instead of compulsory subject.
Even if any school is providing physical education as an optional subject, the required criteria of sports facilities are not sufficient. Without proper and sufficient facilities, classes of physical education cannot be conducted. Aside from these facts, sports facilities enhance the achievements of the academic as well as the sports performance of the students. Nowadays, the school with sufficient sports facilities is being the first choice for the new students. This indicates that there is a mutual relationship between the academic achievement and the sports facilities within the schools or colleges.
Arghakhanchi district, an administrative district of Nepal, lies in the western developmental region of Nepal. It connect the land through the Terai region to the hilly region. Those schools may differ from each other in relation with the sports facilities. So, it is essential to find out the existing sports facilities in the public secondary schools and analyze what the impact is there made by the existing sports facilities for the wholesome development of the students. As aforementioned Arghakhanchi is one of the hilly district and not ahead in the national sports arena, so to find out the drawback of the same scenario the study site and topic was selected. That is why, the title “Sports Facilities and their Impact on Physical Education and Sports at Public Secondary Schools in Arghakhanchi District.” has been proposed and stated.
Private Schools The first position of chapter three is supportive of private schools. This position feels that private schools prevent the public schools from having a total monopoly over education by offering the community an alternative choice. This choice also produces competition with public schools for student enrollment. This position views public schools as something a student must accept ...
1.3Objectives of the Study
The specific objectives of this proposed study are as following: I.To explore the existing sports facilities at public secondary schools in Arghakhanchi district. II.To assess the impact of sports facilities in the achievement of physical education and sports in Arghakhanchi district. III.To analyse the problems regarding the procurements and management of sports facilities in Arghakhanchi district.
1.4Significance of the Study
The main significance of this study are mention below:
-The study would be fruitful to the physical education teachers/sports teachers to be conscious about the facilities management within their schools. -The findings of this study would be useful to develop sports facilities and management process to the schools under consideration as well as others organizations. -This study would be helpful to guide school administrator, physical education/sports teacher, policy maker and supervisor to identify the need and importance of sports facilities. -The study will serve as reference materials to the researcher scholars who want to research on this field.
1.5Delimitation of the Study
Following are the major delimitation of the study:
-This study was conducted only in public secondary schools of Arghakhanchi district.
-The study was focused on the sports facilities like building, playgrounds/courts, and other necessary equipments for physical education and sports.
-The headmaster, physical education teachers and students from the selected schools were the main respondents for this study.
1.6Definition of the Terms Used
Building refers to such structural unit, which can be used for both academic, as well as office rooms, locker rooms, dressing rooms, bath rooms and gymnasium, etc. Equipments:
Equipments refers to those items that are not considered expendable, but are used for a period of years, such as parallel bars, strength training equipment, soccer goals,mat and video tape recorder, etc. Playground:
Speakers’ presentations Note: All the papers and presentations have been posted as received from the authors. The DETA Secretariat takes no responsibility for their format, language and content. The list has been arranged per stream and alphabetically based on the surname of the first author. Stream 1: The role of collaboration and partnerships in teacher education and development in Africa ...
Play ground refer to the place where physical activities can be conducted Track and Field, Football ground, Basketball court and other playing field fall in this category. (as cited in Maharjan;1987) Public school:
Public school means those schools, which are under government; take the funds and administrative control by the government. Ropani:
A land measuring 492.84 square meter is called a ‘Ropani’ in Nepal. About eight Ropani equals to an Accre. Sports facilities:
Sport facilities are permanent structural units or items like building, ground and swimming pool which are needed for sports activities.(as cited by Maharjan: 1987) Supplies:
Supplies are those materials that are expendable and have to be replaced at frequent intervals, such as shuttlecocks, tennis balls and adhesive tape,etc. Trained Teachers:
Trained teachers are those teachers who have achieved different kind of training related to education like pedagogy, educational psychology, teaching methodology, etc. Moreover, those teachers having the degree from education stream also have taken as trained teachers for this study purpose. Physical Education Teachers:
Those teachers who teaches physical education in school and having their degree of physical education are considered as physical education teachers. Sports Teachers:
Those teachers who are there in school to trained the students for different games and sports are taken as sports teachers.They may have their degree from physical education or have special training course of different games and sports from sports council.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
In this chapter an attempt has been made to get the knowledge of studies which are more or less related to this present study. The review of research reports more or less related to the present study that researcher could gather are presented in this chapter.
