Qualitative Article:A Women’s Place is in the Home: Females and Residential BurglaryThis article uses a qualitative research method. Qualitative research involves analyzing and interpreting texts and interviews in order to discover meaningful patterns descriptive of a particular phenomenon (Adler & Clarke, 2008, p.13.).
The method has been adopted to investigate the research question. The research question is; what involvement do women have in residential burglaries. This research question is analysed by comparing female characteristics with their male counterparts and, through primary investigation, into the roles female burglars play during offences.
The article contains two literature reviews summarising previous studies relating to the research question (Adler & Clarke, 2008, p. 85).
The first study was by Ward, Jackson, and Ward. This study examined police, court and prison records of 80 female inmates serving time for burglary. During this study, it was found; women played one of four roles in burglary offences. The four roles are;•Conspirator, who helps set up the crimes (not taking part)•An Accomplice, who takes orders and does what she was told during the offence•A partner, who operated on a equal footing with other offenders involved in the burglary•A sole perpetrator, who carried out the burglaries herself.
Ward, Jackson and Ward also concluded that majority, 56% to be exact, of the females committed their offence with other people.
Fry and her colleagues undertook a qualitative research to develop a moral distress model in military nursing. Using the same problem statement, literature analysis and background information, this paper aims at converting the qualitative study carried out by Fry and her colleagues into a quantitative study. The study entails setting different research questions and collecting data that aims at ...
The second study was by Simon and Sharma. This study employed Prosecutor Management Information Systems data to explore women’s involvement in a variety of crimes, including burglary. Conclusion’s from the study support that women do not commit crimes under the control of men, and 70% of female arrests where by females acting alone. An ethnographic study by Cromwell, Olsen, and Avary was also mentioned. But, due to sample size limits it was seen as conclusive.
The two literature views first mentioned are sufficient in developing an answer to the research question. Although, it may have been more beneficial to use feminist perspectives that have developed theories and challenging issues relating to women offending.
There were no hypotheses formulated from the study, as it was a form of explanatory research. Explanatory research tends to be deductive, moving from one general to less general statements (Adler & Clarke, 2008, p.14).
Therefore, rather than pursing natural science-like hypothesis, qualitative researchers are moved by more the pursuit of empathic understanding (Adler & Clarke, 2008, p.433).
A research design has been used in this study to answer the research question (Adler & Clarke, 2008, p.158).
Allied with qualitative research methods, this study incorporated asurvey design technique on individual case studies, as a way to reinforce and evaluate the findings (Adler & Clarke, 2008, p. 55).
The researchers conducted their own primary research through in-person interviews. The interviews conducted involved a non-profitability sample of 105 currently active residential burglars. The interviews weresemi-structured and where conducted informally. The subjects sampled were located through a “snowball” sampling strategy, whereby a few offenders were contacted initially and where asked to refer others (Adler & Clarke, 2008, p.122).
This process was continued until the researchers had a “built” suitable sample.
The research design works well with the research question, which would have been chosen for its feasibility. Although, time and cost expenditure, due to the nature of the research question, would have been the dominant issue. Importantly, in regards to the time expenditure, the researcher managed to deduct time constraints due to using the “snowball” sampling system.
These instructions were used as a form of deception to prove my hypothesis. My hypothesis was that women would be more affected by this deception than would the men. My results proved otherwise. Results showed there was little difference in the way the women and men performed on these tests on either version. The ANOVA testing showed these clear results. Does Performance Reflect Success? Gender ...
The findings suggested that women, compared to their male counterparts, do not differ significantly in regards to involvement in residential burglaries. But, the results from the data presented also show that differences between both sexes do exist. Such as women commit burglaries more often in groups, they begin offending at a later age then man and women have less contact with the Criminal Justice System. The data also demonstrated that a women’s involvement in residential burglary is diverse. For example, in the interviews, the subjects roles ranged from primary roles exclusively, some adopted secondary roles exclusively, and others moved from one type of role to another as they became more experienced.
The study results suggested that further examinations need to be made, in future research, into the apparent differences between man and women’s involvement in residential burglary to confirm the results concluded from the data. The qualitative data presented was clear in attempting to understand and answer the research question, what are women’s involvements in residential burglaries, but did not answer the question conclusively.
Although, the study has social policy implications as, there is limited research and theoretical explanations on female criminality.
Quantitative Article:CO-OFFENDING AND THE CHOICE OF TARGET AREAS IN BURGLARYBy Wim BernascoThis article employs a quantitative research method using empirical studies, statistics and graphs (Adler & Clarke, 2008, p.15).
The researcher used quantitative research techniques to yield precise and accurate information to answer the devised research question (Adler & Clarke, 2008, p14).
There research questions is; what are the effects of co-offending based on the choice of target areas by burglars in residential areas. The research question is analysed by discovering what criteria burglars use in choosing an area for committing a burglary, and whether that criterion differs between solitary and group offenders.
