According to Milman(2001),queuing is the process of moving customers in a specific sequence to a specific service according to the customer need. On the other hand Ahmed S. A. AL-Jumaily (2011) mentioned that queue is a waiting line, whether of people, signals or things. Based on the definition given, it clearly shows that queuing is a process that involve with human and waiting time. Furthermore, according to Larson (2011), waiting time is the amount of time a person, signal or thing spends before being attended to, or before value adding work is performed to or on it.
In addition, most of business organization nowadays really put in higher consideration on how to manage the queuing in their daily business operation (Hui 1992).
1 Furthermore, according to Ashley (2000), queue in theory part can be defined as a mathematical study of waiting line or can call as queues. The queuing theory is generally considered as a branch of operation research because the result is often used when business decisions were about to made, especially something that related to the resources of service provider.
In relation with the notion, queuing theory is a model constructed so that queue lengths and waiting times can be predicted thus, might lead to the less service failure (Agner, Krarup and Erlang, 2013).
... . The gap in history has been coined the Phantom Time Theory or Phantom Time Hypothesis. Although it is not a very widely accepted ... , for the most part, when it comes to the Phantom Time Theory. For example, Beaufort writes “Ultimate evidence against Illig's hypothesis ...
However, queuing from service industry perspective is much more critical compare to management part. It is deals with an issue of treatment of customer in sense reduce waiting time and improvement of service because queue management deals with cases where the customer arrival is randomly.
For example in service organization, by efficient queue management system, it can help to reduce cost and thus help to improve profitability by adding a new counters in order to reduce waiting time. service time taken by staff in order to deliver service to the customer is also critical point in customer satisfaction. According Paterson, Maier and Seligman (1993), the waiting can be associated with multiple attitudes, for example their feel helpless in a wait of unknown duration or with unknown result. 2 1. 2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
As mention previously, most of business organizations nowadays are really put in higher consideration on how to manage the queuing system. There are numerous factor that may influence to the type of queuing system apply in organization. According to La Tour and Peat (1979), poor queuing system will probably contribute to the low level of customer satisfaction. On the other hand, as mention by Raz and Ert (2008), no matter how good your queuing system apply, but if the staff are not able to manage the service process, it will obviously effect the customer satisfaction.
Based on the element highlighted, it clearly shows that, staffs play a major importance roll in order to assist the queuing system in organization. Due to that situation, this study will focus on the customer satisfaction towards staff counter in queuing system perspective. Researcher proposes to observe how KidZania managements balance their queuing efficiency and customer satisfaction. Researcher also hypothesized that customer satisfaction in KidZania is mostly affected by functional clues such as waiting time, rather than the mechanical and human clues defined by Carbone and Haeckel (2002)
This research was to find if customers were satisfied with the waiting time at KidZania. In this study, there are several factors that probably might influence customer satisfaction in Kidzania. . In other words, customer satisfaction is related to the time they arrive at an establishment until they obtain the service that they require . Numerous theme parks are suffering from declining attendances. Although studies have been carried out as to the possible causes for this, not many definite answers have been found.
The Business plan on Internship Report on Customer Satisfaction on the Services of Al-Arafah Islami Bank Limited
... the respective organizations. The topic of the report is “Customer Satisfaction on the services of MBL.” 1.2 Significance of the Report: The ... type of questionnaire and used for conducting customer satisfaction survey and acquire primary data. Here average time was 20 minute for every respondent ...
General survey results indicate however, a very high customer dissatisfaction rate with relation to long waiting times. Therefore many parks would like to address this issue. 3 Basically KidZania is indoor theme park child-sized replica of a real city, including buildings, shops and theatres, as well as vehicles and pedestrians moving along its streets. In the establishment children aged 4 through 16; work in branded activities from bottling Sea master Drinking Water, working in dentist office, working at Sushi King Restaurant, painting with Nippon Paint, and using airline tickets from Air Asia Airlines.
From the type of activities mentioned researcher, assume that the KidZania also suffering from how to reduce waiting time, service time and queuing system in order to increase customer satisfaction. 1. 3RESEARCH OBJECTIVE The main aim of this study is to investigate the factors that influence customer satisfaction in KidZania indoor theme park that often cause problems to the customer or staff. The aim of this study will be supported by the following objective: 1) To examine the relationship between service time and customer satisfaction in KidZania. ) To examine the relationship between waiting attitudes and customer satisfaction in KidZania. 3) To examine the relationship between waiting time and customer satisfaction in Kidzania. 1. 3 . 1RESEARCH QUESTION Based on the objective highlighted, three research questions are formulated? 1) What is the relationship service time and customer satisfaction? 2) What is the relationship between waiting attitudes and customer satisfaction? 3) What is the relationship of customer? s waiting time toward customer satisfaction? 4 1. 4 FRAMEWORK
Independent variable Dependent variable Service time H1 (Trong 2011) Waiting attributes (Trong ,Larson1987) Customer satisfaction Waiting time (Larson 1987) Figure 1: theoretical Framework of the Research 1. 5 HYPOTHESIS The first set of hypothesis is used to confirm perception of customer. For the purpose of both experiments researcher define satisfaction in line with Oliver (1997).
... a lot on customer satisfaction. This is because customer satisfaction can only be raised through quality products and services and this is ... a negative change in customer satisfaction yet other industries like internet portals and wireless telephone service have realized a positive ... thus the Denver facility needs to reduce the time that customers spend waiting between the gates by coming with better ...
In this hypothesis also researcher tries to relate between service time, waiting attributes and waiting time to customer satisfaction at KidZania.
This hypothesis aim is to confirm that longer waiting time will have negative impact on customer in the main queue. H1: There is relationship between service time and customer satisfaction. H2: There is relationship between waiting attributes and customer satisfaction H3: there is relationship between waiting time and customer satisfaction. 5 1. 6 SIGNIFICANT OF STUDY According to Peter van Lith2002many theme parks are suffering from declining attendances. Although studies have been carried out as to the possible causes for this, not many definite answers have been found.
General survey results indicate however, a very high customer dissatisfaction rate with relation to long waiting times. Therefore many parks would like to address this issue. Therefore by understanding the factor that affect customer satisfaction will provide information regarding the operation performance measure, this according to Ndukwe H. C (2001), analysis of queuing situations and questions of interest, are those typically concerned with measures of system performance and include how long a customer expects to wait in the queue before being served or how long it will take to wait before service is complete.
Alternatively this study will provide information to KidZania operation staff in order to understand and identify what are the major factors that affect the acceptance of increasing customer satisfaction in operation. In addition, it also gives a better understanding to the top management regarding the factors that probably might influence customer satisfaction in KidZania. Furthermore it will provide information to management regarding which from several factors that is need to improve or enhance in order to reach the optimum level of customer satisfaction.
Moreover, by identify right factor that give major affect, it will helps to speed up the operation and make the work more systematic. At the same time, it might also increase the level of customer satisfaction and attendance to the KidZania. 6 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 1 INTRODUCTION This chapter begins with the literature related to customer satisfaction concept. As an initial of the chapter, it is worth to explore the concept thoroughly with the purpose of gaining a better understanding regarding the rules line up by the customer satisfaction concept.
... each department serving the other, then the Customer Service skills will be extended to the "External" customer. He also highlights the importance of ... those who improve the most in the service they give to both internal and external customers. Under Evaluation, he says that ... ready to fulfill their needs. Most service industries, if not all, are all client / customer oriented and they depend on the ...
For instance, a study by Reichheld and Sasser (1990) reported a high correlation between customer retention and profitability in a range of industries. On the other hand, Herbert, (2004) mentioned that customer satisfaction has long been recognized as playing a crucial role for success and survival in today? s competitive market. Notably, the quality and satisfaction concepts have been linked to customer behavioral intentions like purchase and loyalty intention, willingness to spread positive word of mouth, referral, and complaint intention by many researchers (Olsen, 2002)
There are overwhelming arguments that it is more expensive to win new customers than to keep existing ones (Giles, 2004).