“Physical education is an educational process that has its aim at the improvements of human performance and enhancement of human development through the medium of selected physical activities to realize the outcomes”. Similarly, “Physical education includes acquisition and refinement of motor skills, the development and maintenance of fitness for optional health and well being, the attainment of knowledge about physical activities and exercise and the development of positive attitudes toward physical activity as a means to improve human performance.”(West and Bucher;1992)
The Essay on Ethics, politics and bio-pedagogy in physical education teacher education: easing the tension between the self and the group
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Rai, (1979) recommended that 2 acres of ground per 100 students would be necessary for the students of higher secondary class. In addition, there should be separate playground to the students where they may develop their health and refresh their mind.
Jha (1982) undertook a study on the prospect of health and physical education of secondary schools of Siraha district. He found that the schools were poor in the management of physical facilities to implement the HPE Curriculum effectively because of lacking trained human resources in the subject and initiation of concerned authorities.
Maharjan (1987) in his study of selected schools from the three different topographical regions of Nepal concluded that the physical facilities were inadequate in the Nepalese schools. He found that 10 Ropanis of land was in 83, 27, 46 percent of schools in terai, mountain and valley respectively that might be considered adequate land. Similarly, the proportion of average classroom and students’ number were found inadequate and the teacher students ratios were found to be 1:24 to 1:38 in the schools of all regions. He also found that all the students of the regions had volleyball and kabaddi fields where as football were found only in the schools of valley and terai region. He recommended that the minimum facilities to be managed in the schools to run physical education properly all over the country.
Bashyal, (2006) conducted a study entitled “A comparative study of public and private high schools on available sports facilities and thier management in Butwal.” The researcher found that almost all schools have not proper land for school plants and sports but they were not planning multipurpose concept to develop sports facilities.The researcher further stated that most of the schools manage the sports facilities by using locally available, less practice of sports and organize the game which needed less equipments and facilities. He also said that there were not separate office for sports and physical education.
Aryal (2006) Studied on sports facilities and their management in community run primary schools of Prithivi Narayan Municipality of Gorkha district, found that athletics competition was done more in the comparison to other extra activities. Games like thread and needle, spoon and marble were competitively organized into their own school. But inter school sports competition were not organized at all. Most of the schools have been facing problems of play grounds for games and sports. Another factor of sports equipments, the research showed that the games and sports are not institutionalized which result that management side become weak. Insufficient sports equipments made it difficult for the physical education teachers to organize and conduct the physical education activities and almost all the schools did not have operational calender of the game and sports.
Khadka, (2009) conducted the study entitled “sports facilities and their management in community run secondary schools of Parbat district.” He stated that most of the schools conducted different activities like debate, spelling contest, student song, dance, relay etc. as extracurricular activities in schools. The researcher also stated that some of the school under consideration did not have the physical education teachers; where other subject’s teacher used to teach physical education. The researcher revealed that some sports supplies and equipments like volleyball, measuring tape, badminton, madal first aid box, whistle, clock, table, notice board, cupboard, etc were found in some schools under consideration. After reviewing above literatures, it seems that the sports facilities and management is important for the students and their achievement but its not getting proper emphasis. From above related review, the researcher has got idea about the required process of the researcher study and conduct research in the aforesaid topic.
The study is basically in descriptive and exploratory design and involves mainly the primary data. The required data for this study were collected from the public secondary schools of Arghakhanchi district.
3.2Sources of Data/ Population of the Study
The study has mainly used the primary data. The data were collected from the public secondary schools of Argakhanchi district. The headmasters, physical education/ Sports teachers and students of the selected schools were the main respondents of this study. All the public secondary schools together with the head teachers, physical education/sports teachers and students of Arghakhanchi district were the population for this study. Forty two head teachers, 42 physical education /sports teachers and all the students from secondary level were the population of this study.
