There are some methods that can be used to identify the leaning style, one of them is fingerprint test. Fingerprint test is a techniques used to analyze someone’s multiple intelligence, learning style and personality (Ayu, 2007).
Regarding to the importance of learning style, this study tries to find out students’ perception when they have to be seated in the classroom which consist of people who have same learning style like them. b. Research question This study will investigate the following questions: 1. What are students’ perceptions on separating classes based on their learning style? . What are students’ problems when they have to be in the same class with people who have same learning style like them? c. Purpose of the research Based on the questions formulated above, the aims of the study are: 1. To investigate students’ perceptions on separating classes based on their learning style. 2. To find out students’ problems dealing with portfolio assessment in TEYL subject. d. Clarification of terms i. Perception Perception is the process of attaining awareness or understanding of sensory information.
According to Oxford Learner’s Pocket Dictionary (1995), perception is the way of seeing or understanding something. It means that perception is the process of obtaining knowledge through our sense (eyes, nose, ears, skin and tongue).
ii. Students’ perception Students’ perception is the way of students seeing and understanding the application of separating classes based on their learning styles. It is a process in which the students interpret what they have perceived and understood related to the application of separating classes based on students’ learning styles by answering the questionnaires and the interview questions. ii. Learning Styles Learning styles are leaners’ preferences in learning. The learners prefer intuitively some forms of information and a specific way of action over others when reaching quality learning. Some people like to read the materials and can be more easily to absorb the information through reading while others want to listen and more focus if they learn something through listening and there are people like to do the learning process by practice. e. The scope of the study This study focus on students’ perception on separating classes based on their learning style.
The Effects Of Classroom Expectancy On Student The Effects Of Classroom Expectancy On Student Achievement Running head: CLASSROOM EXPECTANCY AND ACADEMIC SUCCESS The Effects of Classroom Expectancy on Student Achievement Aaron D. Anderson Cumberland College The Effects of Classroom Expectancy on Student Achievement Introduction The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to investigate how ...
This study was conducted in one of education course in Bandung by selecting three classes (audio, visual and kinesthetic) consist of 24 students as the sample. f. Significant of the study This research is expected to give the information for other educators who would like to separate the classroom based on students’ learning style. This research is also dedicated for other researchers who are interested in learning style to conduct further research on the issue in this field of study.
Finally this research, hopefully, can offer new knowledge in effectiveness method to cover all students’ learning style in teaching learning process. Applying new method is good but sometimes we need to know about their perception of the method we used to them. If the method doesn’t get good comment, there must still other methods to be applied 2. Literature Review a. Perception Perception is the process of attaining awareness or understanding of sensory information. According to Oxford Learner’s Pocket Dictionary (1995), perception is the way of seeing or understanding something.
It means that perception is the process of obtaining knowledge through our sense. There are several definitions of perception. Perception according to Cherry (2012) is our sensory experience of the world around us and involves both the recognition of environmental stimuli and actions in response to these stimuli. Perception not only creates our experience of the world around us; it allows us to act within our environment. Perception includes the five senses; touch, sight, taste smell and taste.
The A-TeamUnderstand the current competencies of individuals and teams Describe the methods of conducting individual and team competence reviews Team Review Methods •Formal bi-annual performance appraisals- these take place within the company on a bi-annual basis, objectives are set against corporate aims and then reviewed within the appraisal process. •Action plans- these are set as a way to meet ...
In line with Cherry, Gregory (1970) in McLeod (2007) stated that perception is inferences about what we see and then try to make any guest of it. Prior knowledge and past experience are crucial in perception because people unable to understand new information, without the inherent bias of their previous knowledge. In making perception, sensory receptors receive information from the environment which is combined with previous stored experience. In his research, Forgus (1966) cited in Resmiati (2007) compares perception with learning and thinking.
He argued that learning is a process by which information is acquired through experience. “The process of thinking (resulting from previous learning) modifies the organism, because the new learning occurs; thus the perception of stimuli is modified” (Forgus, 1966: 4) The process of perception is usually based on the previous knowledge human has and from what humans see. When people see something, they will connect and related the things to something they have already known because humans are unable to understand new information, without the inherent bias of their previous knowledge.