This is in line with Stathakopoulos (2001) arguments that customer replacement costs, like advertising, promotion and sales expenses, are high and it takes time for new customers to become profitable. 7 2. 2 THE CONCEPT OF QUEUE MANAGEMENT Queuing theory is the study of waiting in all these various situations. It uses queuing models to represent the various types of queuing systems that arise in practice.
The models enable finding an appropriate balance between the cost of service and the amount of waiting. A common typology separates between Multiple Queue, Single Queue and Numbered Queue structures (Hall, 1991).
Queuing theory to predict average waiting time, queue length, system utilization and so forth (Siddarthan 1996).
According to Opanuga O. (2001) analysis of queuing situations and questions of interest, are those typically concerned with measures of system performance and include how long a customer expects to wait in the queue before being served or how long it will take to wait before service is complete.
There are factors that need to be defined and controlled by front liner staff so that management can evaluate alternatives in an attempt to control/improve queue situations. (Chang & Yang, 2008).
The queuing system applied to traffic situations provides an adequate description of the complex dynamic and stochastic environment under study (Woensel and Cruz, 2009).
... cause the existing business starts losing its regular customers because of poor customer service or higher price in products. Eventually it ... aisles are clear of debris. Customers always receive correct change. Customers wait in a queue less than three minutes. The person ... of coffee instead of standing there and wasting my time. “Service comes from people, not companies.” (Catherine Devrye ...
Conceptually, queuing is becoming a necessary tool that an organization must apply in operation to improve line efficiency and to meet with the current of customer needs. (David E.
Bowen 2002) It improves work efficiency and helps the organization to meet with the customer demand and expectation. (Richard B. Chase 2002) According to Azmeet Nafees (2007) the aim of studying queuing system simulation is trying to detect the variability in a quality of service due to queues in sales check out operating units, find the average queue length before getting served in order to improve the quality of the services were required, and obtain a sample performance result to obtain time-dependent solutions for complex queuing models. 8
In other hand Bratslavsky (2001) mentioned that delays and queuing problems are the most common features not only in our daily-life situations such as at a bank or post office, at a ticketing office, in public transportation or in a traffic jam but also in most technical environments, such as in manufacturing, computer networking and telecommunications. Queuing data provide the analyst with a powerful tool for designing and evaluating the performance of queuing systems (Carson, Nelson &Nicol, 2001) whenever customers arrive at a service facility, some of them have to wait before they receive the desired service.
It means that the customer has to wait for his/her turn, may be in a line. Customers arrive at a service facility with several queues, each with one server Azmeet 2007. The customers choose a queue of a server according to some mechanism (e. g. , shortest queue or shortest workload).
(Adan, 2000) A common assumption about waiting queues is that people are keen to minimize the time they ‘waste’ waiting (Maister, 1985).
. The capacity of a queue is either limited or unlimited. Bank is an example of unlimited queue length. The service is an activity requested by a customer, where each service takes a specific time. Ahmed S. 2011 9 2. QUEUEING SYSTEM IN KIDZANIA Queue has given impact to the service industry, especially in theme park and in terms of improving the task efficiency in the organization. According to Matthew Alexander (2011) the provision of priority queuing gives managers the potential to supplement revenue and these mechanisms are increasingly used in airlines, theme parks and hotels etc. Nowadays, almost in every business related direct with customer in the world applies the queue to make easy handle customer and not look crowd in operation because the queue is the most important tools in operation, same goes to other department or industry .
... waiting time and maintain or expand their zone of tolerance•Virtual queues – for example, a beeper may be provided for customers who are waiting ... . The nature of the service is high contact, therefore service quality and customer satisfaction highly depend on how well the service provider can play out ...
Researcher assumes that KidZania Management might have long understood the pressures of waiting time vs. revenue. A survey conducted by Law et al (2004), indicated that waiting time, staff attitude and service quality significantly influence the customers? return frequency and affect customer satisfaction. Faced with the fact that every minute spent waiting in line is a minute that the customer is not generating revenue, they have continuously attempted to optimize revenue by balancing between the costs of capacity and the costs of not having adequate capacity to serve customers as they attempt to enjoy the service experience.
Although waiting is a natural part of many services, for most customers, waiting is an annoyance. Harold E. (2011).
The researcher assume that KidZania is looking forward for queuing advancement which allows customers to participate in other activities while they wait for an appointed time at their desired activity. Researcher then investigates KidZania? s current queuing system and observes more specifically what other factor that might affect the customer satisfaction. In the KidZania establishment all the activity have their time limit show and some of the staff politely informs the guest time taking for each activity.
Observation shows that the activity controller sometime cannot follow the time limit accurately. This situation will increase customer waiting time and according to Williams (2003) Service time starts when a customer places an order and finishes when the customer receives the order. Service time is not constant, but it depends on how large the order is. 10 Whenever customers arrive at KidZania, some of them have to wait before they receive the desired service. It means that the customer has to wait for his/her turn, may be in a line.
Customers arrive at a service facility (Ticketing counter) with several queues, each with one server (ticket verifying checkpoint).
The customers choose a queue of a server according to some mechanism (e. g. , shortest queue or shortest workload).
(Adan, 2000) 2. 4. 1WAITING TIME According to Peter van Lith (2002) mentioned that waiting is the main activity of theme park visitors. Although most people would deny this is an attractive prospect, it nevertheless is where people tend to spend most of their time during a visit.
However this is not the selection of choice. It is a necessary waste that needs to be tolerated, in order to get into any an establishment. Furthermore according to Robert F. (2008) Waiting time are ubiquitous in services, and service operations managers recognize the trade-offs that must take place between the cost of providing good service. Management want queues that are short enough so that customers do not become unhappy and either departs the system without receive the service or receive but never return.
However, most management system have traditionally been willing to allow some waiting if the waiting is balanced by a significant savings in capacity costs (Haksever et al. , 2000) Most research has shown that as waiting time increases, satisfaction decreases (Davis &Volmann, 1990), that customers tend to over- estimate waiting time (Smidts, 1998), and these recalled wait durations have an equal, if not greater, effect on satisfaction than objective waiting time (Katz et al. , 1991).
At a general level, as perceived or recalled wait duration increases the wait becomes less acceptable (Van Aalst, 2002).
1 Furthermore, Pang (2004) mentioned in order to reduce the time spent in waiting systems, one solution would be to supplement to the checkout staff, but this is not always the most economical strategy to improve services. One of the factors influencing consumers’ perception on service quality is the efficiency of waiting time. The waiting time is inevitable in the case of random requests. (Alecu, F 2004) On the research by Metters (2006), he mentioned that many people misunderstand why waiting time form. It is often assumed that waiting time form only because there? too much work for employees to do in an aggregate sense. Then again, waiting time also form when there appears to be more than enough people to handle the tasks in aggregate. In quantitative methods terminology, a waiting time is also known as a queuing time, and the body of knowledge dealing with waiting time is known as queuing theory(Russell and Taylor, 1998).
In the early 1900s, A. K. Erlang, began a study of the congestion and waiting times occurring in the completion of task. 2. 4. 2 WAITING ATTRIBUTES Effects on customers of waiting criteria explored in tourism and service contexts (Baker & Cameron, 1996).
Lengthy, unexplained and indeterminate wait criteria can have significant negative outcomes for customers (Maister, 1985) and firms invest heavily in technological and operational solutions to reduce these effects (Brady, 2002).
Environmental reasons have important effects on customers? feelings, thinking, and reactions about a service conditions (Zeithaml and Bitner, 2000) As any waiting attributes involves many components (color, sound, lighting, layouts, signs, etc) categorizes them into three dimensions: ambient conditions, space and function, and signs, symbols, and artifacts.
Ambient conditions include lighting, sound, music, scent, and temperature that usually affect the five senses while determining the environmental background (Bitner 1992) 12 Waiting attributes have significant influences on individual behavior that sway customers „conviction about a place (Zeithaml and Bitner, 2000).
In general, studies have found people enjoy spending more time and perhaps more money in places where they experience positive emotions such as pleasure. Ambient conditions include lighting, sound, music, scent, and temperature that usually affect the five senses while determining the environmental background.