3.3 Sampling Procedure and Sample Size
Purposive sampling method was used to select the sample schools from all total 42 public schools of the district. The sample schools were selected purposively as per the demand of the research title. Altogether, ten public schools were selected as the sample for this study. One head teacher, one physical education/sports teacher and ten students from each selected schools were taken as the main respondents of this study. All together 120 respondents were there as the sample of this study.
3.4 Tools of the Data Collection
Questionnaire and the checklist were used as the data collection tools for this study. The questionnaire was made by covering all the questions related to the sports facilities and the educational achievement of the schools. The check list was used to find out the existing situation of the sports facilities.The same questionnaire were applied to the head teachers, physical education/sports teachers and the students of selected schools. Check list was used to observe and check the sports facilities available in the schools.
3.5Validation of the Tools
The data collection tools were validated by means of trial test. The developed questionnaire was trial tested to head teachers, sports/physical education teachers and students from three public secondary schools (other than sampled) of Arghakhanchi District.
3.6 Data collection Procedure
At first, the researcher visited the District Education Office to get the location and other information of the entire public secondary school of Arghakhanchi district. Then the researcher selected the schools purposively for data collection. After that the head teachers, physical education teachers and the students were asked to fill the questionnaire up. The check list was filled up by observation and some cross questions were made in case of confusion while observing the existing facilities.
3.7 Method of Data Analysis and Interpretation
After collecting the data, the data were tabulated, analyzed and interpreted as per the objectives of the study which were determined prior to this study. Required tables and the figures were used to analyse and present the collected data.
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
An attempt to analyze and interpret the collected data has been made on this chapter. The data were collected through the medium of questionnaire and check list. As this study is related to the sports facilities and their impact on sports and physical education, the questions were made by covering all the required aspects of sports facilities and their impact to the sports and physical education. The researcher had used the check list too to observe the real condition of those available facilities and supplies. The analysis of available sports facilities/supplies and their impact on sports and physical education has been made on the basis of following headings:
4.1 Available Sports Facilities and their Condition
4.2 Available Sports Supplies and their Condition
4.3 Physical education/Sports Teachers and their qualification/Training 4.4 Use of Available Sports Facilities/Supplies
4.5 Periods per week for Physical Education and Sports
4.6 Annual Expenditure for Sports
4.7 Land Occupiy by the Schools
4.8 Land occupiy by Sports Facilities within the Total Land 4.9 Major Income Sources of the Schools
4.10 Further Plan to Develop Sports Facilities
4.11 Various Sports Tournaments and The Schools
4.12 Major Sports Achievement of the Schools
4.13 Sports Teacher’s Satisfaction with the Available Sports Facilities 4.14 View towards the Importance of Sports Facilities
4.15 Sport Facilities and Educational Achievement of the Schools 4.16 Students View regarding Existing Sports Facilities
4.17 Annual Schedule of Extra Curricular Activities
4.18 Effect of Extra Curricular Activities on Student’s Study
4.1 Available Sports Facilities and Their Condition
It is compulsory to have sufficient sports facilities to teach and train physical education and sports. Without having sufficient facilities, physical education programs cannot be run properly and effectively. Sports facilities are the key point to the sports. We can only imagine the betterment of good player if we have sufficient facilities to offer and used by them.
The researcher had tried to find out the existing situation of available sports facilities within the sample public schools of Arghakhanchi district which have been shown on the following table:
Sports Facilities and their Condition
S.N.Sports FacilitiesNo. of Schools Having those FacilitiesCondition/NumberRemarks
8Long Jump Field431-
9High Jump Area44–
Table No.1 indicates that sufficient sports facilities were not there in the sampled schools of the district under consideration while checking the existing condition of sports facilities with the help of check list. The number of the same facilities and their conditions are hereby given below under following sub-headings:
According to table no.1 among all the 10 sample schools, only two schools had football ground. One of the schools had normal ground and the other one had not even in normal condition it was in bad condition. The ground was not plain and smooth, stones were scattering all over the ground. It revealed that the physical education and the sports programs are not running properly in the research site/schools.
Volleyball is most popular game especially in the countryside of ours. Because of its nature too Volleyball is being popular in our nation. Above table shows that 100% of the sample schools had the volleyball court. Among those court 4 courts were in good condition, 3 were in normal condition and the rest 3 were not even on normal condition.
