An essay on Terrorism
Sl no. Topics Page no.
1. Introduction 1
2. What is Social Problem 2
3. Terrorism 6
4. Literature reviews 10
5. The Root Causes of Terrorism 13
6. History and Present Situation of Terrorism in India 16
7. Measures to Prevent Terrorism in India 30
8. Conclusion 35
9. Bibliography 36
In this paper an attempt has been made to discuss the topic of social problems specially terrorism. Every problem has its solution in itself, but there are some social problems which cannot be solved till the society exist. However human beings are known for their superiority which they will try to maintain by curving out solutions to such problems in a rational way.
I will first try to give a brief analysis on various social problems. Then I will go for detail discussion of terrorism in India. The literature reviews will be taken for granted as my guide throughout the whole project.
Finally a conclusion will be made in my own words about whatever I got to know from the experiences of this project.
It is to be noted that no one becomes a terrorist right from his birth. There are certain situation that forces him to become so. And if we try to avoid those situations then we can hope to control terrorism to a certain extent.
What Is Social Problem
Although a huge amount of papers were written on social problem, there is no universal definition of social problem. However, in academic literature, many authors have already agreed, to some extent, on the nature of social problems. One of those authors shows that in fact, in twenty-four definitions of social problems found in thirty-four widely referred texts, twenty one included the requirement that the public or some segment of the public must perceive the condition as problem before we can justly say that a social problem exists (Lauer, 1976: p. 125).
The great plays staged in London and its more modern counterpart, the films, that are accessible to all, depict the social issues, biases and struggles of not only the characters in the plays or the films, but also the society of that time. As for instance, the acquisition of wealth as a social activity, which is very primitive to man, as primitive as his quest to survive, has been portrayed in ...
That is, social problems exist when there is certain objective condition and people/public define it problematic. In other words, social problems exist when people think they are. If there is no perception of a particular social problem as problematic, then it does not exist. Nevertheless, the issue of social problems is not problematic itself. The most controversial issue here is what is meant by the term of public/people. Is it a significant part of people or a group of people who have concerns about a particular issue? This question lies at the heart of the problem of the methodology for identifying social problems. If it is not clear what is meant by the term ‘public’, then another question arises: How to identify social problems? Is it valid to simply conduct a survey and thus, to leave it only in the responsibility of people? Or should it be defined by experts?
İn order to avoid these questions, the definition suggested by Lauer, which utilizes the notion of “quality of life” is deployed. The author defines the points at which public opinion and experts can enter into the definition of social problems. Accordingly, public opinion should be used to determine the quality of life desired by people and experts identifies those conditions which are incompatible with the desired quality of life, and analyzes the causes of those conditions (ibid. p. 128).As it is obvious, people’s perception of a certain objective condition is considered to be important for defining social problems. At this point one may ask a question: Why do we need to study people’s perception? – Rudely put, why do we need to know what people want?
The sensitive period for social relations occurs from 2 ½ to 5. Children watch us to see how we behave as well as how we move and how we treat others. In this stage children become conscious of how others make them feel. Give your child ample opportunities to play and be around other children outside of school times. Following close to the social phase is the sensitive period for grace and ...
The reason why we need to study perceptions rests in that these perceptions are heavily influenced by judgments about the desired quality of life which is considered to be under threat. Simply put, if people think that the quality of life desired by them is under threat or they do not have the desired quality of life, then it means there is a social problem. No less significantly, the ways in which a problem is perceived and judged strongly affect the kind of solution suggested (Manning, 2008: p. 31).
To paraphrase, if it is not known what quality of life is desired by people – what people want, then the solutions suggest cannot meet their problems. Thus, it is reasonable to argue that the solutions suggested by policy-makers must be based on the study of people’s perceptions of social problems and expert’s views on the conditions which are incompatible with the desired quality of life and analysis of the causes of those conditions.
Definition of Social Problem
Some important definitions of soial problems are given below:
1. Horton and Leslie: It is often defined as a condition which many people consider undesirable and wish to correct.
2. Lindbergh: “It is any deviant behavior in a disapproved direction of such a degree that it exceeds the tolerance limit of the community”.
3. L.K. Frank: Any difficulty of misbehavior of a fairly large number of persons which we wish to remove or correct.”
4. Fuler & Mayer: “A social problem starts with the awakening of people in a given locality, with the realization of certain cherished values that are threatened by the conditions which have become acute.”
Effects of Social Problems
Social problem very adversely affect our society. One of the major effects is that our harmony disturbed and in its stead in the society there is hostility and suspicion. These also result in large-scale social dissatisfaction and create suffering and misery. On the whole These do not at all help in solving any problem but creates problem of serious magnitude, which is disadvantageous to the whole society. But in this connection it may be pointed out that ‘problem’ is not an absolute term. It is only a relative term because what is problem for one society may not be problem for the other. Similarly ‘problem’ is not permanent and universal. What may appear problem today may not remain so tomorrow.
In Brave New World, by Arduous Huxley, a new and controversial society is presented to its audience. A world of artificial intelligence where humans are cultivated in test tubes and social class is predetermined by the chemical mix they receive in vito leads John Savage into corruption. He is torn between a world in which people's fates were placed upon themselves and a world in which Alphas and ...
We found that in India child marriage was problem till yesterday but today it has received universal condemnation and as such is no problem at all. So is the case with Sati System and so on. But in spite of this there are still some universal problems which are same all around e.g. poverty, unemployment and crime etc. Characteristics of Social Problems
Salient features and characteristics of social problem are that it changes the situation in such a way that a problem is created to the extent that existing social order have to be changed. It also means that it is difficult to solve the problem but to feel that such a solution is inevitable or undesirable is not proper. But one of the significant characteristics are that it becomes problem only when the people begin to feel and take that in that sense. As long as the people are not aware of the problem, even though that exists, there is no social disharmony, but maladjustment comes to the front only when the masses become conscious of it.