# central research question: Research questions steer the student’s research, and the central research question should reflect the subject of research in a concise way. # theoretical (desk) research questions: Questions should reflect relevant theoretical concepts that apply to the topic under research by the student, i.e. from marketing, finance, business environment. The theoretical framework ...
The article contains two theoretical frameworks to help answer the research question (Adler & Clarke, 2008, p.20).
That is, explanations on the location choice of residential burglars. The first is Johnson and Bowers foraging theory, a branch of behavioral ecology, which studies the foraging behaviors of animals. This theory proclaims animals, when choosing a foraging area for food, optimize rewards by outweighing the nutritional value of food with effort and risk. Johnson and Bowers put forward the notion that burglars, like animal foragers, maximise their revenues by selecting streets and houses that require little effort to enter, seem to be unoccupied and that appear to contain valued items. This perspective describes aspects of rational choice theory, the belief that man is a reasoning actor who weighs means and ends, costs and benefits, and makes a rational choice.
Secondly, Kleemans theory states burglars rather choose locations on the basis ofestimated risk of detection and arrest, by distinguishing the physical and social aspects of surveillance and control. The physical aspect referring to architectural features such as visibility from the street and if a dwelling has multiple access points. This perspective describes aspects of Shaw and MacKay social control theory. The two theories stated are sufficient, but relate only to the first research question.
From the theoretical framework, researchers develop a hypothesis. A hypothesis is a testable statement about how to or more variables are expected to be related to one another (Adler & Clarke, 2008, p.23).
One of the hypotheses presented in the article, in general, states that burglars follow certain criterion when choosing a location to commit a burglary. The Independent variable being the burglar’s criterion for location choice, as it effects the dependant variable, which are burglary rates (Adler & Clarke, 2008, p.23).
There where more hypotheses presented in this article, but as this study is a form of explanatory research, it is designed to seek and provide an explanation between two or more phenomena (Adler & Clarke, 2008, p. 30).
Introduction During the second session of the summer 2000 WBRCP we gathered data for Remote Sensing research. Our objective is to locate cave sites and determine the usefulness of various remote sensing platforms for this purpose. Similar research has proven successful for locating surface sites in the Maya area, but this technology has not yet been applied for cave location. Finding cave sites is ...
It is also deductive in nature. Deductive means the tendency to start with general theories and then concludes with more definitive hypotheses (Adler & Clarke, 2008, p.30).
A research design has been used in this study to answer the research questions (Adler & Clarke, 2008, p.158).
The research design used in this study was data retrieved from the Police Service in the Netherlands between the periods of 1996 – 2004 that pertained data of all detected residential burglaries committed by burglars in the area of Hague. This is a form of cross-sectional design with a non-probability sample. Cross-sectional design is data collected about one sample at one point in time, even if that “one time” lasts for years (Adler & Clarke, 2008, p.160).
Also, the data does not give every member of the population a chance to be included therefore is a non-profitability sample (Adler & Clarke, 2008, p.102).
This design was adequate in answering the research questions and tested hypothesis.
In this article the researcher did not conduct any primary research, but rather utilized secondary statistics retrieved from the Hague Police Force (Adler & Clarke, 2008, p.334).
This secondary data would have been chosen for feasibility and practicality reasons of the research (Adler & Clarke, 2008, p.334).
In summery, this article confirmed the importance of the neighborhood environment as a burglary target area for local offenders. Discovered from the statistical data was that it’s the burglars own neighborhood, and close surrounding neighborhoods, that are most likely targets for both solitary and group offenders. In agreement with Kleemans, it was also concluded, that the main criterion that drive the target areas choice of burglars is the physical accessibility of the properties in the area. Therefore, the outcomes of this study was able to partially confirm burglary target choices, but failed to postulate the differences between solitary offenders and group offenders.
The study suggests that further examinations need to be made in order to determine what criterion offender’s use in choosing area to commit burglary. As it could have social policy implications in relation to what areas have higher crime rates. A better understanding of target choice areas for burglars would help contribute to crime prevention strategies.
Abstract In this paper the team analyzed three scholarly articles relating to our study. Furthermore, the team also analyzed additional data sets to include more variables like bedrooms and bathrooms in our investigation to test our hypothesis which shows that the results are consistent with the hypothesis. The population size, primary and secondary data, using unbiased information and applying ...
Adler, E,. & Clark, R. (2008).
How its done: An invitation to social research. California: Thompson Wadsworth.
Bernasco, W. (2006).
Co-offending and the choice of target areas in burglary. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, Vol.3.139-155Decker, S., & Wright, R., & Redfern, A., & Smith, D. (1993).
A Women’s place is in the home: Females and residential burglaries. Justice Quarterly, Vol.10.