Basketball was not so popular in comparison with other game like volleyball especially on the schools of countryside from the research site. Only those schools from the capital town of the district had basketball court. Among all those ten sample schools only 3 schools had basketball court. Two of those courts were in normal condition but another one was not in the normal condition.
4. Kho-Kho Court:
Among the facilities related to sports and games, Kho-Kho is less expensive game. It demands less land and needed less equipment in comparison with other major games. But only four schools had the Kho-Kho court according to the above table. Among those courts three courts were in normal condition
and one was in good condition.
5. Kabaddi Court:
According to above table 4 schools had the kabaddi court. Though kabaddi is also the game which demands less playing land and equipments no sufficient ground had been found in the study area. Only one school had the ground of kabaddi which was in good condition to play; other three schools had the ground which were in normal condition.
6. Badminton Court:
Badminton is one of the major games in sports arena. Which can be played in single, doubles and mix doubles. The charming of this game is increasing in international scenario. The researcher had tried to find out the number of schools from the research site having the badminton court. Only 1 school i.e. ten percent of the sample schools had the badminton court. From above table it can be said that the popularity of the game was not spreading on the research site.
7. Table Tennis Board:
Table tennis is the fastest ball game. The board needed for the T.T. game can be placed in a small place and also no need to fix the table as we can find the moveable table. Moreover, it is not so expensive game. According to above table only three schools i.e. 30% schools had the TT board. Among those, all the schools had cement boards. No schools were having the standard wooden board. It can be said that the condition of T.T. board was not found in satisfactory condition.
8. Long Jump and High Jump Area:
Athletics is the mother activities of all the games and sports. Athletics activities are more essential for human being for the betterment of their not only physical development but also for the mental development. All the games need physical fitness and basically athletic activities to develop the basic fitness for the same game. Long jump and high jump are the jumping events within the field events of athletics. Though it does not require more land to perform these activities, only forty percent of the sample schools
had the field for long jump and high jump.
9. Running Track:
The researcher had tried to find out the facilities regarding running events. No schools had having the running track. Though they did not have the running track they had trend to conduct running events on normal ground or on the road.
10. Store Room:
A good store room is needed to store the sports supplies and the equipments for school. The supplies and the equipments must be stored in a properly managed way in the store. The storing management of the sports supplies and equipments determines the life of those supplies. The researcher had found that only 3 of the sample schools had the store room to store the sports supplies and the equipments.
Library is not only needed for theoretical knowledge but also to improve the sports skills. The researcher had tried to find out if there were sports library or not in the sample schools of research site. The researcher had found that no schools had the specific sports library. Even there was not sports library; seventy percent of the sample schools had the general library. All the concerned including sports teacher and students had the trend to use the common library to use some references of sports.
12. Locker and Changing Room:
Locker and changing rooms are the most essential facilities needed for the physical education’s students and/or sports students. Only 2 of the sample schools had one special room using as the changing room but that was not exactly the changing room. By this fact it can be said that the concept of locker and changing room has not yet spread out within the research site.
4.2 Available Sports Supplies/equipments and their Condition
Sports supplies are those things and equipments, which needed for games and
sports activities like balls, nets, rackets, bats, etc. Without having these supplies sports activities cannot be performed accurately. Therefore sports supplies are mostly needed for sports, games and practical classes of physical education. The researcher had tried to find out the existing sports facilities within the sample schools of the research site. The findings of the same have been given hereunder in the following table:
Sports Supplies and their Condition
S.N.Sports Supplies/EquipmentsNo. of Schools Having those SuppliesCondition/NumberRemarks
6Badminton Shuttle cock (doz.)33–
7T.T. Bat (pair)47–
8T.T. Ball (doz.)45–
12Take off Board—-
Table No.2 indicates the existing numbers and the condition of sports supplies from the sample schools of the research site. Seventy percent of the sample schools had football, whereas the total numbers of the football from all the schools were 26. Among that numbers, majority were in normal condition. This fact shows that the school cannot affort the good quality ball to their students. Likewise, all the sample schools had volleyball and volleyball net. The total numbers of the ball were 46 and the total numbers of the volleyball net were 16. From this data we can say that the volleyball game is popular and adopted by all the sample schools from the research site. No schools had cross bar for high jump, take off board for long jump and toe board for shot put. They have trend to use rope instead of cross bar and line marked on the ground instead of the take off board and toe board. Only 20% of the schools had the measuring tape. 60% of the schools had Shot whereas they don’t have toe board. No school had the Baton for relay race but they had the trend to conduct relay race by using the locally available materials like bamboo or wooden stick, etc.