Based on the information above, it can be said that someone’s or groups’ perception can be different from the others’ even in the same situation. This principle showed when teacher teach the same material in two or more classes and use the same method in teaching and learning process, the perception could be different from one class to other classes. This different perception caused by the individual, personality, behavior or motivation and the stimulus students get to be interpreted into perception. Therefore, there are two main elements of perception; individual and stimulus.
Individual is a person who has a certain perception on something while stimulus is something that causes a person makes a perception on certain things. Accordance to this study, the individual refers to year 12 students in one of education courses in Bandung. They were given questionnaire asking about their perception and their understanding on separating classes based on their learning styles. The stimulus refers to new method applying in that course by separating students based on their learning style. The separation was done after whole students had taken fingerprint test. . Learning Style Learning styles are learners’ preferences in learning. There are many models of learning styles, for example VAK learning style, Kolb’s learning style and Felder-Silverman learning style model The Visual-Auditory-Kinesthetic (VAK) model is one of the simplest and is based on observation channels vision, hearing and feeling, while Kolb’s learning style and Felder-Silverman learning style take into account more a complex aspect in learning. Almost every learning style model has its own assessment tool in the form of a questionnaire. . Research Methodology a. Research Method The method used in this study is qualitative study. Qualitative studies are those in which the description of observation is not ordinarily expressed in quantitative terms (Best, 1950: 156).
Going into my second year of online classes I can truly relate to the other students my age taking online courses. Right now 450,000 students in the United States have abandoned traditional public schools for an online education (Pellissier). Many people say that taking an online class presents the risk of procrastination for young students, but I believe there is a lot of good that comes out of ...
It means that in qualitative study description is emphasized. Therefore, this research used a descriptive method in describes the finding of the data. According to Nazir (2003:54), descriptive method is a method that analyze the status of a group, an object, a set of condition, or the event that happen in the present.
The purpose of descriptive method is to describe current situation. In other words, it can say descriptive method is applied to determine the existence of phenomenon by describing them explicitly. Descriptive method deals with non-manipulated variables in a natural rather than artificial setting since the events/conditions have already occurred or exist. b. Population and sample Population is the whole subject that will be investigated in a study. The population of this study is the whole students in one of education courses in Bandung.
They are chosen because the aim of this study is to investigate the students’ perception related to the separating classes based on students’ learning style and this course is applying this method in its course now. The sample of the study is students in Monday – Thursday class in three classes; visual, auditory and kinesthetic. Total number of three classes is 30 but when the questionnaire was circulated, there were only total 24 students in three classes, which became as the sample. To decide which student belongs to which class, students are compulsory to do fingerprint test.
Reading this article was as painful as getting teeth pulled. The article was a professor's review of a class he instructed at the University of Chicago on strategic planning. The class was not conducted in a typical class format, but instead had students actively involved in groups that gathered data, analyzed, critiqued, and prepared strategic plans for area businesses who volunteered their ...
Fingerprint test is a technique that is used to analyze someone’s multiple intelligence, learning style and someone’s personality. Fingerprint test also useful to decide education field (Ayu, 2007).
After knowing their learning style, students are classified into visual, auditory or kinesthetic class. The teachers then match their teaching style with students’ learning style. For example, in visual class, teacher tends to use picture or use different marker when they explain the lesson.
In auditory class, teacher more concern on the different intonation while they speak and in kinesthetic class, teacher makes students get involve in learning process by asking them to go to the front to finish the question, ask them to write the example of a sentence in the white board or even playing games. This study use purposive sampling in collecting the data. Purposive sampling is decided by the researcher that appropriate with the purpose of the research (Alwasilah, 2002: 194).
The reasons that classes were chosen as the sample because of the easiness to distribute the questionnaire, to do the interview and to collect the data c.
Data collection Collecting the data is a systematical and standard procedure to gain the information that is needed (Nazir, 2003).
There is always a relationship between the methods in collecting the data with the research problems that wants to be solved. It can be concluded that problem gives direction and affect to the method of collecting the data. There are two ways in collecting the data in this study; there are questionnaire and interview. Questionnaire is used to collect the data and interview is used to find more information which is not described clearly in the questionnaire.
Questionnaire is a short of statements written in a paper and delivered to the respondent to get their opinion about the problem that is researched by the researcher. The advantage in using questionnaire in the research is the respondent free to express their feeling without any pressure from anyone (Alwasilah, 2003: 152).