Classification of Social Problems
So far no universally accepted classification has been produced about social problem. Our sociologists have tried to give different classifications. According to Harold A. Phelps classification such problems as biological. e.g. physical defects; bio-psychological e.g. feeble mindedness cultural, e.g. juvenile delinquency and economic e.g. poverty and unemployment. Another classification is based on heritage e.g. physical heritage, biological heritage, and social heritage. But so far no universally accepted classification has been produced. Primary reason for this is that in society no problem is absolute. Every problem is relative and is also linked with one or more aspects of our life.
Causes of Social Problems
Social problem is not welcomed in any society. Problems create disharmony and maladjustment but still the problems exist. What are the main causes, which has been posed by our sociologists. So far the problem has found no solution and every attempt made in this regard has failed. The main reason for this is that the sociologists cannot pinpoint a single cause responsible for creating such problem. The cause, which may be responsible in one society, may not be responsible in the other society. Similarly what may be responsible under certain circumstances may not be under certain other circumstances and so on. In fact in actual practice it has been found difficult to find out any single cause responsible for creating social problem. Some of the many causes include feeble mindedness of the individual and his physical disability. Industrialization, immobility and weak social institutions may be other causes responsible for it.
Abstract Every nation big or small suffers from random acts of violence known as terrorism. Described in this paper is what terrorism is, facts about terrorism, and details concerning one of the most disastrous terrorist attacks that took place in the United States, along with other attacks in both the U.S. and other nations. Several questions will be answered which include: Why is there heavier ...
Now let us discuss on terrorism as a social problem.
International terrorism is not a new phenomenon. Indeed, the origin of the word ‘terrorism’ dates back to the French Revolution of 1789 as the label used by the establishment to describe the conduct of revolutionaries.1 Terrorism has likewise been a subject of concern for the United Nations since the 1960s, following a series of aircraft hijackings. Some would argue that terrorism has entered a new phase at around the time of 11 September 2001: an age where transnational activity has intensified and become easier, and where technology and the media can be taken advantage of by terrorist entities to further the impact of terrorist conduct and the delivery of messages or fear-inducing images.2 Despite the long-lasting presence of terrorism in domestic and international life, however, there is currently no comprehensive, concise, and universally accepted legal definition of the term. With that in mind, this chapter first considers the nature of terrorism and the problems with achieving, as well as attempts made to achieve, an internationally agreed-upon definition of the term. It then examines a human rights based approach to defining terrorism, as advocated by the UN Special Rapporteur on counter-terrorism.
The Nature of Terrorism
In its popular understanding the term ‘terrorism’ tends to refer to an act that is wrong, evil, illegitimate, illegal, and a crime. The term has come to be used to describe a wide range of violent, and sometimes not-so violent, conduct (especially in the hands of the media since 11 September 2001).
Acts characterised as terrorist in nature can occur both in conflict and peace-time. They may constitute crimes in domestic and international law, and they are motivated by a complex matrix of 7 reasons and ideals. Their characterisation can also depend upon the person or institution using the label and may even change over time. To give two striking examples, the list of most wanted terrorists kept by the United States featured, at one time, Yassir Arafat and Nelson Mandela, both of whom were subsequently awarded the Nobel Peace Prize: evidence that this is a highly political and controversial issue.3 In the months prior to his death, Yassir Arafat was in again described as a terrorist by the United States Administration.
Terrorism is a highly effective tool in getting worldly attention but if we increase the punishments we can then decrease the amount of terrorism. In order to stop terrorism we need to understand what terrorism is. 'Terrorism is the unlawful use or threat of violence against persons or property to further political or social objectives (The Vice President's Task Force on Combating Terrorism, pg. ...
Terrorism and Crime
Having regard to the complex nature of terrorism, and the political and popular conceptions held about the term and about those who perpetrate terrorist acts, care must be taken when considering and assessing situations and how they might impact upon the topic. In the context of terrorism and crime, an interesting question might be posed: why talk about terrorism at all? An act of ‘terrorism’ will, after all, comprise a series of acts which, in and of themselves, constitute various criminal offences. To take an example, a bombing of an Embassy will likely involve the unlawful possession of explosives, the wilful destruction of property and the willful or reckless injury to or killing of persons. Each element is a criminal offence in most jurisdictions and, as such, is capable of being dealt with by the relevant municipal jurisdiction. In submissions before the New Zealand Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade Committee on the Counter-Terrorism Bill 2003, for example, Professor Matthew Palmer argued that there are no good policy grounds to justify a separate, parallel regime of counter-terrorism law.5 Having regard to the composite nature of terrorist conduct, there might be some initial attraction to that argument. Why then add to the extant law and why adopt different standards? Some experts would answer this on the basis that the political nature of terrorist acts and the high level of threat that terrorism poses to public safety and public order demand a distinction to be made between terrorism and other criminal acts.6 There are, furthermore, crimes that cannot be prosecuted without defining terrorist acts or membership in a terrorist organisation including, for example, the offence of financial support to a terrorist
... terrorist situations. Lacking a base of popular support, extremist substitute violent acts for legitimate political activities. Theory and Practice of Terrorism Terrorism ... terrorism. Terrorist actions may be committed by a single individual, a group, and in some instances entire governments. Many terrorists, unlike criminals, ... the interest of the UK and of India that the British continue to rule, and ...
The Nature and Definition of Terrorism entity, common to Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, as well as many other nations (see Chap. 14).
Taking a practical enforcement-based approach to the issue, and recognising the trend for many terrorist acts to be perpetrated transnationally rather than exclusively within a single territory, the creation of distinct terrorist offences with common elements throughout the international community would also assist in issues of mutual legal assistance and extradition.7 At a further end of the scale, should terrorism instead be judged as an act of warfare and the struggle against it conducted according to the norms and rules of war?