4.3 Physical education/Sports Teachers and their qualification/Training
Quality of the teacher is one of the most important factors to get better educational achievement. Teachers are the key to the students letting them entering to golden future. If the teachers are well qualified the students will get wide range of the required knowledge and skills. Talking about the physical education teachers, it is necessary to complete the prescribed academic course. Aside from that the training package regarding the games and sports will help them to sharp their students’ performance in respective field. By considering this fact, the researcher had tried to find out the academic qualification and details of obtained training by the physical education teachers from the sample schools. The findings of the same are hereby given in the following table:
Table No. 3
Qualification of the P.E. Teachers
QualificationNumber of teachers
Bachelor in P.E.3
Bachelor in other subjects4
Master in P.E.-
Master in other subject2
Table no.3 indicates that the teachers of physical education having the bachelor degree in- physical education were 3. The figure also revealed that four of the P.E. teachers were having the bachelor degree in other subjects whereas no teachers were found having master degree in physical education. Two of the teachers of physical education were found having masters degree in other subjects like health education. The teachers who were not graduated were also teaching the physical education in secondary school. Only one teacher have found who was having intermediate level.
Above data revealed that the condition and qualification of the physical education teachers were not according to the demand of subject matters. The teachers having the education of other subjects were also working as the physical education teacher. From this it can be said that the qualification of physical education teachers found not satisfactory.
4.4 Use of Available Sports Facilities/Supplies
It is also important to use the available facilities properly and manage the responsibility well. Students cannot develop their ability only by getting facilities. The ability of the teacher to use available facilities properly and well management of the same can bring the better achievement. So, a good teacher must had that capacity to use the available facilities for the betterment of the students’ performance. A school may have enough facilities but gaining no achievement because of the teacher’s insufficient knowledge to use the facilities. So, the researcher had tried to find out the existing situation of the uses of available facilities. According to the answer got from the schools’ principal and the sports teachers themselves the findings regarding the use of available facilities are presented here under:
Figure No. 1
Use of Available Sports Facilities/Supplies
By the above figure No.1, it can be said that majority of the physical education teachers were using available facilities properly. The teachers
who were not utilizing the available facilities properly were four. The teachers need to get the training regarding how to use the available facilities and equipment. If the teachers do not have the training regarding sports facilities and equipment, they may not have enough knowledge and skill to use the same. So, the teachers of physical education and sports must get the related training of games and sports. Which will help them to enhance their own performance regarding teaching learning activities. The class run by the trained teachers who have the idea of how to use the available sports facilities will certainly be effective and sustainable one.
4.5 Periods per week for Physical Education and Sports
Assigning period for physical education and sports means schools are aware of students’ health and physical fitness. All the schools from the research site have recommended periods for physical education and sports but there were not sufficient sports facilities to teach and train the recommended course. Without having such facilities physical education’s classes cannot be run effectively. Moreover, the students cannot enhance their performance. Though the facilities for the sports and physical education’s classes were not sufficient, schools have recommended some periods for the same subject. We can take this as a positive aspect for the betterment of the subject. Recommended period for physical education per week are hereby given below as shown in following table:
Recommended periods for physical education
S.N.LevelsPeriods per week
According to table no.4, three periods were recommended for physical education classes at lower secondary level. Among those three periods, two for theoretical classes and one for practical classes were assigned for all
the sample school from research site. Three periods per week for physical education is not enough but not so bad condition too. The remarkable point is that some of the schools have the trend to take theory classes instead of practical classes. All the sample schools were recommended only one period for sports. No school was there having physical education as an optional subjects. Though there was not physical education as an optional subject, they were assigned one period per week for sports practical class. From this fact it can be said that they are well informed about the benefit of sports on students’ health and educational achievement.