The questionnaire in this study is designed as one of the instruments to reveal students’ perception and it was divided into two forms. Form A is consisted of twenty statements with five optional answers: Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Uncertain (UC), Disagree (DA), and Strongly Disagree (SDA).
16 Personality Factors and College Students The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) is an objective test of 16 multidimensional personality attributes arranged in omnibus form. In general, it provides normed references to each of these attributes (the primary scales). Conceptualized and initially developed by Raymond B. Cattell in 1949 as a broad, multipurpose measure of the source ...
This form is arranged with the scale of attitude because attitude scale is used when opinions rather than facts are desired. The technique in giving score towards students’ responses is using Likert Scale and each statement in the questionnaire consists of values from 1 to 5. Based on the Likert scale, each statement in the questionnaire consists of values from 1 – 5 which 5 is the most positive one. Table 1 The Scoring System of the questionnaire Statements| Strongly Agree (SA)| Agree (A)| Uncertain (U)| Disagree (DA)| Strongly Disagree (SDA)| Positive| 5| 4| 3| 2| 1|
Before constructing the statements for the questionnaire, the framework had been made and the categories were based on the Sperling’s theory (1982), which consists of students’ personal feelings, attitude, drive and goals, the sensory nature of the stimulus, the background or the setting of the stimulus and students’ learning experience. Form B of the questionnaire is an open-questionnaire. It is a type of questionnaire calls for a free response in the respondent’s own words (Best, 1950: 169).
This form is consisted of four questions. The data gathered is used to support the data in form A. he distribution of the questionnaire was held on 18th November, 2012. Nazir (2003) stated interview as a process in collecting information to achieve the research purpose by doing a conversation between the interviewer and interviewee face to face. It means that interview is a process of conversation in form of asking and answering question between two people face to face. Interview is used to find additional information that miss in questionnaire, to check the accuracy of the questionnaire, and to identify more the interviewee reason why they had positive or negative perception on separating classes based on their learning style.
There are ten students who were involved in interview session. The process of interview was audio-taped and transcribed. It used Indonesia language for better understanding. d. Data analysis The data gained were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Quantitative research talks about quantity and some data of analysis were presented in the forms of percentages. The quantitative data were obtained from the closed-questionnaire. The open-questionnaire and the interview were analyzed using qualitative method. Qualitative method explains the data investigated and the analysis is mostly presented interpretatively. . Quantitative Data In quantitative data, the questionnaire that has been made must do the validity and reliability test. Validity and reliability are important in research because if both of them do not recognize, it will be fatal in giving the conclusion or giving reasons of the relationship between the variable (Nazir, 2003).
Using questionnaire survey on accounting and engineering undergraduate students, this study examines whether course selection and course experience could influence their learning style preference. Four types of learning style identified in Kolb’s model: converger, diverger, assimilator, accommodator were examined. The results show that courses enrolled by students could influence their learning ...
Validity refers to the adequacy and appropriateness of the interpretations made from assessment, with regard to a particular use (Linn and Gronlund, 1995: 147).
Therefore, validity is concerned with the specific use of assessment results and the soundness of the interpretation of those results.
Reliability refers to the consistency of assessment results (Linn and Gronlund, 1995).
Reliability is needed to obtain valid result, thus statement that reliable does not mean valid, but statement that valid must be reliable. To obtain the data for validity and reliability testing, the questionnaire was conducted to the population but not the sample to find out the result. After that, the result was calculated to find out the statement in the questionnaire is valid and reliable or not before conducted to the sample.
For measuring validity and reliability for the questionnaire with Likert Scale, the result of questionnaire is calculated by Alpha-formula. The calculation of questionnaire is technically done by Alpha-formula through SPSS 18 for Windows program. The total items of questionnaire tried out are 20 questions. The score of validity for each item is r count, which can be seen from the corrected item-total correlation table from SPSS data output (see appendix).