Terrorism and Warfare
Researchers are divided in their opinions on whether terrorism should be considered a criminal act or a political-military act. Jenkins (former head of the Terrorism Project at the Rand Institute) has observed that if one looks at terrorism as a crime, there will be a need to gather evidence, arrest perpetrators and put them on trial. This approach provokes problems of international cooperation, he argues, and is not a suitable response for acts of terrorism perpetrated by a distant organisation or a country involved in terrorism. Approaching terrorism as warfare, however, one can be less concerned with the aspect of individual guilt, and an approximate assessment of guilt and intelligence are sufficient. The focus is not on a single perpetrator, but rather on proper identification of the enemy. Contrary to Jenkins, Barzilai argues that terrorists are criminals, and that if terrorism-related crimes are treated differently to ordinary crimes, this will result in municipal authorities employing tougher, more stringent tools to gain illegitimate political advantages.
Terrorist acts have, in contrast, shown themselves to be generally continuous, given the much longer-term motivations of terrorist organisations; developing, with individuals perhaps starting as youths throwing stones but eventually moving to sophisticated operations such as that undertaken on 11 September 2001; and
sometimes escalating, such as the intensification of acts by Al-Qa’ida from the
bombing of US Embassy in Nairobi in 1998, to the attack on the USS Cole in the
Yemen in 2000, to the attacks on 11 September in New York, Washington DC, and
Secondly, terrorist conduct is unique by virtue of its participants. Again setting aside organised crime, most criminal enterprises are undertaken by the few and as quietly as possible. Terrorist organisations, while being secretive about impending operations and the identity of secret cells and the like, instead rely on publication of their causes and the recruitment of as many as possible to further those objectives.
Finally, while criminal acts are targeted, terrorist ones are often indiscriminate.
The nature of terrorism is complex. A range of acts might fall within the ambit of a ‘terrorist act’, depending on how that term is defined and perhaps even upon the entity using the term. Terrorism will almost invariably involve criminal acts. It may also be perpetrated during armed conflict. Terrorism can, however, be distinguished from ‘normal’ criminal conduct by various means. The focus of terrorist acts tends to be continuous, developing and even escalating, rather than based upon quite precise short-term goals. Terrorist organisations operate in a prepared and secure way, while at the same time relying upon wide dissemination of their conduct and ideology, and upon the recruitment of as many followers as possible. While criminal acts are targeted, terrorist ones are often indiscriminate. Relating also to targets, terrorism employs differential targeting whereby the physical targets of an act are used as tools to manipulate and put pressure upon an entity against whom the action is ultimately being taken, i.e. a government or international organisation. Inherent to the term ‘terrorism’, such acts are undertaken with the aim of intimidation or creating a situation of fear. Finally, terrorist acts are motivated by certain ideological, political or religious causes. Ideological motivations are seen by most as the primary distinguishing feature of terrorist conduct from ordinary criminal offending. This affects the views of the perpetrator of terrorist acts as to the value of and culpability for such acts. On a more precise level, terrorist conduct tends to be motivated by secession, insurgency, regional retribution, and/or the ‘global jihad’. While the particular individual terrorist may be driven by more personal goals, the motivations described are those of the person or entity by whom the individual actor is recruited and directed to act.
1. 60,000 Disaster Victims Speak: Part I. An Empirical Review of the Empirical Literature, 1981–2001
Fran H. Norris1, Matthew J. Friedman2, Patricia J. Watson3, Christopher M. Byrne4, Eolia Diaz5, Krzysztof Kaniasty6,
1. Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA. 2. National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (NCPTSD), White River Junction, VT; Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH. 3. NCPTSD. 4. Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA. 5. Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA. 6. Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana, PA.
Results for 160 samples of disaster victims were coded as to sample type, disaster type, disaster location, outcomes and risk factors observed, and overall severity of impairment. In order of frequency, outcomes included specific psychological problems, nonspecific distress, health problems, chronic problems in living, resource loss, and problems specific to youth. Regression analyses showed that samples were more likely to be impaired if they were composed of youth rather than adults, were from developing rather than developed countries, or experienced mass violence (e.g., terrorism, shooting sprees) rather than natural or technological disasters. Most samples of rescue and recovery workers showed remarkable resilience. Within adult samples, more severe exposure, female gender, middle age, ethnic minority status, secondary stressors, prior psychiatric problems, and weak or deteriorating psychosocial resources most consistently increased the likelihood of adverse outcomes. Among youth, family factors were primary. Implications of the research for clinical practice and community intervention are discussed in a companion article (Norris, Friedman, and Watson, this volume).
2. Title: Political Terrorism – A Research Guide to Concepts, Theories, Data Bases and Literature Author(s): A P Schmid Date Published: 1983 Page Count: 599 Sponsoring Agency: Transaction Publishers
Piscataway, NJ 08854 Publication Number: 12 Sale Source: Transaction Publishers
Rutgers-the State University
140 West Ethel Road
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United States of America
Type: Directory Language: English Country: Netherlands Annotation: This compendium explains the main concepts and theories of terrorism, describes data bases in this field, and presents a bibliography of almost 5,000 references as well as an international directory of terrorist and revolutionary groups.
Abstract: Questionnaires completed by 50 scholars from ll nations provided information for the volume and ideas influencing its content and organization. The section on concepts first explores the meaning of violence, political crime, guerrilla warfare, assassination, victims of terrorism, and motivation. Also examined are acts and actors in terrorism and its extraordinary qualities such as weapons, time and place, and deliberate violation of basic human rules of conduct. A review of theoretical work emphasizes theories on the etiology of terrorism, addressing frustration-aggression explanations for political violence, the influence of totalitarian rule, terrorists’ theories, psychological theories, and terrorism as surrogate warfare. The book also considers conspiracy, communications, sociological, and environmental theories. The guide to data bases identifies chronologies and other data collections compiled by governments and private research organizations in the United States and several European countries. This section discusses institutes and journals for the study of terrorism, as well as problems regarding data reliability and uniformity. The directory of terrorist organizations and movements involved in political violence covers some l,500 groups in approximately l25 nations and territories. The bibliography is divided into 20 major categories, including bibliographies, concepts, regime terrorism, insurgent terrorism, terrorist activities by region and country, international terrorism, the terrorist personality, victimology, countermeasures, and special types of terrorism. Tables, diagrams, and indexes to the bibliography are supplied.