Space and function considers the arrangement, shape, and size of equipment and furnishings and how these assist performance and goal attainment. Moreover, the signs, symbols, and artifacts include those items and cues enabling the organization to communicate with customers explicitly and/or implicitly. Studies have isolated specific waiting attributes factors to investigate their impact on customers? reactions including emotional responses and purchase intentions/behaviors with some studies showing that positive ambient conditions improved customers? tore evaluation, approach behavior, and business results. Music is an example of the impact of an ambient condition on customer reactions that consumer research has examined frequently (Caldwell and Hibbert, 2002) 2. 4. 3 SERVICE TIME According Loewenstein (1992) in predictable service remaining duration can be perfectly anticipated at any given moment. A wait may not be burden when customer knows is about to end but the further customer from service counter to the goal the more miserable customer may feel.
Hence, when customers have no clear information about the remaining waiting duration, they becoming increasingly frustrated over time (Osuna 1985).
13 On the other hand Maister (2010) contended that both customer perception and expectation about a service operation play a role in determining customer satisfaction. Each customer has certain expectation about a service operation. If she perceives the service has exceeded her expectation, then she will be a satisfied customer. Thus, customer satisfaction can be influenced by adjusting customer expectations and/or their perceptions.
Sometimes, insufficiencies in services also occur due to an undue wait in service may be because of new employee. Delays in service jobs beyond their due time may result in losing future business opportunities. (Azmat Nafees 2007) In other study, Katz et al. (2005) found that perceived waiting time and “reasonable” waiting time increased as actual waiting time increased. In other hand, some of the researcher also agree that study also showed that overall satisfaction decreased as perceived and actual waiting times increased (Zhang et al. 2000)Service time can be extended to entertainment establishment where customer complains about the amount of time spent before the service can be received (Bunday, 1996) In a study by Moss (1987), service time theory was used to assess the relationships among the number of staff members, type of service processes and customer waiting times. Service time starts when a customer places an order and finishes when the customer receives the order. Service time is not constant, but it depends on how large the order is (Sidonia 2010) 2. 4. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION Customer satisfaction, quality and retention are global issues that affect all organizations, be it large or small, profit or non-profit, global or local. (Kaplan 2011) Many companies are interested in studying, evaluating and implementing marketing strategies that aim at improving customer retention and maximizing share of customers in view of the beneficial effects on the financial performance for the firm. (Norton 2001).
14 Customer satisfaction has long been recognized as playing a crucial role for success and survival in today? s competitive market. Kew Mei Liang 2004) The interest in studying satisfaction and service quality as the antecedents of customer behavioral intentions in this paper has been stimulated, firstly, by the recognition that customer satisfaction does not, on its own, produce customer lifetime value (Appiah-Adu,1999).
Satisfaction and quality are closely linked to market share and customer retention (Fornell, 1992).
There are overwhelming arguments that it is more expensive to win new customers than to keep existing ones (Ennew and Binks, 1996).
Many researchers (Lovelock 2001) conceptualize customer satisfaction as an individual? feeling of pleasure or disappointment resulting from comparing a product? s perceived performance (or outcome) in relation to his or her expectations. Customer satisfaction has been a popular topic in marketing practice and academic research since Cardozo’s (1965) initial study of customer effort, expectations and satisfaction. Studies show that customer satisfaction may have direct and indirect impact on business results . Luo and Homburg (2007) concluded that customer satisfaction positively affects business profitability. The majority of studies have investigated the relationship with customer satisfaction patterns (Faullant et al. 2008).
According to these findings, customer satisfaction increases customer loyalty, influences repurchase intentions and leads to positive word-of-mouth. 2. 5RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VARIABLES The service times, waiting time and waiting attributes as the independent variable and customer satisfaction as the dependent variables. The variable mentioned was the factor for research about queue management in KidZania Kuala Lumpur. When a person is satisfied with a company or service they are likely to share their experience with other people to the order of a few people. (Dawes & Rowley, 1996) 5 Research into the impact of waiting time on consumers highlights both decreased satisfaction (Taylor 1994) An overview of previous studies into the queuing phenomenon illustrating a relationship between satisfaction, intention to revisit and word of mouth (Hutchinson, 2000) Studies show that customer satisfaction may have direct and indirect impact on business results. Anderson (1994) concluded that customer satisfaction positively affects business profitability. The majority of studies have investigated the relationship with customer behavior patterns (Kandampully 2000).
According to these findings, customer satisfaction increases customer loyalty, influences repurchase intentions and leads to positive word-of-mouth. According to Buhaug, (2002) customer satisfactions are important indicators for the success of any theme park management. To sustain growth and competency, it is necessary for a theme park to focus its attention on quality and efficiency of its services in a continuous manner. 2. 5. 1WAITING TIME AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION According to Wenhong Luo (2004) study also showed that overall satisfaction decreased as perceived and actual waiting times increased.
Tom and Lucey (2012) compared customer perceived waiting time and its impact on satisfaction under different store environment (busy vs. slow)and server quality (faster vs. slower) conditions in a service establishment. Consistent with Hornik (2009), Tom and Lucey (2012) found that customers tended to overestimate the actual waiting time. It showed that customer satisfaction was determined by perceived waiting time not actual waiting time and perceived waiting time influenced satisfaction with the server but not the establishment. 16
It has been noted that waiting time is an important factor in quality of service, which strongly influences customer satisfaction. For this reason, managers are constantly looking for ways to reduce waiting time and waiting lines (Taylor, 1994).
However, it is difficult to manage waiting time because the nature of waits is not an article of commerce but customers? experience. (Maister, 1985)For instance, the aspect of time as part of customer satisfaction is often regarded as important in many service situations (Durrande-Moreau, 1999) 2. 5. WAITING ATTRIBUTES AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION Customer satisfaction is influenced by various factors in a service environment. According to Baker and Cameron (2013) advanced an integrative model that provided a comprehensive list of service environment variables that might affect customer satisfaction of waiting. It was suggested that service environment variables could influence the perception of waiting attributes by either changing customer satisfaction perception of queue. According to Bitner (1992) restaurant managers can improve service experiences by understanding the effects of crowding on waiting customers? motions and behavioral intentions. This would improve customer satisfaction, re-patronage intentions, and profitability . Machleit (1994) define attributes of waiting by distinguishing its human and spatial dimensions that affect satisfaction in different ways. The human dimension is a closed, confined feeling and the spatial dimension is a restricted movement feeling. Criteria of waiting and customer satisfaction have increasingly been identified as key factors in the battle for competitive differentiation and customer retention. (Ivanka 2000) 17 2. 5. SERVICE TIME AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION The amount of waiting time has been shown to negatively correlate with customer satisfaction. Extended waiting has been cited as an important source of customer dissatisfaction in many service industries. (Wenhong Luo 2004).
Another factor which may affect customer satisfaction is the cost of service time (Cameron 2003).
Both service quality and customer satisfaction have been widely recognized as antecedents of repurchase intentions. However, it is believed that restaurant owners would like to know which of these variables exerts the strongest influence on repatronage intentions.
Kivela (1999) mentioned that service time and customer satisfaction has long been recognized as playing a crucial role for success and survival in today? s competitive market. Moreover, the time of the service that customers encounter may be different each time they re-visit that particular restaurant, thus influencing the level of satisfaction and eventually affecting their re-patronage intentions. (Reece 1990) It should be noted that service time and customer satisfaction is distinct concepts, although they are closely related. (Carman 1991) According to some authors, satisfaction represents an antecedent of service quality (Bolton nd Drew, 1991) 18 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3. 1 INTRODUCTION This part of the study will discuss and lay out the methodology that was used in the next stage of the research. The research design, unit of analysis, population and sample size, data collection method and instrumentation are also discussed. 3. 2 RESEARCH DESIGN The research design aimed to examine relationship between service times, waiting time and waiting attribute towards customer satisfaction. In this study, quantitative method through questionnaire was used for this study. This approach allows research to collect the data with quantitative within a short period of time frame.