Each item is valid if its r count > r table. The questionnaire is conducted toward 45 respondents with the level of significant 5 % and the degree of freedom (d? n-2 or (45-2=43), so r table is 0. 301. The result of computation of validity for each item can be seen on appendix. The result of computation, showed there were three questions which are not valid since r count < r table. Thus, there are only seventeen questions used. Moreover, the calculation of Alpha Cronbach can also be used to analyze the reliability of instrument. Table 1 show the computation result of reliability for questionnaire. Table 2 Reliability Statistics Cronbach’s Alpha| Cronbach’s Alpha Based on Standardized Items| N of Items| . 885| . 83| 20| After the validity and reliability testing finished, the data gathered from the questionnaire were tabulating and presenting through some stages were employed as follows: 1. Examining the data obtained from the questionnaire. 2. Selecting and classifying the data derived from the questionnaire into groups of factors to simplify the tabulation and interpretation based on percentage statistics. To ease the interpretation of the data, the respondents’ answers were classified into five classifications. The formula used to classify is Interval range = range
Total level (sudjana, 1984: 46) For students’ questionnaire, the highest total score expected is 100 while the lowest total score expected is 20, so the interval range is: Interval range = 100-20 = 16 5 So based on the calculation, the classification is depicted as follow: Table 3 Classification of Students’ Perception Questionnaire No| Score| Category| 1| 20 – 35. 9| Extremely negative| 2| 36 – 51. 9| Negative| 3| 52 – 67. 9| Fair| 4| 68 – 83. 9| Positive| 5| 84 – 100| Extremely positive| 3. Calculating the frequency (fo) of the respondents who answer an item of each item or statement.
Then, calculate the percentage (%) of each total frequency of the respondents’ answers to the item by using the formula below: Percentage (%) = Total respondent who answer an item (fo) x 100% Total respondents (n) (Sudjana, 1984: 49) 4. Interpreting the result of percentage (%) calculation based on the total frequency (fo) of each item. 5. Classifying the data to be interpreted. Table 4 Percentage Classification No| Percentage| Classification| 1| 00,00 %| None| 2| 00,01 – 24,99%| a few of| 3| 25,00 – 49,99%| nearly half of| 4| 50%| half of| 5| 50,01 – 74,00%| best part of| 6| 75,00 – 99,99%| nearly all of| | 100%| all of| 2. Qualitative Data The result of interview and the open-questionnaire belong to qualitative data. The interview was aimed for getting more information about students’ perception on separating classes based on students’ learning style. In order to capture and learn from what students say, the interview itself recorded, transcribed and used to support data for the questionnaire in order to describe the students’ perception on separating classes based on their learning style. A tape recorder had an important part as indispensable equipment in the process of interviewing.
For the open-questionnaire, the result were ordered, put into tables, calculated into percentage statistic and then analyzed. 4. Finding and Discussion The result of this study is presented in the table below. No| STATEMENT| SA| A| U| DA| SDA| | | F| %| F| %| F| %| F| %| F| %| 1| Saya sudah mengetahui gaya belajar saya| 3| 12. 5| 13| 43. 2| 4| 16. 7| 3| 12. 5| 1| 4. 2| 2| Saya mengetahui gaya belajar dari tes psikologi yang pernah saya lakukan| 1| 4. 7| 16| 66. 7| 4| 16. 7| 3| 12. 5| 0| 0| 3| Saya mengetahui gaya belajar dari tes yang saya temui dari buku | 1| 4. 7| 6| 25| 8| 33. | 6| 25| 3| 12. 5| 4| Hasil tes saya sesuai dengan apa yang selama ini saya perkirakan| 2| 8. 3| 11| 45. 8| 9| 37. 5| 2| 8. 3| 0| 0| 5| Saya belajar mengikuti saran yang sesuai dengan gaya belajar saya| 1| 4. 7| 20| 83. 3| 3| 12. 5| 0| 0| 0| 0| 6| Mengetahui gaya belajar membuat belajar saya lebih efektif| 4| 16. 7| 12| 50| 7| 29. 2| 1| 4. 7| 0| 0| 7| Gaya belajar sering saya jadikan alasan untuk bersikap dalam kelas| 2| 8. 3| 12| 50| 5| 20. 8| 5| 20. 8| 0| 0| 8| Belajar dengan teman yang memiliki gaya belajar yang sama lebih efektif| 6| 25| 11| 45. 8| 4| 16. 7| 3| 12. | 0| 0| 9| Pembelajaran sebaiknya memperhatikan gaya belajar siswa| 10| 41.