3. Sociology of Terrorism
Austin T Turk
Department of University, California Riverside
The sociology of terrorism has been understudied, even though considerable literatures on various forms of social conflict and violence have been produced over the years. The aim here is to note what has been learned about the social origins and dynamics of terrorism in order to suggest agendas for future research. Arguably the main foci of sociological studies of terrorism should be (a) the social construction of terrorist, (b) terrorism history and present, (c) terrorism in India, (d) organizing terrorism, and (e) measures to control terrorism,.
For each issue, I provide a brief summary of current knowledge, with bibliographic leads to more detailed information, as well as identify research issues.
The Root Cause of Terrorism in India
It is a bit unfortunate that we as a country are facing hostilities from our neighbouring countries since independence. Pakistan since its creation has always harboured terrorist elements against India with an intention to destabilise our country. China the Big Brother supports Pakistan in their endeavour to divide India. We face threats from Bangladesh and from Sri Lanka in the South. Since we have open borders with Nepal, terrorists use Nepal as easy entry and exit points. Our borders with Pakistan and Bangladesh are porous and not fully sealed. We face trouble on the North -East side with China claiming Arunachal Pradesh. These countries hobnob with these terrorists and have helped them to establish their bases from where they can carry out their evil acts. So all the expertise for planting Bombs on soft targets come from these countries. But not everything can be done from these foreign bases. So they take advantage of the unemployed youth and others who fall easy prey to their indoctrination and create local groups who forment trouble in all cities across India. They take help from some political class and the corrupt officials provide fodder for their entry and exit from India.
So Terrorism is not about Muslims only and their quest for Jihad. Not all Muslims are terrorists and not all terrorists are Muslims. India’s 140 million Muslims are a salutary negation of the facile thesis about Islam’s incompatibility with democracy. The terrorists that we encounter today are not men who commit evil acts out of revenge. For these men indoctrinated by outfits like the Al Qaeda and the Dawood gangs, terrorism is a full fledged profession. The cold blooded killers of Ahmedabad last week went about with their tasks with clinical precision.. They did it because it was a job they wanted to do. Only few Muslims believe that these phonies are fighting for any cause but their own. Hindus have stopped fulminating against terror despite the heavy toll it takes each time. For these terrorists who are invisible, they have no Agenda. They do it in the name of Jihad or some linguistic or religious cause, which a common man does not identify himself with.
India earned its reputation as a soft state that can be intimidated into meeting terrorists’ demands. Our then foreign minister in the year 1999 in the month of December personally escorted three terrorists freed by India in order to secure the release of passengers of a hijacked Indian Airlines flight to Tliban controlled Afghanistan. This act led to the 9/11 attack in New York as one of these very terrorists was later implicated in the 9/11 attacks. Tough rhetoric and reactive government policies and Draconian acts like the POTA will not serve the cause for curbing such terrorism. It will only result in violation of human rights and engineer more youth to fall prey to such terrorist organisations. We have to break out of this trap that we have imposed on ourselves.
Democratic politics, political freedoms, civil liberties and religious tolerance must be protected at all costs. The corruption and politicisation of the police forces must be minimised. We need a dedicated and an unbiased police force. Criminalisation of politics must stop. Instead, we have number of parliamentarians with pending criminal cases. Some jailed parliamentarians also cast their vote on important National issues which is alarming! Terrorism prospers and thrives in such conditions. In a way, Poverty is an incubator of terrorism and a root cause of corruption. It breeds the Naxalites and the local terrorist groups. The government needs to be tough in implementing reforms to maintain rapid economic growth and uplift the status of its downtrodden people.
More importantly, India’s terrorism problem is largely specific to Kashmir. There is a difference between terrorists and freedom fighters and one should not equate them. India must muster International support in this issue and put pressure on Pakistan to stop supporting these terrorists. India habitually points fingers at Pakistan which is the hotbed and the epicentre of terrorism all around the world. But merely pointing fingers will not help matters. For a small country like Pakistan to be able to infiltrate groups of Indians and recruit them to the terrorist’s cause indicates failures of the intelligence on the other hand. We have to look into this fact. There is no co-ordination between the central intelligence agencies and the states. Each points a finger at others each time a bomb blast takes place. This is matched by the flaws of the criminal justice system, which is rudimentary by the standards of mature democracies. Whether it is the Bombay bomb blasts of 1992 or the Gujarat riots in 2002, justice takes many years to deliver. Justice has neither been done, nor seen to be done. India needs to be tough but not reactionary to the causes of terrorism.
History and Present situation of
Terrorism in India
Threatened use of violence to intimidate a population or government and thereby effect political, religious, or ideological change. Terrorism in India, according to the Home Ministers, poses a significant threat to the state. Terrorism in India are basically two types external and internal, external terrorism emerge from neighbouring countries and internal terrorism emulates from religion or communal and Naxalite-Maoist insurgency. Terror activities involve either Indian or foreign citizens.
The regions with long term terrorist activities today are Jammu Kashmir, Mumbai Central India (Nxalism) and the Seven Sisters states (independence and autonomy movements).
As of 2006, at least 232 of the country’s 608 districts were afflicted, at differing intensities, by various insurgent and terrorist movements. In August 2008, National Security Advisor M K Narayanan has said that there are as many as 800 terrorist cells operating in the country.
Terrorism in India has often been alleged to be sponsored by Pakistan. After most acts of terrorism in India, many journalists and politicians accuse Pakistan’s intelligence agency, the Inter-services Intelligence of playing a role. Recently, both the US and Afghanistan have accused Pakistan of carrying out terrorist acts in Afghanistan.
Mumbai attacks, 2008
Mumbai has been the most preferred target for most terrorist organizations, primarily the separatist forces from Pakistan. Over the past few years there have been a series of attacks, including explosions in local trains in July 2006, and the most recent and unprecedented attacks of 26 November 2008, when two of the prime hotels, a landmark train station, and a Jewish Chabad house, in South Mumbai, were attacked and sieged.
Terrorist attacks in Mumbai include:
• 12 March 1993 – Series of 13 bombs go off, killing 257
• 6 December 2002 – Bomb goes off in a bus in Ghatkopar, killing 2
• 27 January 2003 – Bomb goes off on a bicycle in Vile Parle, killing 1
• 14 March 2003 – Bomb goes off in a train in Mulund, killing 10
• 28 July 2003 – Bomb goes off in a bus in Ghatkopar, killing 4
• 25 August 2003 – Two Bombs go off in cars near the Gateway of India and Zaveri Bazaar, killing 50
• 11 July 2006 – Series of seven bombs go off in trains, killing 209
• 26 November 2008 to 29 November 2008 – Coordinated series of attacks, killing at least 172.
• 13 July 2011 – Three coordinated bomb explosions at different locations, killing 26
Terrorist attacks elsewhere in Maharashtra:
• 13 February 2010 – a bomb explosion at the German Bakery in Pune killed fourteen people, and injured at least 60 more
• 1 August 2012 – four bomb explosion at various locations on JM Road, Pune injured 1 person
Main article: 2013 Patna bombings
The existence of certain insurgent groups, like the CPI-ML, Peoples war, and MCC, is a major concern, as they frequently attack local police and politicians. Poor governance and the law and order system in Bihar have helped increase the menace caused by the militias. The State has witnessed many massacres by these groups. The main victims of the violence by these groups are helpless people (including women, children, and the elderly) who are killed in massacres. The state police is ill-equipped to take on the AK-47’s and AK-56’s of the militants with their vintage 303 rifles. The militants have also used landmines to kill ambush police parties.
The root cause of the militant activities in the state is huge disparity between the caste groups. After Independence, land reforms were supposed to be implemented, thereby giving the low caste and the poor a share in the lands, which was until then held mostly by high caste people. However, due to caste based divisive politics in the state, land reforms were never implemented properly. This led to a growing sense of alienation among the low caste.
Communist groups like CPI-ML, MCC, and People’s War took advantage of this and instigated the low caste people to take up arms against establishment, which was seen as a tool in the hands of rich. They started taking up lands of the rich by force, killing the high caste people. The high caste people resorted to use of force by forming their own army, Ranvir Sena, to take on the naxalites. The State witnessed a bloody period in which the groups tried to prove their supremacy through mass killings. The police remained a mute witness to these killings, as they lacked the means to take any action.
The Ranvir Sena has now significantly weakened with the arrest of its top brass. The other groups are still active.
There have been arrests in various parts of the country, particularly those made by the Delhi and Mumbai police in the recent past, indicating that extremist/terrorist outfits have been spreading their networks in this state. There is a strong suspicion that Bihar is also being used as a transit point by the small-arms, fake currency and drug dealers entering from Nepal and terrorists reportedly infiltrating through Nepal and Bangladesh.
In recent years, with better law enforcement, these attacks, by various caste groups, have diminished.
On 27 October 2013, seven crude bombs exploded in Bihar. One was in the Patna, Junction Railway Station, and another near a cinema hall. One person died and six were injured in these two blasts.
The Sikhs form a majority in the Indian state of Punjab. During the 1970s, a section of Sikh leaders claimed that because of various political, social, and cultural issues, Sikhs were being cornered and ignored in Indian Society, and Sikhism was being absorbed into the Hindu fold. This gradually led to an armed movement in the Punjab, led by some key figures demanding a separate Sikh nation.
The insurgency intensified during the 1980s, when the movement turned violent and the name Khalistan resurfaced, wanting independence from the Republic of India. Led by Jarnail Singh Bhidranewale who, though not in favour in the creation of Khalistan, was also not against it, they began using militancy to stress the movement’s demands. Soon things turned extreme with India alleging that neighbouring Pakistan supported these militants, who, by 1983-84, had begun to enjoy widespread support amongst Sikhs..
In 1984, Operation Blur Star was conducted by the Indian government to stem out the movement. It involved an assault on the Golden Temple complex, which Sant Bhindranwale had fortified in preparation of an army assault. Indira Gandhi, India’s then prime minister, ordered the military to storm the temple, who eventually had to use tanks. After a 74-hour firefight, the army successfully took control of the temple. In doing so, it damaged some portions of the Akal Takhr, the Sikh Referrence Library, and the Golden Temple itself. According to Indian government sources, 83 army personnel were killed and 249 were injured. Militant casualties were 493 killed and 86 injured.
During the same year, the assassination of Indira Gandhi by two Sikh bodyguards, believed to be driven by the Golden Temple affair, resulted in widespread anti-Sikh riots, especially in New Delhi. Following Operation Black Thunder in 1988, Punjab Police, first under Julio Ribeiro and then under KPS. Gill, together with the Indian army, eventually succeeded in pushing the movement underground.
In 1985, Sikh terrorists bombed an Air India light from Canada to India, killing all 329 people on board Air India Flight 182. It was the worst terrorist act in Canada’s history.
The ending of Sikh militancy and the desire for a Khalistan catalysed when the then-Prime Minister of Pakistan, Benarzie Bhutto, handed all intelligence material concerning Punjab militancy to the Indian government, as a goodwill gesture. The Indian government used that intelligence to put an end to those who were behind attacks in India and militancy.
The ending of overt Sikh militancy in 1993 led to a period of relative calm, punctuated by militant acts (for example, the assassination of Punjab CM, Beant Singh, in 1995) attributed to half a dozen or so operating Sikh militant organisations. These organisations include Babbar Khalsa International, Khalistan Commando Force, Khalistan Liberation Force, and Khalistan Zindabad Force.
2011 High court bombing
Main article: 2011_Delhi_bombing
The 2011 Delhi bombing took place in the Indian capital Delhi on Wednesday, 7 September 2011 at 10:14 local time outside Gate No. 5 of the Delhi High Court, where a suspected briefcase bomb was planted. The blast killed 12 people and injured 76.
2007 Delhi security summit
Main article: 2007 Delhi security summit
The Delhi summit on security took place on 14 February 2007 with the foreign ministers of China, India, and Russia meeting in Hyderabad House, Delhi, India, to discuss terrorism, drug trafficking, reform of the United Nations, and the security situations in Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, and North Korea.
2005 Delhi bombings
Main article: 29 October 2005 Delhi bombings
Three explosions went off in the Indian capital of New Delhi on 29 October 2005, which killed more than 60 people and injured at least 200 others. The high number of casualties made the bombings the deadliest attack in India in 2005. It was followed by 5 bomb blasts on 13 September 2008.
2001 Attack on Indian parliament
Main article: 2001 Indian Parliament attack
Terrorists on 13 December 2001 attacked the Parliament of India, resulting in a 45-minute gun battle in which 9 policemen and parliament staff were killed. All five terrorists were also killed by the security forces and were identified as Pakistani nationals. The attack took place around 11:40 am (IST), minutes after both Houses of Parliament had adjourned for the day. The suspected terrorists dressed in commando fatigues entered Parliament in a car through the VIP gate of the building. Displaying Parliament and Home Ministry security stickers, the vehicle entered the Parliament premises. The terrorists set off massive blasts and used AK-47 rifles, explosives, and grenades for the attack. Senior Ministers and over 200 members of parliament were inside the Central Hall of Parliament when the attack took place. Security personnel sealed the entire premises, which saved many lives.
2005 Ayodhya attacks
Main article: 2005 Ram Janmabhoomi attack in Ayodhya
The long simmering Ayodhya crisis finally culminated in a terrorist attack on the site of the 16th century Babri Masjid. The ancient Masjid in Ayodhya was demolished on 5 July 2005. Following the two-hour gunfight between Lashkar-e-Toiba terrorists based in Pakistan and Indian police, in which six terrorists were killed, opposition parties called for a nationwide strike with the country’s leaders condemning the attack, believed to have been masterminded by Dawood Ibrahim.
2010 Varanasi blasts
Main article: 2010 Varanasi bombing
On 7 December 2010, another blast occurred in Varanasi, that killed immediately a toddler, and set off a stampede in which 20 people, including four foreigners, were injured. The responsibility for the attack was claimed by the Islamist millitant group Indian Mujahideen.
2006 Varanasi blasts
Main article: 2006 Varanasi bombings
A series of blasts occurred across the Hindu holy city of Varanasi on 7 March 2006. Fifteen people are reported to have been killed and as many as 101 others were injured. No one has accepted responsibility for the attacks, but it is speculated that the bombings were carried out in retaliation of the arrest of a Lashkar-e-Toiba agent in Varanasi earlier in February 2006.
On 5 April 2006 the Indian police arrested six Islamic militants, including a cleric who helped plan bomb blasts. The cleric is believed to be a commander of a banned Bangladeshi Islamic militant group, Harkatul Jihad-al Islami, and is linked to the Inter-Services Intelligence, the Pakistani spy agency.
Main article: Insurgency in North-East India
Civilians killed by NDFB millitants at Bhimajuli village in Assam, 2009
Northeastern India consists of seven states (also known as the seven sisters): Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur, and Nagaland. Tensions exists between these states and the central government, as well as amongst the tribal people, who are natives of these states, and migrant peoples from other parts of India.
The states have accused New Delhi of ignoring the issues concerning them. It is this feeling which has led the natives of these states to seek greater participation in self-governance. There are existing territorial disputes between Manipur and Nagaland.
There is a rise of insurgent activities and regional movements in the northeast, especially in the states of Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram, and Tripura. Most of these organisations demand independent state status or increased regional autonomy and sovereignty.
Northeastern regional tension has eased of late with Indian and state governments’ concerted effort to raise the living standards of the people in these regions. However, militancy still exists in this region of India supported by external sources.
The first and perhaps the most significant insurgency was in Nagaland from the early 1950s until it was finally quelled in the early 1980s through a mixture of repression and co-optation. The National Socialist Council of Nagaland-Isak-Muivah (NSCN-IM), demands an independent Nagaland and has carried out several attacks on Indian military installations in the region. According to government officials, 599 civilians, 235 security forces, and 862 terrorists have lost their lives between 1992 and 2000.
On 14 June 2001, a ceasefire agreement was signed between the government of India and the NSCN-IM, which had received widespread approval and support in Nagaland. Terrorist outfits such as the Naga National Council-Federal (NNC-F) and the National Council of Nagaland-Khaplang (NSCN-K) also welcomed the development.
Certain neighbouring states, especially Manipur, raised serious concerns over the ceasefire. They feared that NSCN would continue insurgent activities in its state and demanded New Delhi scrap the ceasefire deal and renew military action. Despite the ceasefire, the NSCN has continued its insurgency.
After Nagaland, Assam is the most volatile state in the region. Beginning in 1979, the indigenous people of Assam demanded that the illegal immigrants who had emigrated from Bangladesh to Assam be detected and deported. The movement led by All Assam Students Union began non-violently with satyagraha, boycotts, picketing, and courting arrests.
Those protesting frequently came under police action. In 1983 an election was conducted, which was opposed by the movement leaders. The election led to widespread violence. The movement finally ended after the movement leaders signed an agreement (called the Assam Accord) with the central government on 15 August 1985.
Under the provisions of this accord, anyone who entered the state illegally between January 1966 and March 1971 was allowed to remain but was disenfranchised for ten years, while those who entered after 1971 faced expulsion. A November 1985 amendment to the Indian citizenship law allows non-citizens who entered Assam between 1961 and 1971 to have all the rights of citizenship except the right to vote for a period of ten years.
New Delhi also gave special administration autonomy to the Bodos in the state. However, the Bodos demanded a separate Bodoland, which led to a clash between the Bengalis, the Bodos, and the Indian military resulting in hundreds of deaths.
There are several organisations that advocate the independence of Assam. The most prominent of these is the United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA).
Formed in 1979, the ULFA has two main goals: the independence of Assam and the establishment of a socialist government.
The ULFA has carried out several terrorist attacks in the region targeting the Indian Military and non-combatants. The group assassinates political opponents, attacks police and other security forces, blasts railroad tracks, and attacks other infrastructure facilities. The ULFA is believed to have strong links with the Nationalist Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN), Maoists, and the Naxalites.
It is also believed that they carry out most of their operations from the Kingdom of Bhutan. Because of ULFA’s increased visibility, the Indian government outlawed the group in 1986 and declared Assam a troubled area. Under pressure from New Delhi, Bhutan carried a massive operation to drive out the ULFA militants from its territory.
Backed by the Indian Army, Thimphu was successful in killing more than a thousand terrorists and extraditing many more to India while sustaining only 120 casualties. The Indian military undertook several successful operations aimed at countering future ULFA terrorist attacks, but the ULFA continues to be active in the region. In 2004, the ULFA targeted a public school in Assam, killing 19 children and 5 adults.
Assam remains the only state in the northeast where terrorism is still a major issue. The Indian Military was successful in dismantling terrorist outfits in other areas, but have been criticised by[which?] human rights groups for allegedly using[which?] harsh methods when dealing with terrorists.
On 18 September 2005, a soldier was killed in Jiribam, Manipur, near the Manipur-Assam border, by members of the ULFA.
On 14 March 2011 militants of the Ranjan Daimary-led faction ambushed patrolling troop of BSF when on way from Bangladoba in Chirang district of Assam to Ultapani in Kokrajhar killing 8 jawans.
TBangladesh for providing a safe haven to the insurgents operating from its territory. The area under control of the Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council was increased after a tripartite agreement between New Delhi, the state government of Tripura, and the Council. The government has since brought the movement under control, and the government of Tripura has so far[year needed] succeeded to limit the terrorist activities. ripura
Main article: Tripuri irredentism
Tripura witnessed a surge in terrorist activities in the 1990s. New Delhi blamed
• In Manipur, militants formed a separatist organisation calling itself the ‘People’s Liberation Army’. Its main goal was to unite the Meitei tribes of Burma and establish an independent state of Manipur. However, the movement was thought to have been suppressed after a fierce clash with Indian security forces in the mid-1990s.
• On 18 September 2005, six separatist rebels were killed in fighting between the Zomi revolutionary army and the Zomi Revolutionary Front in the Churachandpur District.
• On 20 September 2005, 14 Indian soldiers were ambushed and killed by 20 rebels from the Kanglei Yawol Kanna Lup (KYKL) terrorist organisation, armed with AK-56 rifles, in the village of Nariang, 22 miles southwest of Manipur’s capital Imphal. “Unidentified rebels using automatic weapons ambushed a road patrol of the army’s Gorkha Rifles killing eight on the spot,” said a spokesman for the Indian government.
The Mizo National Front fought for over two decades with the Indian Military in an effort to gain independence. As in neighbouring states the insurgency was quelled by force.
2008 Bangalore serial blasts occurred on 25 July 2008 in Bangalore, India. A series of nine bombs exploded in which two people were killed and 20 injured. According to the Bangalore City Police, the blasts were caused by low-intensity crude bombs triggered by timers.
2010 Bangalore stadium bombing occurred on 17 April 2010 in M. Chinnaswamy Stadium, Bangalore, India. Two bombs exploded in a heavily packed Cricket stadium in which fifteen people were injured. A third bomb was found and diffused outside the stadium
Andhra Pradesh is one of the few southern states affected by terrorism, although of a far different kind and on a much smaller scale. The terrorism in Andhra Pradesh stems from the People’s War Group (PWG), popularly known as Naxalites.
The PWG has been operating in India for over two decades, with most of its operations in the Telangana region in Andhra Pradesh. The group is also active in Odisha and Bihar. Unlike the Kashmiri insurgents and ULFA, PWG is a Maoist terrorist organisation and communism is one of its primary goals.
Having failed to capture popular support in the elections, they resorted to violence as a means to voice their opinions. The group targets Indian Police, multinational companies, and other influential institutions in the name of the communism. PWG has also targeted senior government officials, including the attempted assassination of former Andhra Pradesh Chief Minister Chandrababu Naidu.
It reportedly has a strength of 800 to 1,000 well armed militants and is believed to have close links with the Maoists in Nepal and the LTTE of Sri Lanka. According to the Indian government, on an average, more than 60 civilians, 60 naxal rebels and a dozen policemen are killed every year because of PWG led insurgency.
25 August 2007 Hyderabad bombings, two bombs exploded almost simultaneously on 25 August 2007 in Hyderabad, capital of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The first bomb exploded in Lumbini Amusement Park at 19:45 hrs IST. The second bomb exploded five minutes later at 19:50 in Gokul Chat Bhandar.
The Mecca Masjid bombing occurred on May 18, 2007 inside the Mecca Masjid, (or “Makkah Masjid”) a mosque the old city area in Hyderabad, capital of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh located very close to Charminar. The blast was caused by a cellphone-triggered pipe bomb. Fourteen people were reported dead in the immediate aftermath, of whom five(official record:disputed) were killed by the police firing after the incident while trying to quell the mob.
The most recent 2013 Hyderabad blasts occurred around 19:00 IST. The two blasts occurred in the Indian city of Hyderabad’s Dilsukhnagar. The simultaneous blasts occurred near a bus stop and a cinema.
Tamil Nadu had LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam) militants operating in the Tamil Nadu state up until the assassination of former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi. LTTE had given many speeches in Tamil Nadu led by Velupillai Prabhakaran, Tamilselvan, and other Eelam members. The Tamil Tigers, now a banned organisation, had been receiving many donations and support from India in the past. The Tamil Nadu Liberation Army is a militant Tamil movement in India that has ties to LTTE.
1998 Coimbatore bombings
Tamil Nadu also faced terrorist attacks orchestrated by Muslim fundamentalists. For more information, see 1998 Coimbatore bombings.
Measures to Prevent Terrorism
These steps require the least amount of expenditure and can be implemented with existing institutional structure and laws, says Colonel (retd) Anil Athale.