Researcher used method with a structured questionnaire as the research instrument and cross sectional study was used to gather other data at the same time. There are two phase were include in this research. First phase is where all the studies were referring to past researcher to get introduction and definition about the studies. In this phase, researcher was come out with three independent variables to examine the relationship with customer satisfaction. The second phase is to distribute structured questionnaire to the target respondent. PHASE 1 – preliminery data gathering from past researcher.
PHASE 2 – data collection and analyzed (quantitative) 19 3. 3 UNIT ANALYSIS This study was conducted at KidZania Kuala Lumpur which is located at Mutiara Damansara. KidZania is rooted in an inspirational story of idealistic kids that formed a like-minded community, which led to the creation of a nation, their own government and nationalistic symbols to celebrate their unity. It also led to the development of iconic citizens considered honorary KidZanian who embody the spirit and will fullness of the community and act as representatives to their ideals in disposition, outlook and principles.
Everything is surreal at KidZania. Where children can lead independent lives and understand the world of grown up better, by being grown-ups themselves. Real-life stimulation is presented to the children so that they will experience the challenges of the position, just as those faced by the adults in the job. Children can expect to be putting out a fire should they wish to be a fireman, perform surgery on a patient if they desire to be a surgeon or pilot an airplane if flying is what they want.
Creating an interior design piece or even hosting a television or radio program is possible too; as mentioned, almost possible occupation thought of is available for roleplaying at KidZania. KidZania was not set up with the intention of gearing and grooming children to be doctors, lawyers and engineers as their parents would want them to be. Instead, KidZania places its main focus on creating a fun playground with sufficient freedom for the children to develop their abilities so that they will have more insights on his/her preference and interest.
It is certainly wonderful to expose the children to available opportunities after all, it is at this young age that perceptions and interests are formed. The children? s growth and development are stimulated too through the instilling of confidence and promotion of creativity and innovation. This study was focus on the parent level of analysis. In this case, the relevant was the customer who queuing to receive the service at the ticketing counter and activities. 20 Research into the impact of waiting time on consumers highlights both decreased satisfaction (e. . Chang & Yang, 2008; Dawes& Rowley, 1996; Taylor, 1994) and emotional effects Carmon, Shanthi kumar, & Carmon, 1995; Hirsh, Bilger, &Deatherage, 1956;Maister, 1985); and the range of techniques employed to minimize the impact of waiting time. Theoretically underpinned queuing research is relatively scarce, previous studies focusing on single level; lengthy queues have used social justice (Larson, 1987) KidZania is the first theme park for children, so a lot problem in theme park for example at queue, waiting area and service provided .
It? s to find a weakness and help to improve the operation about queue management in KidZania and also to increase the system to the customer satisfaction come to KidZania. The organization to adopt and practice a high system in their operation and more willing to offer the best quality of service. Customer satisfaction in hospitality must improve the operation system to deliver the best quality of services to the customers. 3. 4 POPULATION AND SAMPLE SIZE Population and sample size at KidZania to get information about customer profiles.
Majority people came to KidZania is a local people and just a little from foreigner. In this research, to identify the parent in KidZania starting observation and find the parent is free time, after that intro you and give explain about the research. At KidZania, children from the age of 4 to 17 will spend their time wisely in an indoor entertainment and educational frame park which caters to the ever curious minds of children, so if saw the adult like relax in KidZania of course a parent waiting the children. The questionnaires give to the parent in Kidzania to collect the information.
Mostly parent bring children is local people, Malay is the higher come to KidZania follow a Chinese a second higher in KiDzania and just a little Indian bring they children. In addition, school also do the activity to the primary student and at the same time the teachers try to give knowledge to the student. From the research, parents bring the children to KidZania because sometime the parents want to spend time with the children or to do some activity with friend for example discussion, shopping or anything else. 21 Not all parents but some guardians because some parent very busy and not have time for the children.
So, guardian? s responsibilities to take care the children in Kidzania. That out of 50 questionnaires from this total, 24 respondents were male and 26 respondents were female random selected in KidZania to get the information about customer profiles. Dimension of the respondents? profile based on each independent variable by using a survey such as gender, occupation, age and times of visited. In brief all the information on respondent? s profile, they were asked to answer questions just in a few minutes only. 3. 5 DATA COLLECTION METHOD This study used structure questionnaires for the quantitative data collection method.
Permissions were requested from each participating parent in KidZania. The respondent was asked to indicate their perception on the organization and their level of acceptance. Only one day, its take 2 shift (9am to 3pm and 4pm to 10pm) to contribute the researcher collected the completed questionnaire from each participating parent. 3. 6 INSTRUMENT In planning the research instrument, consideration was initially given to three related issues. Considering the difference the different in customers profiles and experience levels, the questionnaires to be simple and easy to understand with reading and writing.
Questions were therefore composed as understandable as possible with simple language to reduce any possible uncertainly. The use of English versions is appropriate languages are widely but some respondents have poor understanding of either language. Since this study is quantitative in nature, there is a need to develop the questionnaire in order to get a better result. The questionnaires were divided into 3 sections which are demographic data (A), into section (B) have 4 part service time, waiting time, waiting attributes, and customer satisfaction. Last part of section(C) is subjective or open ended. 22 3. 6. SECTION A Section (A) has been designed by using a nominal scale. In this section, we focus on the respondent? s demographic profile. The question was come up the area of gender, occupation, age and times of visited. 3. 6. 2 SECTION B Section (B) was come up of four parts such as service time, waiting time, waiting attribute and customer satisfaction. All this part was using a six type like scale from (1) “Strongly Agree” to (6) “Strongly Disagree”. In this section, it? s come up with a question about the time management, the facilities that provided and also the satisfaction of customer at KidZania Kuala Lumpur. . 6. 3 SECTION C Section (C) has been designed in order to identify weather service time, waiting time and waiting attribute are influence with customer satisfaction or not. This item is required respondent to indicate their respond to the following question with open ended question. 23 Table 3. 0: measure of the study Variable Study variable No. of item Types of Scale A six-point likert- scale from “Strongly Agree” (1) to Strongly Disagree (6) A six-point likert- scale from “Strongly Agree” (1) to Strongly Disagree (6) Service Time 4 Waiting Time 4 Waiting Attribute 5
A six-point likert- scale from “Strongly Agree” (1) to Strongly Disagree (6) A six-point likert- scale from “Strongly Agree” (1) to Strongly Disagree (6) Customer Satisfaction 4 Subjective Question 4 Open ended question Item reliability statistic in section B Reliability Statistics Cronbach’s Alpha Cronbach’s N of Items Alpha Based on Standardized Items . 558 17 .544 According to Shou Qin Wang (2005), the Cronbach? s Alpha value for reliability is accepted in a range of 0. 6-0. 7. Furthermore, according to Chandon, Pierre- Yves and Philippe (1996) argue that when measuring attitude, an alpha score of 0. 0 and above is usually acceptable. However, according Mohsen Tavakol, RegDennick (2011) there is different about acceptable value of alpha, ranging from 0. 70 to 0. 95 was acceptable. 24 In section B, there were divide to 4 parts. There was service time, Waiting time, Waiting attribute and Customer satisfaction. Section (B) get are reliability value and the answer is 0. 544 and given that the Cronbach? s Alpha score is acceptable, the questionnaire was considered suitable for research instrument. That the total at section (B) accepts in cronbach? s alpha and this can use. . 7 PLANS FOR DATA ANALYSIS This study is using quantitative analysis. The quantitative analysis provides information on the independent variable and the implication on dependent variable. To analyze the data, internal consistency of the scale use was assessed using Cronbach? s Alpha, as the most common accepted and used measure of reliability. The research design and correlation approach was used in the study, regression analysis were used to test the hypothesis to testing the positive or negative relationship between independent variable and dependent variable.
To view the result viewed and value of R square supported by beta score, and significant value. Furthermore, for looking significant relationship it much look the significant value whether is below or more then 0. 05. if significant value show the result below then 0. 05 it significant relationship and it? s the result more than 0. 05 no significant relationship. 25 CHAPTER 4 RESULT AND FINDINGS 4. 1 INTRODUCTION This chapter explains the result obtained through the data collection process. It begins by reporting on the respondent? s demographic profile and follows by sequence of analysis related to the objective of the study.
Response rate, respondent profile, analysis procedure, analysis of independent variable towards customer satisfaction, result hypothesis testing and summary of hypothesis testing are discussed in this chapter. 4. 2 RESPONSE RATE In this study, a total of 50 questionnaires were distributed to respondents, specifically to parents at KidZania. They were asked to answer questions in a few minutes. All 50 questionnaires were received and analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) system. Thus, the response rate is 100%. 4. 3 RESPONDENT’S PROFILE In this section, its discuss about the overall dimension of the respondents? rofile based on each independent variable by using a survey such as gender, occupation, age and times of visited segment. In brief, all the information on respondent? s profile is shown in tables 4. 0. 26 Table 4. 0 The number and percentage (%) of the overall Respondent Reported by Gender, Occupation, Age and Times of Visited VARIABLE ALL n Gender: Male Female Occupation: Student Self-employed Government Servant Private Servant Others Age: 25 years and below 26-35 years 36-40 years 41-55 years 56 years and above Times of Visited: First Times 2-5 Times 6-10 Times More than 10 Times 32 18 0 0 64. 36. 0 0 0 14 17 14 5 0 28. 0 34. 0 28. 0 10. 0 0 13 8 10 17 2 26. 0 16. 0 20. 0 34. 0 4. 0 24 26 48. 0 52. 0 % 27 Based on the data collected in gender segment, 50 questionnaires were distributed. From this total, (n=24, 48. 0%) respondents were male and (n=26, 52. 0%) respondents were female. In this, it showed that the gender of female was higher than male came to KidZania. The higher number of women visited KidZania consisted of female who we can assumed mothers, guardian or relatives came to accompany their children.
Other than that, the female may have a more time than male to spend their time with kids and certain female came were housewife and maid. Besides that, the occupation segment was divided to five items which were student, self-employed, government servant, private servant and others. In this segment, the highest number coming to KidZania was private servant (n=17, 34. 0 %).
The second highest is student (n=13, 26. 0%).
The third is a government servant (n=10, 20. 0%).
For the self-employed, it show number (n=8, 16. 0%) and the lowest number was others (n=2, 4. %) where this item included a housewife, maid and so on. The private servant group was highest mean score because this group have free time to bring their children to KidZania rather than others group and this also because of their working time is well scheduled by the department or ministry. As for the age group, the result showed that the age of 25 years and below was showed a total of number was same with age group of 36- 40 years. The number of both items score (n=14, 28. 0%).
For item age group 26-35 years shows (n=17, 34. 0%).
For age group41-55 years shows(n=5, 10. 0%).
For item 56 years and above showed a 0 number which means no respondent come to KidZania for this group. It can be assumed that age group 26-35 years old were the most group visited KidZania. As the survey conducted during school holiday, it can be assumed that they want to spend time with children during school holiday. Furthermore, this age group also recognised KidZania as edutainment recreation for their children. Furthermore, for frequency of visit, the highest value is first times visit where achieve score(n=32, 64. 0%).
The second highest is 2-5 times where is shows (n=18, 36. %).
whole 6-10 times visit and more than 10 times visit is no value of mean score. Perhaps it can be concluded that KidZania Kuala Lumpur edutainment park is a new theme park that open to kids about one year ago. Respondent have been know KidZania also provide more activity that can be learn by children and this important to their future. 28 4. 4 ANALYSIS PROCEDURE The analysis procedure is a process or step by step breakdown of the phases of a process that used to convey the inputs, outputs and operations that take place during each phase.
A process analyse can use to improve understanding of how the process operates and to determine potential targets for process improvement through time management and increasing the number of attendance in KidZania. The data collected from the respondents in KidZania, were processed by using SPSS in order to test the hypothesis in a relationship between service time, waiting time and waiting attributes with customer satisfaction whether it are positive or negative relationship. 4. ANALYSIS OF SERVICE TIME, WAITING TIME AND WAITING ATTRIBUTE TOWARDS CUSTOMER SATISFACTION The first objectives in this study as being mentioned in chapter 1 was to determine service time, waiting time and waiting attribute towards customer satisfaction. This section, will discuss on service time as presented below in table 4. 1 29 Table 4. 1 Service Time Mean score for the items on respondent’s Service Time No 1 item service time at KidZania is worth to go through A long time is spent at the ticketing counter the staffs efficiently are delivered service n 50 Mean (m) 2. 16 S. D 0. 38 2 50 2. 14 0. 729 3 50 2. 02 0. 714 4 KidZania management improve their service time need to 50 2. 02 0. 869 Strongly agree 1 agree 2 Average agree 3 Average disagree 4 disagree 5 Strongly disagree 6 The table 4. 1 shows the total of mean score and Standard Deviation (S. D) of the items on respondent? s acceptance toward service time when they were to KidZania. The mean and standard deviation was analysed because want to show the validity of objective whether there are achieved or not. In this table, the first item is about the respondent? s opinion at service time at KidZania.
This item scores was highest mean score where achieve (m=2. 16).
This can be assumed that respondents almost agreed where service time in KidZania is worth to go through. Furthermore, these values will change to average disagree if the service time in KidZania still not upgraded. The second highest is item number 2. This item is about the longest time they spent in queue in counter ticketing before they go inside. The mean achieved was (m=2. 14).
From this total, its show the respondents were agreed about the item had been asked where respondent need to spend their long time for gets a ticket. 0 In additional, the lower of mean score can be looked at items number 3 and 4 where both items have the same value of mean score but the value of S. D is different. The mean score show for both items is (m=2. 02).
The item number 3 discussed about the KidZania? s staff performance like knowledge about the task was given during delivered the activity to kids. For item number 4 also discussing about the management of KidZania. It can be concluded the respondent were agreed if management KidZania improving their service time and this maybe can apply especially during school holidays.
The respondent also satisfied with the staff performance during delivered a task. Based on item 1 and 2, while respondents visited at KidZania, they have to spend a long time to get a ticket at the ticketing counter and these shows in KidZania are worth to go through especially to the parents who have to queue to get a ticket. Besides that, when related to item 2 and 4, it can be assumed the KidZania management need improve the service time especially during school holidays to minimize problems in the long queue. The improvement of service time can be done at the ticketing counter. 1 Table 4. 2Waiting Time Mean score for the items on respondent’s Waiting Time no 1 Item The waiting time for the activity is acceptable The activities are run according in an acceptable time limit. The management of KidZania need to decrease the times lines for each activity The waiting time is well informed n 50 Mean (m) 2. 56 S. D 0. 884 2 50 2. 48 0. 735 3 50 2. 50 0. 995 4 50 2. 70 0. 839 Strongly agree 1 agree 2 Average agree 3 Average disagree 4 disagree 5 Strongly disagree 6 Table 4. 2 showed the total of mean score for respondent? s waiting time.
The waiting time encompasses four items. There have highest mean score in item number 4 which this item discussed about the time performance of waiting time especially to parents. The value was achieved is (m=2. 70) and this show a respondent agreed with a staff performance but this value will be changed to average agree if staff KidZania still not to inform them about the time duration of any activity. The second highest mean score is item number 1, which indicated (m=2. 56).
This item is about the acceptance of waiting time for the activity.
From the data, it can be concluded that respondents can accept the time for waiting before them to be served. For item number 3, it? s about the opinion of respondent whether KidZania management need to decrease or increase the time lines for each activity. 32 The mean achiever is (m=2. 50) and thus can be assumed that a respondent was agreed if KidZania management to decrease their time lines for avoid the crowding during activities in progress. The lowest mean score is item number 2 where the item is about acceptable time? s limitation of activities. The mean score achieved is (m=2. 8) and this result showed respondent were agreed with some activities running according in times limitation. As the children lined up to carry out activities, KidZania? s staff should be informed the child or parent of the time allotted for the each activity so from that, they can accept a waiting period if they wish to participate in that activity. Furthermore, KidZania management can also reduce the waiting time of each session some activity, particularly in peak session that limiting the activity period to shorten so that, other children can also run the activity without the long wait. 3 Table 4. 3 Waiting Attribute Mean score for the items on respondent’s Waiting Attribute no 1 Item Special areas for customer to waiting are provided if the waiting time is long. Customer feel bored while waiting to be served. KidZania management proper waiting area. providing a n 50 Mean (m) 2. 28 S. D 0. 904 2 50 2. 14 0. 783 3 50 2. 28 0. 882 4 Waiting area and amenities provided is sufficient. KidZania management should provided reading material or electronic display while waiting. 50 2. 32 0. 713 5 50 1. 84 0. 889 Strongly agree 1 agree 2 Average agree 3 Average disagree 4 disagree 5
Strongly disagree 6 The highest mean score of waiting attribute is item number 4 where it? s about the facilities and amenities that provide in KidZania. The mean achieved is (m=2. 32).
From this data, it can be assumed that the respondent was satisfied with the facilities provided KidZania especially waiting area, restroom, kiosk and others. For item number 1 and 3, both showed a mean score (m=2. 28) and both items are second highest. These items discussed about the special waiting area during their queue in long time such as need provide the reading material or media electronic during peak session.
The respondent also agreed if KidZania management need to provide a proper waiting area especially at the lobby or public area. 34 The item number 2 discussed about the feelings of respondent while waiting to be served. The mean score is (m=2. 14).
These showed respondents were satisfied with the service because they can accompany or give support their children during the activities are progress. During the peak session, the respondent must understand they need to wait in long time to join the activity. The lowest value is item number 5 where mean score is (m=1. 82).
The respondent strongly agrees if KidZania improve their service especially in the waiting area or queuing line such as provide the magazine or TV as this can occupied waiting time, such as customer will not feel bored. Based on that item, to reduce the problem of waiting too long, KidZania management should provide a more proper waiting area and waiting area more comfortable for the customer and the provision of this facility should be sufficient to accommodate the customer during the school holidays. In other hand, KidZania management also must to provide many more facilities to reduce kids feel bored while queuing to conduct Activity. 35
Table 4. 4 Mean score for the items on respondent’s customer Satisfaction no 1 Item I am satisfied with the service time, waiting attributes and waiting time in KidZania I am satisfied only with the service time in KidZania I am satisfied only with the waiting attributed I am satisfied only with waiting time at KidZania n 50 Mean (m) 2. 42 S. D 0. 609 2 50 2. 38 0. 667 3 50 2. 48 0. 677 4 50 2. 34 0. 798 Strongly agree 1 agree 2 Average agree 3 Average disagree 4 disagree 5 Strongly disagree 6 The table 4. 4showeda total of mean score for respondent? s customer satisfaction. The item number 3 gain the highest mean score where achieve (m=2. 8).
The item discussed about satisfaction of customer toward waiting attributed. This data can be concluded that the respondents only agreed with management in KidZania with providing the facilities to reduce the customer feel bored during their children play an activity. For second highest mean score is item number 1 and this item was discussed about satisfaction toward service time, waiting time and waiting attributes in KidZania. The mean score achieved is (m=2. 42) and this value showed respondents were agreed with time management in KidZania like the time duration of activities and time for queuing.
For item number 2, it showed a mean score is (m=2. 38) which indicated respondents were agreed about service time in KidZania with regards to staff performance when delivered a task is fast, time to spend at ticketing counter and others. 36 The lowest mean score is item number 4 where the item discusses about the satisfaction of waiting time. The mean score shows is (m=2. 34) and from this data, its can be assumed the respondent can accept the waiting time because the service that the staff at KidZania provide are fast. Moreover, most of the respondent perceives the ticket using online booking tickets. 4. RESULT OF HYPOTHESIS TESTING In order to justify a conclusion from the data gathered hypothesis testing needs to be done. Three of hypotheses developed in this study were tested by using a regression analysis. In addition, the value of R square, Beta Score and Coefficients were viewed. Regression data was analysed for testing a relationship whether positive or negative between service times, waiting time and waiting attributes and customer satisfaction. 4. 6. 1: H 1: There is a relationship between service time and customer satisfaction Model Summaryb Model R R Square Adjusted R Square -. 015 Std. Error of the Estimate 1. 95066 1 .079a 006 a. Predictors: (Constant), Total_S b. Dependent Variable: Total_DV Coefficientsa Model Unstandardized Coefficients B Std. Error Standardize T d Coefficients Beta 7. 874 -. 079 -. 547 . 000 . 000 Sig. 1 (Consta 10. 320 1. 311 nt) Total_S -. 084 . 154 a. Dependent Variable: Total_DV 37 The regression data were analysed for testing a relationship between the independent variable with dependent variable whether there are positive or negative. For the service time, there is a positive relationship between service times with customer satisfaction where the value of R square is 0. 6% but when related to beta score its show the value of -08. %. For the significant it shows0. 00, this value is significant because this value is below than 0. 05. In addition, from significant value, it showed a result that the respondent can accept a how long times they need to queue for each activity. 4. 6. 2: H 2: There is a relationship between waiting time and customer satisfaction. Model Summaryb Model R R Square Adjusted R Square . 017 Std. Error of the Estimate 1. 92048 1 .192a .037 a. Predictors: (Constant), Total_t b. Dependent Variable: Total_DV Coefficientsa Model Unstandardized Coefficients B (Constant) 7. 622 1 Total_t . 195 . 144 . 192 1. 352 . 00 Standardized Coefficients T Sig. Std. Error Beta 1. 502 5. 073 . 000 a. Dependent Variable: Total_DV 38 There is a positive relationship between waiting time with customer satisfaction where the value of R square is 3. 7%. This value can supported by beta score where it value is 19. 5%. The value of significant shows 0. 00. This value shows a result is significant relationship because this value is below than 0. 05. From this value, it can be assumed the respondent can accept the waiting time in KidZania such as the acceptable time limitation for each activity and respondent also need to make a queue before join the activity.
Furthermore, respondent also needs to wait in long time for getting some activities during public holiday or peak session because there have a lot of customers at that time. 4. 6. 3: H 3: There is a relationship between waiting attribute and customer satisfaction. Model Summaryb Model R R Square Adjusted R Square . 011 Std. Error of the Estimate 1. 92631 1 .176a .031 a. Predictors: (Constant), Total_a b. Dependent Variable: Total_DV Coefficientsa Model Unstandardized Standardized Coefficients Coefficients B Std. Error Beta t Sig. (Constant) 1 Total_a 7. 972 1. 361 . 152 . 123 . 176 . 856 1. 236 .000 . 000 a. Dependent Variable: Total_DV 39 There is a positive relationship between waiting attribute with customer satisfaction. The value of R square is 3. 1% but when related to beta score its show the value of 15. 2%. For the significant, it shows 0. 00and this is a significant relationship. most of respondents at KidZania agreed if KidZania improves their service in order to increase the customer satisfaction such as provide a lot of waiting area, reading material for parents and also put the media electronic during queuing to reduce the customers feel bored.
KidZania also must provide a proper waiting area in lobby or in the public area. 4. 7 SUMMARY OF HYPOTHESIS TESTING No +H1 Hypothesis There is a positive relationship between service time and customer satisfaction. +H2 There is a positive relationship between waiting time and customer satisfaction. +H3 There is a positive relationship between waiting attribute and customer satisfaction supported supported Result supported 40 Chapter 5 DISCUSSION, LIMITATION, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION 5. 1 INTRODUCTION This chapter will discuss the implication of the study toward customer satisfaction.
Furthermore, issues such as limitation, recommendations and conclusion of the study are stated in this chapter. 5. 2 DISCUSSION ON FIRST RESEARCH QUESTION 4) What is the relationship service time and customer satisfaction? The first research question was put forward in order to investigate the relationship between service time and customer satisfaction. Based on data recorded, there is a positive relationship between service time and customer satisfaction. As mentioned in the previous chapter, service time and customer satisfaction have long been recognized as playing a crucial role for success and survival in today? competitive market. Furthermore A survey conducted by Law et al (2004), indicated that service time, staff attitude and service quality significantly influence the customers? return frequency and affect customer satisfaction. According to the previous analysis in chapter four, most of customers not agree with “service time at KidZania is worth to go through”. In addition this item shows the highest mean score value (2. 16).
As noted by Mihaela (2010) one of the factors influencing consumers’ perception of service time is the efficiency of systems. It clearly show that customer expecting shorter time spent to receive the service.
Furthermore, “A long time is spent at the ticketing counter” is another element that influences customer satisfaction. In addition this item was the second highest mean which us the score value is (2. 14).
The data show was strong support the relationship of service time and customer satisfaction because there is decreasing of customer satisfaction when the service time is decreasing at the ticketing counter. 41 As mentioned by Wenhong Luo (2003) extended waiting has been cited as an important source of customer dissatisfaction in many service industries.
Anyway from the observation, this situation will only happen on the peak season or weekend. The observation also makes the researcher assume that the capacity of customer was exceeding the limit and reach the level of customer will start unsatisfied with the service time. “The staffs are delivered service efficiently” gains the third highest mean score on customer responsiveness toward customer satisfaction. It explains that the customer was satisfied with the staff efficiency even though from the observation show that the length of the queue line quite long.
The data and observation also help the researcher to conclude that the service staff which is located at the ticketing counter were highly efficient and well trained to handle the numerous number of customers even though of the peak period. The next factor that influences the relationship between service time and customer satisfaction is “KidZania management need to improve their service time”. As mentioned on previous chapter, the improving service time will increasing customer satisfaction. This support by Wenhong Luo (2003) studies, the amount of waiting time has been shown to negatively correlate with customer satisfaction.
Extended waiting has been cited as an important source of customer dissatisfaction in many service industries. Observation and the data analyse show that the major factor that contributed score for this factor is unsatisfied customer from the service time experience. Observation also collected some suggestion from the customer for the management to improve their service time even though the current time was quite satisfied. 42 5. 3 DISCUSSION ON SECOND RESEARCH QUESTION 5) What is the relationship between waiting attributes and customer satisfaction?
The second research question, there want to investigate the relationship between waiting attitudes and customer satisfaction. Based on the data were analyzed, there shows the positive relationship between waiting attributes and customer satisfaction As mentioned in the previous chapter the customer satisfaction is influenced by various factors in a service environment. According to Baker and Cameron (2013) advanced an integrative model that provided a comprehensive list of service environment variables that might affect customer satisfaction of waiting.
It was suggested that service environment variables could influence the perception of waiting attributes by either changing customer satisfaction perception of queue. According the data been analysed in chapter four, the item “special areas for customer to waiting are provided if the waiting time is long” was discussed about the special waiting area during they queue in long time and the respondent was agreed KidZania need to provide something that make a queuing was fun. There show a mean score (m=2. 28) and this item is second higher.
According Bitner (1992): categorizes component into three dimensions: ambient conditions, space and function, and signs, symbols, and artefacts. Ambient conditions include lighting, sound, music, scent, and temperature that usually affect the five senses while determining the environmental background. “Customer feel bored while waiting to be served” was achieve the mean score (m=2. 14) and this was third highest. This show a respondent was agreed and satisfied with the service and some of respondent not bored because they can give support their children during the activities is progress.
During the peak session, respondent must understand they need to waiting in long time to join the activity. According Caldwell and Hibbert, (2002): Studies have isolated specific waiting attributes factors to investigate their impact on customers? reactions including emotional responses and purchase 43 intentions/behaviours with some studies showing that positive ambient conditions improved customers? store evaluation, approach behaviour, and business results. Furthermore, another item that related with waiting attributes are “KidZania management providing a proper waiting area”.
The mean score was gains (m=28) and this value strongly supported the respondent was agreed if KidZania management need to provide more proper waiting area especially at the lobby or public area. According the Baker & Cameron (1996), the effects on customers of waiting criteria explored in tourism and service contexts. Lengthy, unexplained and indeterminate wait criteria can have significant negative outcomes for customers Maister, (1985).
Moreover, the highest value for waiting attribute is “waiting area and amenities provided is sufficient” where it? s about the facilities and amenities that provide in KidZania.
The mean was achieve is (m=2. 32).
This can be assumed the respondent was agreed and satisfied with providing the facilities and amenities during they go to KidZania especially about the waiting area, restroom, and kiosk and need to provide more facilities during peak session or weekend. This will supported the environmental reasons have important effects on customers? feelings, thinking, and reactions about a service conditions (Zeithaml and Bitner, 2000).
Besides that, the lowest value is “KidZania management should provided reading material or electronic display while waiting” where mean score gain (m=1. 2).
This can be assumed the respondent strongly agrees if KidZania improve their service especially at the waiting area or queuing line such as provide the magazine or TV to avoid a respondent feel bored during they queuing in peak day. Furthermore, the KidZania management also need to add something or any games that give respondent interested to come again specifically to customer come for first times. This assumption can be supported by Caldwell and Hibbert, (2002); Music is an example of the impact of an ambient condition on customer reactions that consumer research has examined frequently. 44 5. DISCUSSION ON THIRD RESEARCH QUESTION 6) What is the relationship of customer? s waiting time and customer satisfaction? The research question was put forward to investigate what is the waiting time. Based in the data recorded, there is a positive relationship between customer satisfactions. In previous chapter, most theme parks have these issues on ticketing area and activity in the theme park. According to Peter van Lith (2002) mentioned that waiting is the main activity of theme park visitors. Furthermore, “the waiting time for the activity is acceptable” is another element that influences customer satisfaction.
The score reach (m=2. 56).
This item is about the customer not agreed with the waiting time for the activity. From the data, this can conclude a respondent satisfaction level is decreasing while a waiting time before want to join the activity. As mentioned in addition this item was the second highest mean which is the score value is (2. 56).
The data show was strong support the relationship of waiting time and customer satisfaction because there is decreasing of customer satisfaction when the waiting time is decreasing at the game area. This issue arises because waiting time of game involve with high level of interaction with customers.
The next factor that influences the relationship between waiting time and customer satisfaction is waiting time for the activity in KidZania. As mentioned previous chapter improving waiting time will increasing customer satisfaction. The second research question focuses on “The activities are run according in an acceptable time limit” most of customers not agree. The analysis found the time limit towards the customer that is positive relationship between customer satisfactions. Service providers can increase capacity by employing more people and investing in more facilities to reduce aiting time but it still would not be economically feasible to completely eliminate waiting. 45 According to Robert F. (2008) Waiting time are ubiquitous in services, and service operations managers recognize the trade-offs that must take place between the cost of providing good service. Management want queues that are short enough so that customers do not become unhappy and either departs the system without receive the service or receive but never return. Furthermore, service operations with time limit is an element that influences customer satisfaction. In addition this item was the lower score mean which us the score value is (2. 8).
The lowest mean score is item number 2 where the item is about acceptable time? s limitation of activities. The mean score was achieve is (m=2. 48) and this result show a respondent was agreed with some activities running in times limitation. The data show was support the relationship of waiting time and customer satisfaction because there is decreasing of customer satisfaction when the waiting time at the game area. The third research question was developed to explain the relationship between customer satisfactions with time line for each activity. Through analysis, it is found that the relationship is positive.
However, most management system have traditionally been willing to allow some waiting if the waiting is balanced by a significant savings in capacity costs (Haksever et al. , 2000) Most research has shown that as waiting time increases, satisfaction decreases (Davis &Volmann, 1990).
For question number 3, it? s about the opinion of respondent whether KidZania “management need to decrease the times lines for each activity”. The mean was achieve is (m=2. 50) and this can be assumed that a respondent was agree if KidZania management to decrease their times lines for avoid the crowding during activities in progress. 6 In addition this item was the third highest mean which us the score value is (2. 50).
The data show was strong support the relationship of waiting time and customer satisfaction because there is decreasing of customer satisfaction when the waiting time need to decrease the times lines for each activity. That customers tend to overestimate waiting time (Smidts, 1998), and these recalled wait durations have an equal, if not greater, effect on satisfaction than objective waiting time (Katz et al. , 1991).
At a general level, as perceived or recalled wait duration increases the wait becomes less acceptable (Van Aalst, 2002).
“The waiting time is well informed” there have highest mean score in item number 4 which this item was discuss about the management performance to their customer especially to parent. The value was achieve is (m=2. 70) and this show a respondent agreed with a staff performance but this value will be change to average agree if staff still not to inform them about the time duration of some activity. In addition this item was the highest mean which us the score value is (2. 70).
get the information” Because of privacy regulations it has to be made clear that the information will only be used inside the park, but that its use may extend further than just deciding waiting times. The data show was strong support the relationship of waiting time and customer satisfaction. The analysis found is positive relationship between waiting time and informer, to respond with customer need and different performance work. at this stage, performance can be defined as behaviour and attitude by staff to produce an excellent outcome. It can be have knowledge and skill to make the operation under control. 7 5. 5 IMPLICATION OF THE STUDY The observation and data analyze help the researcher to conclude that most of the respondents which is the customer of KidZania was satisfied with service time, waiting time and waiting attribute at the establishment. Some of customer expresses their unsatisfied to the service time and waiting probably not expected the time consume because of their first visit. In the meantime, service time and waiting time are the factor that contributed to customer satisfaction toward establishment. Based on the conclusion gather, service time and waiting time need to give major ttention compare to waiting attribute which is more can be technically controlled by management. However, as mentioned previously there is a number of customers which is not satisfied with the service time and waiting time spent at the KidZania. The cause of this unsatisfied situation might be low understanding on queue nature and the customer are not well realize that is impossible to eliminate the whole queuing system. This paper has identified that when queuing systems become ineffective, the variables that apparently govern customer satisfaction and value can influence different queues in conflicting ways.
These variables, namely waiting time, service time and waiting attributes by customers in queue based on the information they have, this allows them to approximate the value they are realizing from the price paid for their ticket in relative terms. 48 5. 6 LIMITATION AND RECOMMENDATION FOR FUTURE STUDIES Due to the time constraint, this study strongly depends on the past researcher record, observation and data analyze by looking at the mean scores and standard deviation. The result from the process only gives only small outcomes without being strongly supported with inferential statistic such as multiple regressions.
Therefore, if there is long time given, the comparison of the variable of interest could be undertaken using many more complex statistical analyses hence more meaningful result would be obtain. Although the result highlighted the meaningful and significant finding, there still some limitation encountered during the research process. Researcher only manages to observe and gather data on particular day. So the data collect only focus on that day. In future, other study should be done on every day basis for example for the whole week.
The purpose of this future recommendation is to ensure the data collected is reliable In order to improve level of customer satisfaction in the future, the management needs to improve service time on certain service in the establishment like ticketing counter. There is certain technology like virtual ticketing system and online ticketing. By definition, their virtual queue waiting strategy recognizes that guests can be freed from physically standing in line. By being placed in a virtual queue, guests are then able to engage in other productive and enjoyable ctivities until their time to be served arrives. The new process eliminated both the actual wait, as well as the perception of having to wait for service. Furthermore, in order to reduce waiting time and service time, which can increase the rate of turnover related to the revenue of theme park as well as perceived waiting time and service time, future studies should examine methods reducing actual waiting time and service time in a theme park service setting. Scheduling, forecasting, and process design are frequently-used methodologies to reduce actual waiting time. 9 For future study, it would be interesting to collect and analyze the data of service time, waiting attributes and waiting time for each activity in KidZania and also to investigate whether the activity operator have existing initiatives to manage waiting time. In addition, researcher also plans to analyze the degree of closeness of the speed of service with the level of satisfaction of customers, and to find out what other factors influence those satisfaction levels. In addition, it will also be interesting to study customer expectations toward waiting time. 5. CONCLUSION Based on the study, researcher found that the most important factor considered by customers is waiting time, service time and waiting attributes. This is in line with the customer satisfaction under theme park. Waiting time is something that needs to be managed seriously, especially in theme park. Researcher highlighted several studies that stress the importance of managing customers? perceptions of waiting time and several ways how theme park management can do that. This study is a first step in investigating how theme park management deal with customers? expected waiting times.
Research analyzing the factors influencing the satisfaction levels of theme park and customers would help theme park management to do better serve their customers. Waiting attributes also play a key role in highlighting the operations effectiveness and hence the need of improving their characteristics. The management is those who decide if there will be any changes regarding the waiting attributes configuration. In general, in order to improve the operations within the waiting attributes, some research need to be developed to ensure the action taken is effective and give effect on customer satisfaction.
Further research can also be conducted into developing a simulation model of theme park operations and also to investigate waiting times in other type theme park like outdoor and water. 50 REFERENCE AzmatNafees (2007), Queue and Fairness: A Multiple study Experimental Investigation. P. g: 2-40 Adan, (2000): analysis of the sales checkout operation in ICA supermarket. Baker & Cameron (1996), Brady (2002), Maister (1985): Priority Queue: where social justice and equity collide, volume Tourism management 33, p. g: 876-884. Byan and Valverde (2003): perception of waiting time in different service queue.
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P. g:1 -16 Zeithaml and Bitner (2000): Desired privacy and the impact of crowding on customer emotions and approach-avoidance responses: waiting in a virtual reality restaurant. Volume: 24, p. g: 225. 226 Ziv Carmon and daneilkahneman (1995), the experience utility of queuing: real time effect and Retrospective evaluation of stimulate queue. 53 APPENDIX FACULTY OF HOTEL AND TOURISM MANAGEMENT UNITAR INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY QUEUE MANAGEMENT IN KIDZANIA KUALA LUMPUR Dear Respondents, This project seeks to assess the queue management system in KIDZANIA Kuala Lumpur.
The respondents to this questionnaire are anonymous and no individual respondent will be identified. You are invited and randomize selected to contribute to this study. There is no right or wrong answers. I simply need to know your opinions of the queue management system towards in KIDZANIA Kuala Lumpur. Thank you for your helps with this research 54 QUEUE MANAGEMENT THE QUENSTIONNAIRE ABOUT THE QUE MANAGEMENT IN KIDZANIA 1) Gender ? Male 2) Occupation ? Student ? Businessman ? Government servant ? Private servant ? Others 3) Age ? 25 years and below ? 26- 35 years ? 36-45 years ? 46- 55 years ? 6 years and above 4) Nationality ? Local ? International 5) This is your coming in KIDZANIA? ?Yes ? No ? Female 55 By using the following scales, please enter the value that best represents your degree of satisfaction on the service provided. Strongly agree 1 agree Average agree 3 Average disagree 4 disagree Strongly disagree 6 2 5 A. Overall service in KIDZANIA No. 1 2 Items Do you know about KIDZANIA indoor theme park? Do you feel the KIDZANIA? S activity will help your children in the future? Do you feel of security element in KIDZANIA are guaranteed for your children while he was there?
Are you satisfied with the facilities in KIDZANIA? Do you will always be bringing your child to KIDZANIA? evaluation 3 4 5 B. Queue system no 1 2 3 4 5 Items Are you feeling this KIDZANIA registration fee reasonable? Timeliness of activities runs by the limit set? Do you feel a queue line? s spaces are safety for your children? Waiting time at reception area? Queue system in KIDZANIA difficulty for you? evaluation 56 C. CUSTOMER ATTITUEDS No 1 2 Items Do you think the queue system at KIDZANIA is systematic? Your sense of time waiting to join the activities in accordance with the activities on offer?
How many times do you usually go to KIDZANIA? What type of activities do you prefer in the KIDZANIA? How much do you spend time in KIDZANIA every month? Evaluation 3 4 5 D. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION No 1 Items Do you think all the activities in KIDZANIA were carried out according to the suitability of your child’s age limit? Do you satisfaction about the surrounding queue area in KIDZANIA? Do you feel the staff at KIDZANIA have a deep knowledge of the activities undertaken? The time period of some activities are punctual? Overall satisfaction while visiting in KIDZANIA? Evaluation 2 3 4 5 57