7| 10| 41. 7| 3| 12. 5| 1| 4. 7| 0| 0| 10| Guru sebaiknya mengajar sesuai dengan gaya belajar siswa| 11| 45. 8| 8| 33. 3| 3| 12. 5| 2| 8. 3| 0| 0| 11| Sekelas dengan orang yang gaya belajarnya berbeda dengan saya membuat saya sulit konsentrasi| 9| 37. 5| 10| 41. 7| 3| 12. 5| 2| 8. 3| 0| 0| 12| Saya lebih mudah berkonsentrasi jika teman-teman sekelas memilki gaya belajar yang sama dengan saya| 5| 28. 3| 7| 29. 2| 10| 41. 7| 2| 8. 3| 0| 0| 13| Saya merasa terganggu jika harus belajar dengan teman yang gaya belajarnya berbeda| 1| 4. | 4| 16. 7| 14| 58. 3| 5| 20. 8| 0| 0| 14| Pemisahan kelas sesuai gaya belajar merupakan cara yang efektif untuk meningkatkan konsentrasi| 4| 16. 7| 10| 41. 7| 10| 41. 7| 0| 0| 0| 0| 15| Saya merasa bisa berkonsentrasi jika berada dalam kelas yang memiliki gaya belajar berbeda dengan saya| 1| 4. 7| 5| 20. 8| 11| 45. 8| 7| 29. 2| 0| 0| 16| Penyatuan siswa dengan gaya belajar yang berbeda akan membuat pembelajaran lebih efektif| 2| 8. 3| 4| 16. 7| 13| 53. 2| 4| 16. 7| 0| 0| 17| Berada dalam kelas yang terdiri dari berbagai gaya belajar membantu saya melatih konsentrasi| 0| 0| 10| 41. | 8| 33. 3| 6| 25| 0| 0| 18| Berada dalam kelas yang berbeda lebih menyenangkan| 3| 12.
5| 13| 54. 2| 7| 29. 2| 1| 4. 7| 0| 0| 19| Berada dalam kelas yang sama gaya belajarnya membosankan| 1| 4. 7| 8| 33. 3| 8| 33. 3| 7| 29. 3| 0| 0| 20| Guru lebih kreatif jika siswa dalam kelas berbeda| 3| 12. 5| 14| 58. 3| 10| 41. 7| 0| 0| 0| 0| Total| 70| 14. 5| 204| 42. 3| 144| 29. 9| 60| 12. 4| 4| 0. 83| From the table above can be seen that best part of students (54. 7%) had already known their learning style because they have done finger prints before came to the class while a few students (4. %) didn’t know about their learning style. It was caused by the result of finger prints hasn’t given to him. From open question in questionnaire known that from 24 students; 10 students are visual learners, 8 students are auditory and 6 students kinesthetic. Like what (Curry, 1983) said that most people are classified as visual learners. Related with how they find out their learning style, 66. 7% agree that they know their learning style from psychology test in this case the finger prints test which was held by Educational Laboratory course and 16. 7% students felt uncertain if they know their learning style.
It was caused by the late information which was given to them. 33. 3% students felt uncertain whether they know their learning style from a book or not and same result 25% happen between students who felt agree and disagree of the statement that they know their learning style form a book. Nearly half of the students (45. 8%) felt the result of the test same with their prediction and only 8. 3 % who disagree with the statement. When they find out that their prediction is correct, most of them do not change the way they learn. They keep doing what they usually do in receiving the new lesson or new information.
Related with the way they learn whether match with their learning style or not, nearly half of the students (83. 3%) stated agree. After they knew their learning style, students said they follow the way of learning with match with their learning style. For example students who are visual tends to use different color pen when writing, the auditory learners pay attention to teacher lecture and those who are kinesthetic try to get involved with classroom activity by come forward write an example of a sentence. (Curry, 1983) stated that everyone is unique; they have different learning style between other.
Visual learners in learning process tend to absorb information by translating concepts into pictures, diagrams, tables or mind mapping. They also like to underline or highlight their textbook or writing book with different color and sometimes they make flashcard of key information with words, symbols, or diagrams. Auditory learners like to attend the lectures, to listen somebody in study group or get involve in discussion with either teacher or other students, download the e-learning materials from internet and then listen again to them and when recalling the information they talk out loud.