4.6 Annual Expenditure for Sports
Importance of sports cannot be expressed by words. Sports facilities and equipments, training of the teachers and management ability, etc are directly related to the achievement of sports. Except these, income and expenditure of the institution is also the main aspect to affect the achievement of games and sports. If the school’s annual income is high the sports fund can get more money to manage sports activities and programs. Annual income and expenditure of the school is the backbone of every program. So, the school should think about how to collect fund for school. Some of the schools are good to collect the fund by means of various activities like cultural programs, selling tickets of various sports tournaments, etc. If the school can add some amount to the allowance got from the government, they can conduct more and more activities regarding sports. The researcher had tried to find out that how much the schools are spending per year for sports. The findings of the same have been given in following table:
Annual expenditure for the Sports
S.N.Amount spent per year in Rs.No. of schools
4.50,000 and above1
According to table no.5, 3 of the sample schools have less than 10000 as the annual expenditure for sports. Likewise 4 of the schools spend 10000 to 25000 for sports annually. Twenty percent of the sample schools spend up to 50000 annually for sports whereas only one of the sample schools spend more than 50000 annually for sports. By means of above data, it is clearly visible that the amount spent for sports annually is not sufficient for the betterment of games and sports.
Some of the schools really want to conduct various sports tournaments but lack of enough fund they are being unable to conduct such of programs. Some of the schools have the fund but they don’t have the ideas of how to use the money properly in the field of sports. Special counseling programs from authorized and authentic person should be given to such schools which have enough fund but do not have ideas to use the fund for the betterment of sports.
4.7 Land Occupies by the Schools
The land or ground is most needed for sports activities. If there is free space or ground, the students can be participated in various types of physical activities. Many games and sports can be conducted if there is sufficient space. Teachers who have little bit knowledge about sports and games and got open area can manage competitions, and practice easily. Many schools of research area have land problem to manage school plant, other facilities and sports and games related facilities. The land available in the sample schools has been given in following table:
Land Occupies by the Schools
S.N.Area of LandNo. of Schools
1.5000-15000 sq. ft.3
2.15000-30000 sq. ft4
3.30000 sq. ft. and above3
According to table no. 6, three of the sample schools have the land of 5000 to 15000 sq. ft. Whereas 4 of the sample schools have 15000 to 30000 sq. ft. Of land. Like wise there were 3 of the schools which have the land of 30000 sq. ft. or above that. As all the sample schools were from community based schools, they were managed their own land i.e. no schools were running in the rented land. That is the plus point for the betterment of sports and games. If the schools have their own land they can feel easy to use that land as their own desire unlike private schools who have running their schools in rented land.
4.8 Land occupy by Sports Facilities within the Total Land
There is no doubt that it is fruitful to have own enough land of the school. If the school has sufficient land then only the schools can plan to develop sports facilities. Nowadays we can notice that many private school are running in only one building taken for the rent. From that sort of schools we cannot imagine the progress of physical education and sports.So the researcher had tried to find out whether the schools has own sufficient land for sport facilities or not. The findings of the same are hereby given in following table:
Land Occupies by sports facilities
S.N.Area of LandNo. of Schools
2.5000-10000 sq. ft6
3.10000 sq. ft. and above3
Table no. 7 indicates that majority of the sample schools have the land of 5000 to 10000 sq. ft. occupied by sports facilities. Likewise 3 of the sample schools have the land of 10000 sq. ft. and above that occupied by the sports facilities. Only 1 of the schools had the land for sports facilities within 2000 to 5000 sq. ft. Above data indicate that the land occupied by the sports facilities within the sample schools were not sufficient. Many schools were using their land for school plant and for other facilities. It can be conducted many physical activities and sports tournament by using the multipurpose hall. But this concept of building multipurpose hall was not seen in the research site. The land occupies by the sports facilities was found less than the necessities. Among of them there was little bit satisfactory result in land occupied by sports facilities.