1. The IED has three components, the timer/trigger, detonator & booster and explosive with shrapnel etc. Timer or trigger can easily be constructed with even an alarm clock and simple batteries or cell phones and is virtually impossible to control. But neither explosive material nor detonators are easily available. With tightening border control and some measures to account for dual use substances like ammonium nitrate fertilizer, this risk can be reduced.
Detonators and boosters are a key component in IEDs and not easily available and fall under the Explosives Act. The three possible sources of detonators and explosives are the armed forces and ordnance factories, private factories, quarrying/mining and the road construction industry. Enough checks exist in the armed forces and government factories.The most likely sources of detonators and boosters are the private contractors engaged in mining/construction activity. To dry up the supply of this vital component to terrorists, a law needs to be passed to give exemplary punishment to those users who let the detonators/explosives fall into wrong hands. Violence in much of India has been controlled due to strict gun control law. Similar stringent law for control of detonators would go a long way in stopping
2. All cities must establish a network of mohalla committees and housing societies to monitor all suspicious movement in their own locality. Each city must have a dedicated police officer to man this 24×7. This measure will enhance both intelligence gathering as well as alert police to movement of terrorists. Police can circulate photographs and information of the fugitive suspects to these committees. In short a city wide concept of ‘neighbourhood watch’ needs to be implemented immediately. This will cost next to nothing.
3. In many western countries the police or intelligence agencies have launched ‘sting operations’ to lure and nab would be terrorists BEFORE they commit an act of sabotage. It is time our security establishment did the same.
4. In all terrorist incidents the police are more concerned with the Big Fish. This is a mistake. It is necessary to come down hard on the foot soldiers or persons who provide support like transport or lodging to the terrorists. These individuals must be punished quickly and made to pay a price. The idea behind this logic is to cut off the terrorists from their supporters due to fear of retribution by the state.
Like guerrillas without help similarly terrorists without local help would be like fish out of water. Infringement of laws to support acts of terror either for money or due to ideology needs to be viewed seriously by both the police (and especially) the judiciary.
5. For the sake of God and country, the various agencies in field must shun turf battles and act in unison. For instance the Indian Army has been dealing with IED’s for years and has accumulated enough experience in the field. It has bomb disposal units and equipment. Could not the Pune police co-ordinate with the CME (College of Military Engineering) located in Pune itself?
6. There is an urgent need to create a well thought out SOP or standard operating procedure in case of a terrorist incident. Once an incident is declared as a ‘terrorist incident’ by the designated authority (could be the police commissioner in case of a city) then all resources civil, military or private must come under the pre-designated commander. All agencies must be obliged to obey his orders. It is the lack of unified command and pooling of resources on 26/11 that resulted in the terrorists holding out for over 72 hours!
7. The judiciary must deal with terrorism related cases quickly and punish the mass murderers. It is time that the judiciary sheds its proclivity to give the benefit of doubt to the criminals while doubting the intention of the law enforcers. If not corrected in time, we may soon come to a situation where the honest policeman will prefer not to act!
These steps if taken can certainly reduce the incidents of terrorist strikes but not end them. Terrorism in India is unlikely to end early since it is being given motivational ‘oxygen’ constantly by the media and the principal political parties. In order to consolidate its minority vote bank the ruling dispensation in the Dilli darbar is constantly fanning the embers of minority grievances.
The 2002 riots in Gujarat and 1992 Babri masjid demolition are hardy perennials. The Sachar Committee report institutionalised the grievance mongering. This is not to dispute the fact that a section of minorities in India indeed are more backward than the national average. But linking this to discrimination is the real problem of such surveys. The Sachar report does not ask or answer the question that why is it that some other minorities like Parsis, Jains or Christians are better off than the national average on the socio-economic indicators?
The Sachar report exercise also ignores the findings of similar surveys in UK, Canada and the US where the Muslim immigrants fare far worse than the non Muslim ones! This is NOT a post 9/11 development but predates it. There is of course the factor that immigrants from India come with higher education background. But in case of Canada and UK, where the migrants are from similar socio-economic base, within a generation the Non Muslim migrants seem to be better off than even the national average for the Whites.
The real answer to this question is found in the relative importance given to education by other communities as well as large family size of Muslims. These factors operate in India as well. But in case of India, the backwardness of minority community is solely attributed to either discrimination by the state or the majority community. This constant stoking of the grievances in the minds of minority youth is the real motivator of terrorism.
None seems to ask as how come this situation has arisen when for bulk of last 65 years since independence an allegedly ‘secular’ party has been ruling the country. Neither the secularist politicians nor the secularist Taliban of the media seem to notice that on the issue of grievances and discrimination they speak the language of Hafiz Sayeed!
But the situation would not have reached this point if the opposing forces of Hindutva and Indian civilization had provided an alternate vision. The Indian civilization is plural at its very core and Hinduism or the Sanatan Dharma does not correspond to the Abrahamic faith’s concept of an ‘organised religion’ and monopoly of truth falsely peddled as ‘Monotheisim’.
Indians do not believe in concept of one church, one holy book or one prophet. Pluralism and freedom of choice is (wrongly portrayed as ‘Polytheism) is the core value of Indian civilization. Pluralism of worship, thought, language, dress and aesthetics has been embedded in the Indian past for at least 5,000 years. This is the best guarantee for the religious or ethnic minorities and not merely the constitution. India has NOT become secular or plural because of the constitution. It is the other way round and that is because majority of Indians believe in pluralism that India enacted a constitution that does not discriminate on basis of caste or creed.
Terrorism due to religious differences will end in India once all Indians relate to the core values of Indian civilization.
So, now we can conclude that when we live in a society, there will be problems related to the society which can be regarded as social problems. And terrorism is a part of such social problems and which can be compared to the evil in a society. But terrorism also has various causes behind its development and these causes not only develops terrorism but also shows out the way to fight with this problem by making us to realize what is the basic demand in the society and measures should be taken accordingly whether to solve those demands or not.
However, an attempt had been made to trace the causes of terrorism and to present some provisions to win on them in this project which is awaitinh to achieve success.