It is very contrast with visual learners who doesn’t like noise when learning auditory learners prefer in noise situation where they can hear all the information they want and need. While kinesthetic learners take the information through field trips, laboratories, trial and error, exhibits, collections, and hands-on examples. They put real life examples into your notes summary and more likely to use pictures and photographs that illustrate an idea. Best part of the students (50%) said by knowing their learning style make their learning process is more effective and only 4. % who disagree with this statement. Nevertheless, 58. 3% students made learning style as a reason to behave in classroom. For example, kinesthetic students are usually hard to be asked to keep silent. If teacher asks them to be quite or sit properly in their chair, these students will say that because their learning style is kinesthetic they cannot keep silent in the classroom. Same percentage of result (41. 7%) was found between strongly agree and agree about the statement stated that learning process should pay attention on students’ learning style and 45. % students said teacher in teaching learning process should do learning process that is appropriate with their learning style. Students tend to learn with their friend who has same learning style and together with them who has different learning style make them hard to concentrate in the classroom. Otherwise, when asked about disturbance in class with different learning style nearly half of the students (58. 3%) felt uncertain about it. They not really sure friends who has different learning style with them will make them feel disturb or not.
The interesting result occurred when the statement talk about separating classes based on their learning style is an effective way to increase concentration. The result showed same total (41. 7%) between those who agree with this statement and those who felt uncertain about it. From open question students agreed with separating class because learning with those who have same learning style with make them more serious and easier to concentrate in the classroom, they won’t get confuse in processing the information. Some students stated separating class make them feel comfortable and free from others disturbance.
Teacher also will be easier in developing the material, use the method because they only need to use one style of teaching. On the other hand, some disagreements rise. Those who disagree with separating class said class which consists of same students in learning style will be boring. Their argument is join class will help them be more flexible with the environment. In the real world, we must meet with a lot of people who is different from us in many aspects. By involved in join class students will learn to socialize with other and respect the diversity. Nearly half of the students (45. %) felt uncertain they can concentrate if they are in the same class with those who has different learning style. The same result was found when they were asked whether put all students with different learning styles will make the learning process more effective. Best part of students (54. 2%) answered uncertain about this statement. Related with join class, 41. 7% students thought get involved in join class will help them increase their concentration while 25% students answered disagree. Best part of students felt together in join class is more interesting. It was showed by the 54. % students agree about this statement.
Same result (33. 3%) also found in statement state that being in the class with same learning style is boring. 33. 3% students said agree, 4. 7% said strongly agree and 33. 3% said uncertain. At the end, it show everything, 58. 3% and 12. 5% students said agree and strongly agree with statement teacher more creative if students put in join class. Based on the findings derived from the questionnaire and the interview, it was found that the result of students’ perception on separating classes based on their learning style is positive (41. 7%) meanwhile there are seven students (29. %) felt fair about the method. The small contrast between positive and fair perception showed that some students felt uncertain about the method. They said the method in one side is good because they are able to keep focus during the lesson without distraction from others but on the other side applying this method will make learning process become boring. Students said what they expect from teachers is their creativity. If students with same learning style placed together in one class, teacher then will use always the same method during the whole lesson and students will easily get bored. Table 1. 1
Students’ Perception on Separating Classes Based on Their Learning Style | Category| Frequency| Percentage| 30 – 53. 9| Extremely Negative| 0| 0 %| 54 – 77. 9| Negative| 4| 16. 6 %| 78 – 101. 9| Fair| 7| 29. 2 %| 102 – 125. 9| Positive| 10| 41. 7 %| 126 – 150| Extremely positive| 3| 12. 5 %| TOTAL| 24| 100 %| In conclusion, separating classes is not giving big impressed to the students. Students feel glad by doing the finger test and knowing their learning style. By knowing their learning style, they able to use appropriate method in absorbing the information, they know best method to make them understand the lesson easily.
Related to the separating class, most of the students feel good about it but they prefer to be in join class therefore they can get various methods of learning from the teacher. The most important thing is not how appropriate our teaching style for all learning style but how appropriate method that is used in certain topic. Not all topics able to be used just in one learning style. Robert, L. Linn and Norman E. Gronlund. 1995. Measurement and Assessmment in Teaching 7th Edition. USA: Prentice-Hall. Sperling, Abraham P. 1982. Psychology. London: Heinemann. Alwasilah, A.
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