4.9 Major Income Sources of the Schools
Economic condition of the school is one of the main factors influencing to the sports and games. Each and every program needs money to conduct according to available expenditure and nature of the sports and games. Those schools which have more expenditure can get needed sports facilities, equipments to practice and other manages which is necessary to develop students’ performance. If a sports teacher gets a good amount he/she can manage well by gathering necessary facilities and equipment. So, the fund or expenditure plays a vital role to conduct various sports tournament. Income sources of the school play significant role to manage the sports programs which are fruitful to develop all-round personality of the students. If the school has wide range of income source of course the school will go forward for the betterment of sports programs. So, the researcher had tried to find out the major income sources of the sample school from the research site. The income sources of all the sample schools were almost same. Majority of the sample schools has depend up on the fund got by the government. Aside from the fund got by the government, some of the schools have trend to collect the fund by their own effort like collecting the fund by organizing cultural programs, getting some donation from the local donor, etc. It has been found that those schools which were ahead in collecting fund by various means they were ahead in promoting physical education and sports programs.
4.10 Further Plan to Develop Sports Facilities
In this study, sports facilities are defined as permanent structure units like ground, courts, track and field, and so many equipments and supplies which are needed for running games and sports activities. These facilities are not easy to develop. Most of the schools from the research site were in need to develop the facilities for sports. Let’s say like this they have the further plan to develop the sports facilities. The plan for the further development of sports facilities were vary from school to school. Some of the schools wanted to build up the basketball court and some wanted to develop the football ground within their school premises. Likewise, some schools wanted to develop more facilities for track and field events and some wanted to develop badminton court. Moreover, some school said that they want to develop multipurpose hall for their school. The percentages of those schools who wanted to develop further sports facilities and did not want to develop the further sports facilities are hereby given below by means of following figure:
Figure No. 2
Further plan to develop sports facilities
Above figure No.2 indicates that majority of the sample schools wants to develop further facilities for sports. Seventy percent sample schools were there who wanted to develop the further facilities for sports. The rest 30 percent of the sample schools did not have any further plan to develop the sports facilities. They want to run the physical education and sports program through the existing facilities. They did not seem interested to develop the further facilities for the sports and physical education programs. That may be cause of their own drawback regarding the insufficient fund and their own land to develop the sports facilities.
4.11 Various Sports Tournaments organized in the Schools
Games and sports are important for the betterment of physical education. They enhance the all round personality of the students. They play vital role in their life. It improves the knowledge, health, and disciplinary habit of the students. If the school has the trend to conduct various sports tournament they may get the chance to interact with other schools which will help them to share and interact regarding different topic/experiences. The students or/and players also can get the opportunity to interact with the players of other institution which helps to promote the creativity of the students. From that sort of interaction they will certainly be benefited. The researcher was keen on to find out the status of conducting sports tournament by the sample schools. The findings of the various tournaments organized by the schools are hereby given below in following table:
Various sports tournaments organized by the Schools
S.N.Games and Sports OrganizedNo. Of Schools Organized the sameNo.of tournaments Annually 1.Volleyball1012
According to table no.8, among all the games Volleyball is conducted at the top rank. Annually twelve times, the tournament of volleyball has been organized by all the sample schools. Among all the sample schools two schools organize inter schools tournaments and the rest organized intra school tournaments. From this fact it can be said that volleyball is the popular game within the research site. After volleyball, various athletics competitions are organized by the schools. Running, Shotput, jumping, throw, etc are the major events from athletics. Though the sample schools have not enough and standards track and field, they counduct and manage this sort of competition depending on the available facilities. Likewise three tournaments have been conducted by the sample school annually. Regarding Kho-Kho and Kabaddi, annually four tournaments are there in sample schools and all the tournaments were intra schools tournaments. Majority of the tournaments were intra school tournaments.
There is no doubt that the sports tournaments are the pillar to enhance the physical education programs. Physical education is the practical based education, and the tournaments provide the chance to the students of physical education to apply the theoretical knowledge on practical field. Though the facilities within the schools are not sufficient, the schools are interested to conduct various sports tournaments. It can be taken as the plus point for the development of physical education and sports.
4.12 Major Sports Achievement of the Schools
How the sample schools have been utilizing the available sports facilities to grab more and more achievements? This was also a quire of this research study. To find out the same, the researcher had put the question to the headmasters and the physical education/sport teachers from the sample schools. Sports is that field from which an institution can spread out its name and fame to all over the nation. If a school has extra ordinary player, the school will be familiar among all the competitors schools by his or her name. The researcher had tried to find out the major achievements of the sample schools from the research site. The findings of the same has been given hereunder: