Research Proposal/Pilot Study: What Is The Effect Of Storytelling On ESL Kindergarteners’ Comprehension And Vocabulary? Introduction Problem Statement The purpose of the present study was to find out whether storytelling has effect on ESL Kindergarteners’ comprehension and vocabulary. In order to find answer to the problem statement, the study was to determine whether the ESL Kindergarteners, who are told stories by storyteller, are able to remember information to the same extent as ESL Kindergarteners who are read similar stories from picture books. The second sub-problem was to define whether ESL Kindergarteners who are told stories by storyteller are able to understand the structure of the story better that ESL Kindergarteners who are read the same stories. Finally, the study was to determine whether ESL Kindergarteners who are told stories by storyteller are able to perceive the content and overall meaning of the story in a different way compared to ESL Kindergarteners who are read the same stories. Hypotheses The hypothesis was advanced that a group of ESL Kindergarteners who were told stories by a storyteller able to remember more compared to the group of ESL Kindergarteners who were read similar stories. It was also hypothesized that a group of ESL Kindergarteners who were told stories by a storyteller use significantly more elements of formal story when they retold it, compared to the group of ESL Kindergarteners who were read the same stories.
... ? Are you reminded of any other stories you have read or seen on film or television? 3 ... . Reconstruct the time and place of the story. Although there are questions about the timeline ... the action, nor escape the contrasting vision each story creates concerning human nature. (hint: use the ... . At what points did you notice any foreshadowing of the ending? Did the story ...
Finally, it was also hypothesized that a group of ESL Kindergarteners who were told stories by a storyteller have tendency to interpret the content of the story in a different way compared to the group of ESL Kindergarteners who were read the same stories. Delimitations of the Study All data collected in the present study has been taken from ESL Kindergarteners living in New York City or in New York City surroundings. Therefore, the findings and results that were obtained in the present study may not be applicable to the populations in other world regions that may differ considerably due to their social, economic, or cultural peculiarities, or in terms of their population and culture distribution. It should be taken into consideration that the present study has examined the effects of storytelling of a relatively small representative group of storytellers on the process of ESL Kindergarteners learning. It may be possible that using different storytellers (with different cultural, socioeconomic, etc. background) may have somewhat different impact on ESL Kindergarteners comprehension and vocabulary due to possible differences in storytelling. In addition, it should be taken into account that the present study was conducted in ESL kindergarten environment, and, therefore, was limited to the effects of storytelling and story reading in ESL kindergartens alone. Finally, the present study monitored the progress of ESL Kindergarteners comprehension and vocabulary for only eight weeks, and it should be taken into consideration that more extensive period of monitoring may lead to somewhat different results of the effect of storytelling on ESL Kindergarteners’ comprehension and vocabulary.
Term Definition Storytelling: Storytelling is the skilled delivery of stories, the oral presentation from memory. Storytelling is done by the individual (storyteller) to a person or group of persons. In terms of the present study, storytelling is being referred to as the presentation of a story with no presence of picture book (from memory) by a storyteller with the use of sound effects, movements, and other oral elements of the presentation of a story to the ESL Kindergarteners. Story Reading: Story reading is referred to as the skilled delivery of stories (oral presentation) by the individual (storyteller) to a person or group of persons from the text of the picture book. In the terms of present study, the ESL Kindergarteners have the possibility both to listen to the verbal presentation of the story and to have visual access to the pictures printed in the book during the process of reading. Assumptions Under the present study, it is possible to make an assumption that although the storytellers chosen to participate in the pilot study, are different (as well as they also have different styles of presenting stories), the effects of their storytelling are at least to a lesser or greater extent consistent from storyteller to a storyteller.
... that demonstrate proper social behaviors and etiquette will also benefit kindergarteners. For example, how to stay quiet and listen ... and social behaviors are just as important. For example, kindergarteners may not realize what they say sometimes and although ... the same development in all three areas. Physically, a kindergartener has two distinct developmental characteristics. #1 is the individual ...
The same assumption is applicable to the story readers. The Importance of the Study The present study will be evidently important for further research in the effects of storytelling on ESL students in general and ESL Kindergarteners in particular. What concerns story reading, it is often recommended as an effective learning method in educational literature (Kaderavek & Justice, 2002; Snow 1983).
Storytelling was not so popular, however, recently it has been supposed that storytelling is quite an effective tool able to influence students comprehension and vocabulary (Sobol, 1999).
Storytelling is now often considered as an effective learning method that combines the elements of entertainment and positive impact on children’s education (Alna, 1999; Hamilton & Weiss, 1993; Mallan, 1997).
Storytelling appears to be an educational tool as the teachers believe that students will enhance their academic performance. However, there are some claims that classroom storytelling is not very effective (Farrell and Nissel, 1982).
Taking into consideration all the assumptions, the study will be useful for teachers and educators as it may present a completely new look at the problem of using this new educational tool. The study may, probably, help the proponents of the storytelling in classrooms to have better understanding of storytelling and its effect on students, especially what concerns the use of storytelling in ESL education. Literature Review Although the vast majority of researchers accept the educational value of story reading on students, the educational value of storytelling is often underestimated. There is an assumption that reading aloud to children is beneficial, as children become excited about learning to read these books for themselves. According to Morrow (2006, p.56), several experimental studies that have sought out the effects of storybook reading as an everyday classroom routine on child development found that children in the treatment groups produce higher scores in the areas of vocabulary, story comprehension, and decoding that do the children in the groups who are not read to. Snow (1983, p.131) also confirms that story reading is believed to be the most studied format for language learning, as story reading allows children to develop their comprehension skills in a better and more efficient way compared to traditional educational methods. In such a way, Snow (1983, p.131) considers that story reading in the classrooms is able to enhance the development of skills in children that are related to both language and literacy simultaneously.
... what great accomplishments a small unit can do to help children with reading. A lone resource teacher brilliantly set up a program ... can play an important role by supporting the children and boosting their interest in reading. A sustainable amount of financial help will ... seen with the children’s literacy. The good readers have also shared their own techniques and styles in reading. The schools engaging ...
At the same time, Kaderavek and Justice (2002) place an emphasis on the fact that speech-language pathologists and clinical scientists are increasingly advocating the use of shared storybook reading as an intervention context. In such a way, it is possible to come to the assumption that the benefits of storytelling are somewhat similar to the benefits of story reading. Therefore, it is possible to advance the hypothesis that, similar to story reading, storytelling may have positive impact on ESL Kindergarteners’ comprehension and vocabulary. In addition, what concerns storytelling, the picture is not clear. On the one hand, the researchers advance the hypothesis that children obviously may derive benefit from listening to storytellers in classrooms (Alna, 1999; Erickson; 1995; Genisio & Soundy, 1994; Meyer, 1995).
Some of them claim that storytelling positively influence children’s comprehension and academic performance (Isbell, Sobol, Lindauer, & Lawrence, 2004).
At the same time, Kim (1999) considers that storytelling today is increasingly recognized as having important theoretical and practical implications.
Ellis (1997) also adheres to this opinion and claims that storytelling is the embodiment of whole language pedagogy” as it provides a perfect opportunity for cooperative learning and building social skills. Isbell, Sobol, Lindauer, & Lawrence (2004) also support this opinion as them consider storytelling may help preschool aged children produce positive gains in oral language. In addition, Alna (1999) considers that childrens listening to storytelling in classrooms evidently requires considerably more imagination from children than listening to a story read from a picture book, because, as the pictures are absent, the children are encouraged to create their own images of the story told by the storyteller. Alna (1999) also claims that storytelling tends to promote the engagement of childrens imagination, as well as active involvement of the children listening to the story told by storyteller as active partners in the creation of the experience of the presented story. Cliatt and Shaw (1988, p. 293) also claim that the relationship of storytelling to childrens language development is well established. Storytelling is also found being useful, as by using storytelling in the classroom, teachers can fulfill many requirements at once (Ellis, 1997).
... language with the help of observation, analysis and comparison. Still, they do not benefit from this process of reflection as children ... in English b) develop a positive attitude to English language learning c) develop a positive attitude to culture d) raise ... grammatical categories are taught through dialogues, drills, model sentences stories, fill-in-gaps, role-plays and games. However, both ...
Colon-Vila (1997) asserts that storytelling allows students to develop accurate inflections, consistent expressions in the English language and facial and body expressions. Hamilton and Weiss (1993) also adhere to the opinion that storytelling may be used in classrooms to help children to develop confidence, poise, and a love of language. In such a way, literature review confirms the benefits of storytelling, and support the opinion that storytelling may have positive impact on children and their development. Therefore, it is important to examine and gain additional support to the assumption that storytelling has positive impact on childrens development in general and may have positive impact on ESL Kindergarteners’ comprehension and vocabulary in particular. Methodology and Analysis Study Population In autumn 2007 the information was collected from the participants recruited in New York City. Sixty kindergarten children were enrolled in the present study (thirty boys and thirty girls, correspondingly).
... Impact of a Two-Year School Breakfast Program for Preschool-Aged Children on Their Nutrient Intake and Pre-Academic Performance. Child Study Journal ... was available. The parents of the first randomly assigned group were asked to maintain breakfast log to keep a ... health of children while aiding in physical growth and development. This test showed that a nutritional breakfast showed positive effects ...
The participants of the study were randomly assigned to either the storytelling group or story reading group (15 boys and 15 girls in each group, correspondingly).
Selection of the Story The stories that were used in the present study were selected and evaluated according to the following criteria: the picture storybooks were supposed to be interesting to children of ….